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Asalit

Category: Other

Description

Asacol is used to treat and prevent an inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis. It works inside the intestines (bowel) to reduce the inflammation and other symptoms of the disease.

Active Ingredient: Mesalamine

Asacol (Asalit) as known as: Apriso, Asacolon, Asalazin medichrom, Asalex, Asalit, Asamax, Asavixin, Asazine, Bufexan, Canasa, Claversal, Colitan, Colitofalk, Crohnax, Crohnezine, Ectospasmol, Enteraproct, Enterasin, Etiasa, Favorat, Fivasa, Ipocol, Jucolon, Laboxantryl, Lextrasa, Lialda, Lixacol, Mesacol, Mesaflor, Mesagin, Mesagran, Mesalamina, Mesalazine, Mesalazinum, Mesasal, Mesatec, Mesazin, Mesren, Mezavant, Pentacol, Pentasa, Proctasacol, Prozylex, Rafassal, Rowasa, Salofalk, Samezil, Sfrowasa, Tidocol, Xalazin, Xalazina, Yolecol

Mesalazin (mesalazine)

MESALAZIN (Mesalazine). 5-Aminosalitsilovaya acid.

Synonyms. Asacol, Asalit, Claversal, Fisalamin, Mesacol, Tidocol, Salofalk, etc.

The structure is close to PARA- amino salicylic acid (PASK; See Sodium PARA- aminosalitsilat). Is the situation NH 2 group. TB activity has applied for the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Is part salazosulfapiridina molecules (see) and its analogues, is also used for ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

Assign mesalazin inwards in the form of tablets to 0.4 g (400 mg), 3 to 6 times a day.

In applying the drug may nausea, diarrhea, pain in the stomach.

Mesalazin can be used in inefficiency and poor Portability salazosulfapiridina (sulfasalazina).

Contraindications to the extreme sensitivity of musk, and expressed violations of the liver and kidneys, with stomach ulcers and gastrointestinal cancers.

Pregnant appoint only emergencies. There should be appointed nursing mothers and children.

Product. pills to 0.4 g (400 mg), coated.

Other articles

Anxiety Disorder Panic Assault

Anxiety Disorder Panic Assault

nervousness assaults know the indicators when they're having one. A number of the telltale signs that an individual experiences throughout an nervousness assault embrace not solely physical signs of anxiety, but other symptoms as effectively. Proceed reading to understand extra about what to look out for whenever you assume chances are you'll be experiencing an anxiousness attack.

Common side-results are frequent during the first weeks whereas the body adjusts to the drug. Signs might include complications. nausea. insomnia and adjustments in sexual habits. Treatment safety during being pregnant has not been established. 104 In late 2004 much media consideration was given to a proposed link between SSRI use and suicidality a time period that encompasses suicidal ideation and makes an attempt at suicide as well as suicide. one zero five Recent research have proven no enhance in charges of suicide. 106 These exams, nonetheless, represent those identified with despair, not essentially with social nervousness dysfunction. Other medicine edit.

Coronary heart blockage or blockage within the heart is said dash diet to have occurred when the physique is unable to supply sufficient oxygen (by blood) to the heart. If the blood circulate is blocked, the center is disadvantaged of oxygen which causes the center cells to die. This can be a symptom of coronary artery disease. It causes chest pains, coronary heart attacks and in extreme circumstances may even lead to loss of life. Circumstances of the heart ought to be taken critically and timely therapy must be sought. At present, inexpensive heart surgical procedure is an possibility even for sufferers with out medical health insurance.

Heroin use throughout pregnancy may lead to miscarriages, stillbirths, or premature deliveries of infants born physically depending on the drug. Those that inject heroin are introducing unsterile substances into their bloodstream, which can lead to extreme harm to the center, lungs, and mind. As well as, sharing needles is one of the quickest ways to spread diseases; it is at present the simple diet burn fat leading explanation for all new HIV and hepatitis B circumstances. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a category of antidepressants, are first choice remedy for generalized social phobia but a second line treatment. In comparison with older forms of medication, there may be less threat of tolerability and drug dependency associated with SSRIs. one zero one For chronic decrease again ache

The types of speak remedy most frequently effective in treating anxiousness disorders are behavioral remedy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavioral therapy involves rest strategies and gradual publicity to the factor or scenario that causes the anxiousness in an try to scale back symptoms. Anxiety issues can have an effect on anyone and in every single place; justlike any other sickness, there are remedy that specifically caters to suchdisorders. In this article, we would look into the differing types ofmedication that can help us take care of anxiety problems. One way to assist a person with an acute anxiousness attack is to reassure the person or separate the individual from the anxiousness-producing conditions. House Hair Analysis Saunas Books Articles Detox Protocols

Broken Hope To Release First Ever Dvd

Blabbermouth.net - BROKEN HOPE To Release First-Ever DVD/Blu-Ray 'Live Disease At Brutal Assault'

Chicago death metallers BROKEN HOPE will release their first-ever concert DVD and Blu-ray, "Live Disease At Brutal Assault". on September 18 via Century Media .

"Live Disease At Brutal Assault" was filmed and recorded at the 19th annual Brutal Assault festival in Josefov, Czech Republic on August 8, 2014, where BROKEN HOPE shared the stage with DEVIN TOWNSEND. AMON AMARTH and other metal titans in front of 20,000 fans.

This live concert Blu-ray and live album are historic firsts as BROKEN HOPE has never before released a live concert DVD or live album. The concert was filmed by a multi-camera crew on a dozen pro cameras and pieced together and edited by video-directing god Tommy Jones (SLAYER. TESTAMENT. LAMB OF GOD ) while the audio was recorded by Thilo Fehlinger (EXODUS. DEATH ANGEL ). Moreover, metal-art master Mark Rudolph (Decibel. Metal Hammer. CELTIC FROST ) was commissioned to create all of the exterior and interior packaging and cover artwork. The end result of this collaboration is one of the most visually and sonically stellar death metal DVD concert and live album packages ever released.

Comments BROKEN HOPE guitarist Jeremy Wagner. "Playing Brutal Assault in 2014 was a dream come true. Being one of the main stage acts at the fest in front of those thousands of insane fans was also a huge dream come true. And then. above all that. we had this epic moment captured by a pro video crew and also recorded by the best soundman in the biz, and it made for a perfect storm that enabled us to put it together to share with metal fans the world over to enjoy forever.

"We couldn't have done all this without the mega talent of Tommy Jones. Tommy took a million pieces of footage and numerous audio files, pieced them all together, aligned everything, edited it all, and made for us (and the world), an absolutely stunning concert DVD! We even added the BROKEN HOPE documentary film '25 Years Of Sickness - The History Of Broken Hope' to this Blu-ray. This film was released only in North America with 'Omen Of Disease'. now the entire world will have this amazing film — and in a hi-def Blu-ray format!

"Last thing I wanna say is: the skills of Thilo Fehlinger. Scott Creekmore and Chris Wisco made our first-ever live album a loud, clear, and sonically bombarding tour de force! This entire DVD/CD package is a monumental feather in our cap!"

"Live Disease" video director Tommy Jones adds: "This BROKEN HOPE project has come out so sick! It has the quality and look of a high-end and polished commercial piece, but as a completely brutal, death metal concert experience. Definitely one of the coolest-looking live pieces I have been able to work on in the death metal genre. Really happy with how it all came together."

"Live Disease At Brutal Assault" Blu-ray/DVD chapter listing:

* Intro
* The Docking Dead
* Dilation & Extraction
* Into The Necrosphere
* Gore Hog
* Swamped In Gore
* The Dead Half
* I Am God
* He Was Raped
* The Flesh Mechanic
* Incinerated
* Felching Vampires
* End Credits

Blu-ray/DVD bonus features:

* Behind The Scenes At Brutal Assault - The Interviews (with Jeremy, Damian, and Mike)
* "The Flesh Mechanic" official video
* "25 Years Of Sickness - The History Of Broken Hope"

"Live Disease At Brutal Assault" live album/CD track listing:

*Intro
* The Docking Dead
* Dilation & Extraction
* Into The Necrosphere
* Gore Hog
* Swamped In Gore
* The Dead Half
* I Am God
* He Was Raped
* The Flesh Mechanic
* Incinerated
* Felching Vampires

Damian Leski - Vocals
Jeremy Wagner - Guitars
Diego Soria - Bass
Matt Szlachta - Lead Guitars
Mike Miczek - Drums

COMMENTS

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Asalit diseases

Mesalazine

Mesalazine (INN. BAN ), also known as Mesalamine (USAN ) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammation of the digestive tract ulcerative colitis [ 1 ] and mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease. [ 2 ] Mesalazine is a bowel-specific aminosalicylate drug that acts locally in the gut and has its predominant actions there, thereby having few systemic side effects. [ 3 ] As a derivative of salicylic acid. 5-ASA is also thought to be an antioxidant that traps free radicals, which are potentially damaging byproducts of metabolism. [ 4 ]

5-ASA is considered the active moiety of sulfasalazine. which is metabolized to sulfapyridine and 5_ASA. [ 5 ]

Contents Formulations

Mesalazine is formulated for oral ingestion as tablets or granules, and for rectal administration as a rectal suppository. suspension or enemas. It is marketed under a variety of brand names:

The newest of these is Apriso (Salofalk granules in Europe), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2008 for the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Its main benefit is that it needs to be taken only once a day, which provides convenient dosing regimen for patients. Several formulations of mesalazine have published data to suggest that once-daily dosing is sufficient in ulcerative colitis.

Pentasa 250 MG Extended Release Capsule

Lialda contains the highest mesalamine dose per tablet (1.2 g).

Dosing depends on the preparation used; in particular, slow-release tablets may have quite different drug delivery characteristics and are not interchangeable.

Preparations that lower stool pH (such as lactulose. a laxative) will possibly affect the binding of mesalazine in the bowel and will therefore reduce its efficacy.

Side effects

Mesalazine avoids the sulphonamide side effects of sulfasalazine (which contains additional sulfapyridine ), but carries additional rare risks of:

Monitoring

As a result of the small risks of kidney, liver and blood disorders, blood tests should be taken before and after starting treatment. Patients are advised to report any unexplained bleeding, bruising, purpura, sore throat, fever or malaise that occurs during treatment so that a full blood count can be urgently taken.

References
  • Mehta, Dinesh K, ed (March 2003). British National Formulary . 45. London: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN  0853695555.  
  • Sweetman, Sean C, ed (November 30, 2004). Martindale: The complete drug reference (34th ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN  0-85369-550-4.  
External links

Mesalazine — Mésalazine Mésalazine Général No CAS … Wikipédia en Français

mesalazine — me·sal·a·zine (mə salґə zēn) INN and BAN for mesalamine … Medical dictionary

Acide 5-aminosalicylique — Mésalazine Général Nom IUPAC acide 5 amino 2 hydroxybenzoïque Synonymes … Wikipédia en Français

89-57-6 — Mésalazine Mésalazine Général No CAS … Wikipédia en Français

Treatment of ulcerative colitis — This article concerns the treatment of ulcerative colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic… … Wikipedia

Management of ulcerative colitis — involves first treating the acute symptoms of the disease, then maintaining remission. Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the intestine, specifically the large intestine or colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open… … Wikipedia

Mutaflor — is a probiotic consisting of a viable non pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.[1] The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Brauschweig is one of the best… … Wikipedia

Heart Diseases: Heart Assault - The Most Typical Heart Disease

What precisely is heart disease? The latest definition of heart disease is any illness that impacts how the coronary heart usually

performs. Narrowing or hardening of the arteries that direct to the coronary heart is the most frequent sort of cardiac illness, nowadays.

Of training course this can encompass fairly a handful of sorts or versions of heart disease.

Different kinds of heart disease include:

* Congenital coronary heart ailment

* Coronary artery disease (CAD)

* Coronary heart attack (myocardial infarction)

* Acute mitral regurgitation

* Persistent mitral regurgitation

* Mitral valve prolapse

As you can see, there are several groups of what really constitutes heart disease. Now that we have determined distinct

types of cardiac condition, let’s explore some of the underlying leads to of these illnesses.

Triggers Of Heart Disease

Just as numerous various names for cardiac illness can be puzzling and complicated, so can the triggers of heart disease. And we

will protect the most typical causes below.

Briefly, listed here are some brings about:

* Hypertension (“substantial blood pressure”)

* Coronary heart valves that do not purpose typically

* Electrical conduction of the heart that triggers an abnormal rhythm.

* Heart’s pumping perform that is impacted by poisons or bacterial infections.

* Congenital or “delivery defects” of the coronary heart.

How Many Individuals Are Impacted By Heart Disease?

According to the Nationwide Institute of Wellness, there are approximately 70.one million folks afflicted by some type of cardiac

problem! Heart disease proceeds to be the amount 1 lead to of loss of life in the US.

Amongst minorities, cardiac ailment or heart disease, ranks initial as foremost result in of demise. The rates of fatalities declined for

people teams with the exception of one group, American Indian women. The time body for this research was between 1985 and

Between 1992 and 2002, the proportion of decrease of dying prices for CHD (Cardiac Heart Diseas) was the greatest between white

males and the minimum decline was in the black female inhabitants.

Monetary Influence Of Cardiac Coronary heart Illness

Aside from the horrific costs of CHD in terms of personal tragedy, society also bears the brunt of the outcomes of this ailment.

In accordance to the research, 2005 fees for CVD(Cardiovascular Condition) were staggering. Overall, costing 393 Billion Dollars!

Charges broke down like this:

* 242 Billion Bucks for immediate wellness care charges.

* 35 Billion Dollars for indirect charges of morbidity.

* 117 Billion Dollars in Direct costs of mortality.

As you can see, cardiovascular ailment is one that although difficult and intricate in name and leads to, is just devastating

to both the personal and to the society that the influenced will come from. It ought to be taken quite seriously and not ignored, so

training and prevention are important in decreasing the results of these ailments, generally know as cardiac condition.

This report was created and screened by a license healthcare expert. This write-up is for informational purposes only.

This substance is in no way a substitute for the health-related suggestions of your own doctor. The Countrywide Institutes of Overall health

Asalit diseases

Mesalazine

Mesalazine (INN. BAN ), also known as mesalamine (USAN ) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. such as ulcerative colitis [ 1 ] and mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease. [ 2 ] Mesalazine is a bowel-specific aminosalicylate drug that acts locally in the gut and has its predominant actions there, thereby having few systemic side effects. [ 3 ]

As a derivative of salicylic acid. mesalazine is also thought to be an antioxidant that traps free radicals. which are potentially damaging byproducts of metabolism. [ 3 ]

Mesalazine is the active component of the prodrug balsalazide along with the inert carrier molecule 4-aminobenzoyl-beta-alanine. [ 5 ]

Side effects

This section needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2012)

Mesalazine avoids the sulfonamide side effects of sulfasalazine (which contains additional sulfapyridine ), but carries additional rare risks of:

Pentasa 250 MG Extended Release Capsule

Mesalazine is formulated for oral ingestion as tablets or granules, and for rectal administration as a rectal suppository. suspension or enemas. [ 8 ] It is marketed under a variety of brand names: [ citation needed ]

  • UK: Asacol. Ipocal. Pentasa. Salofalk. Mezavant XL. Octasa
  • Ireland: Asacolon. Pentasa. Salofalk. Mezavant XL
  • France: Asacol. Pentasa. Mezavant
  • US: Asacol HD. Canasa. Rowasa. Pentasa. Delzicol. Lialda. Apriso. Salofalk
  • Spain / España: Pentasa. Claversal. Lixacol. Mezavant. Salofalk
  • Canada: Asacol. Pentasa. Salofalk. Mezavant
  • India: Mesacol (available as tablets, suppositories, enema), VEGAZ-OD .
  • Mexico: Salofalk
  • Serbia: Salofalk
  • Uruguay: Mesacron. Mesalazina
  • Brazil: Mesalazina. Mesalazina Enema. Mesacol. Mesacol MNX. Asalit ,
  • Australia: Mesasal. Pentasa. Salofalk. Mezavant (all source PBS)
  • Egypt: Pentasa. Salofalk
  • Belgium: Dipentum (olsalazine)

Chron-asa 5. Pentasa. Pentasa Enema. Mesaneo

Dosing depends on the preparation used; in particular, slow-release tablets may have quite different drug delivery characteristics and are not interchangeable. [ citation needed ]

Preparations that lower stool pH (such as lactulose. a laxative) will possibly affect the binding of mesalazine in the bowel and will therefore reduce its efficacy. [ citation needed ]

References

Article Page

Camouflage and Misdirection: The Full-On Assault of Ebola Virus Disease
  • John Misasi 1
  • Nancy J. Sullivan 2,.
  • 1 Boston Children’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA 02115, USA
  • 2 Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Available online 16 October 2014.

Ebolaviruses cause a severe hemorrhagic fever syndrome that is rapidly fatal to humans and nonhuman primates. Ebola protein interactions with host cellular proteins disrupt type I and type II interferon responses, RNAi antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T-cell-dependent B cell responses, humoral antibodies, and cell-mediated immunity. This multifaceted approach to evasion and suppression of innate and adaptive immune responses in their target hosts leads to the severe immune dysregulation and “cytokine storm” that is characteristic of fatal ebolavirus infection. Here, we highlight some of the processes by which Ebola interacts with its mammalian hosts to evade antiviral defenses.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citing articles ( )

Aggravated Assault - Uni Study Guides

Aggravated Assault

Aggravated assault is an umbrella term for a range of assault offences which are more serious than the common assault offence. The assaults are considered 'aggravated' because of certain consequences, intents, or circumstances. Some of the 'consequence' driven aggravated assault offences, and their respective principles, are outlined here (ranked from least to most serious).

  • Assault occasioning actual bodily harm. s 59.
    • Actus reus: common assault + the occasioning of actual bodily harm.
      • Actual bodily harm has an ordinary meaning - must be more than trifling: R v Donovan.
      • Includes psychiatric injury, but not mere emotions: Chan-Fook. [1]
    • Mens rea: common assault (no need for specific intent to do actual bodily harm).
    • Max penalty: 5 years (7 if in company).
  • Negligent infliction grievous bodily harm. s 54.
    • Actus reus: causing grievous bodily harm.
      • Grievous bodily harm is defined as “the destruction (other than in the course of a medical procedure) of the foetus of a pregnant woman. any permanent or serious disfiguring of the person. any grievous bodily disease": s 4.
    • Mens rea: negligence.
    • Max penalty: 2 years
  • Reckless wounding. s 35 (3)-(4).
    • Actus reus: causing wounding.
      • Wounding requires an incision or puncture in the skin (dermis. not epidermis). : Shepherd. [2].
    • Mens rea: recklessness.
    • Max penalty: 7 years (10 if in in company)
  • Reckless infliction of grievous bodily harm. s 35 (1)-(2).
    • Actus reus: causing grievous bodily harm.
    • Mens rea: recklessness.
    • Max penalty: 10 years (14 if in in company)
  • Infliction of wounding or grievous bodily harm, with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm or resist arrest. s 33.
    • Actus reus: wounding or causing grievous bodily harm.
    • Mens rea: intent to cause grievous bodily harm or intent to resist arrest.
      • Note: specific intent offence. Intoxication is relevant.
    • Max penalty: 25 years.

This article is a topic within the subject Criminal Laws.

Contents Required Reading

Brown et al, Criminal Laws: Materials and Commentary on Criminal Law and Process in New South Wales. (5th edition, Federation Press, 2011), pp. 669-677.

Introduction

[3] “Aggravated assault” describes a range of assaults which are more serious than “common assault” because of the presence of one or more additional aggravating elements. They are provided for in ss 32 – 61 of the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW). There is extensive overlap between the offences and no clear rationale for the creation of many of them.

There are a number of different 'aggravated factors', which can be classified as follows:

  • Assault with further specific intent - these are crimes that are aggravated by the intent to cause certain harm.
    • Examples include assault with intent to commit murder (ss 27; 29), commit grievous bodily harm or resist arrest (ss 33 - 33B) or commit an indictable offences (ss 37-38; 58).
  • Assault actually causing particular injuries - this is when an injury has resulted from the assault (regardless of intention).
    • Examples include assault occasioning actual bodily harm (s 59 ), reckless wounding or grievous bodily harm (s 35 ), and negligent infliction of grievous bodily harm (s 54 ). [4]
    • According to case law, no proof of specific intent to cause the relevant harm is required (unless required b legislation).
    • Note: there are offences which include both specific intent and occasioning of that relevant intent (ie, causing GBH with with intent to cause GBH: s 33 )
  • Assaults using offensive weapons or dangerous substances (see below)
  • Assaults on victims of special status (see below).
Causing a disease

[5] Originally, it was not a crime to cause a disease. In Clarence (which was in 1888), [6] the court held that infecting a partner with gonorrhea (through consensual sex) does not come within the definition of 'actual bodily harm'.

  • In 1990, reforms were introduced after a number of assaults in which an attacker tried to infect people with AIDS. The offence of maliciously causing (or attempting to cause) another person to contract a “grievous bodily disease” was created in s 36 of the Crimes Act.
  • In 2007, s 36 was repealed and "grievous bodily disease" was incorporated into the definition of grievous bodily harm in s 4. That is the position today.
    • There is no clear definition of “recklessness” in the Crimes Act (but note s 4A. which provides that knowledge or intention is sufficient for recklessness) and therefore common law applies. In Coleman. [7] the court held that recklessness was a realisation by the accused of the particular type of harm that might be inflicted.
Alternative sources of law

Diseases are also dealt with in the Public Health Act 2010 (NSW):

  • s 52 makes it an offence for a person suffering from a scheduled medical condition, who is “in a public place or other place of public resort (including any means of transport)” to fail “to take reasonable precautions against spreading the medical condition.”
    • The maximum penalty is 50 penalty units or 6 months imprisonment.
  • s 79 makes it an offence to have sexual intercourse before informing the other person of the risk of contracting the condition.
    • The maximum penalty is a fine of up to 50 penalty units.
Assaults using offensive weapons or dangerous substances

[8] Assaults with the use of an “offensive weapon or instrument” etc are also aggravated assaults, regardless of actual injury.

  • “Offensive weapon or instrument” is defined in s 4 of the Crimes Act to include:
    • A dangerous weapon;
    • Anything that is made or adapted for offensive purposes;
    • Anything that, in the circumstances, is used/ intended for use for offensive purposes (regardless of what it is usually used for).

Case law suggests that some weapons may be inherently offensive (eg, guns and flick knives) but other items may be regarded as offensive weapons if brandished in a menacing manner (eg, screwdrivers, tyre levers, cricket and baseball bats and fireplace implements). [9]

Offences

See the Crimes Act ss 33-33B for crimes involving the use of offensive weapons:

  • s 38. use of “chloroform, laudanum or other stupefying or over-powering drug or thing”;
  • ss 39-41A, use of “poison or other destructive or noxious thing” to cause injury;
  • ss 46-48 and s 55. use of explosive or corrosive substance to cause injury;
  • s 49. setting traps;
  • s 35A. maliciously causing a dog to inflict grievous bodily harm (maximum 7 years’ imprisonment) or actual bodily harm (maximum 5 years).
    • Under s 35A (4), these offences may be caused by an omission to act, as well as by an affirmative act, by the person controlling the dog.

These offences are textbook examples of particularism - making offences for specific things. More examples include the offences of rock throwing and drink spiking:

  • s 49A - Rock throwing:
    • Actus reus: (1) throwing an object at a vehicle on a road, (2) in which there is a person, and (3) thus risking the safety of that person).
    • Mens rea: the throwing must have been intentional.
    • Max penalty: 5 years imprisonment.
  • s 38A - Drink spiking:
    • Actus reus: causing another person to be given or to consume drink or food which:
      1. contains an intoxicating substance that the other person is not aware it contains, or
      2. contains more of an intoxicating substance than the other person would reasonably expect it to contain.
    • Mens rea: intent that the person would suffer harm.
    • Max penalty: 2 years imprisonment or 100 penalty units, or both.
Assaults on victims of special status

[10] Some victims have an especially “protected” status and assaults against them may be more serious and carry greater penalties. Examples include:

  • assault on children at the time of birth. [11]
  • abandoning or exposing a child under the age of 2. [12]
  • assault on (or neglect to provide necessities for) wives, apprentices, servants and insane people. [13]
  • assault on clergy engaged in their duties. [14]
  • assault on persons endeavouring to preserve a vessel in distress. [15]
  • and assault or threaten a member of the crew of an aircraft or vessel whilst on board. [16]
Assault on law enforcement officials

There are many overlapping offences relating to assaults on police officers and other similar officials.

  • s 58 creates the offence of assault, resist or wilfully obstruct any officer whilst in the execution of their duty. It applies to officials such as constables, customs officers etc (and anyone acting in their authority).
    • The maximum penalty is 5 years’ imprisonment.
    • The offence is a Table 2 offence under the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 and if dealt with summarily under these provisions, carries a maximum term of imprisonment for 2 years.
  • In 2002, a new Division A was inserted into the Crimes Act.
    • The definition of “law enforcement officer” extends to the commissioners, commission members, DPP solicitors and Crown prosecutors.
    • s 60 is an offence of assaulting, stalking, harassing or intimidating a police officer (or other officer: s 60A ) while in the execution of their duty.

Two important issues in many of these offences are:

  1. whether the police officers were acting in the execution of their duty. This includes:
    • Whether they had lawful authority to arrest.
    • Whether they were acting pursuant to a valid warrant of apprehension or had reasonable grounds to suspect the person had committed an offence.
  2. whether the prosecution must prove that the defendant knew (or was recklessly indifferent to the fact) that they were assaulting a police officer. or whether it is sufficient to simply prove that the act took place and the victim happened to be a police officer engaged in duty.
Case Law

The issue of whether the defendant knew he was assaulting a police officer was discussed in Reynhoudt .

  • There nothing really in the legislation which implies a specific intent requirement. The issue should be seen as one of strict liability.
  • This means that as to whether the defendant knew that he was assaulting a police officer, the prosecution only needs to prove the absence of a honest and reasonable mistake of fact.
    • The Textbook says that if this law was reviewed today (in the wake of He Kaw Teh ), it would most likely be changed, and a specific intent standard of at least recklessness would be required (ie, to have sufficient mens rea, the defendant must have at least considered that the victim was a police officer).

The offence of intimidating a police officer (s 60) was considered in Meller v Low. [17]

  • Facts: the defendant threatened police officers on two occasions, telling them he will find out where they live and will 'get them back'.
  • Held: the police officer must have actually been intimidated. In this case, there is no evidence that the police officers were actually intimidated by those words.

What constitutes being intimidated was discussed in Manton. [18]

  • All that needs to be proved for 'intimidation' is that the acts or words caused the officer to experience fear or apprehension.
  • There is no need to prove that the intimidation influenced them to act in some way or deterred from their duty.
Assaults on public justice officials and other related persons
  • s 322 creates the offence of threatening or causing injury or detriment to witnesses, jurors, judicial officers or public justice officials (punishable by up to 10 years’ imprisonment).
  • s 326 creates the offence of threatening or causing injury or detriment to a person on account of anything lawfully done as a witness, juror, judicial officer or public justice official or in connection with any judicial proceedings (punishable by up to 10 years’ imprisonment).
  • According to Orcher. [19] a police officer may be considered a judicial officer but arrest should not be considered to be in connection with judicial proceedings, (even though it may be a necessary prerequisite).
Assaults in Particular Circumstances Assault at school

[20] These offences are dealt with under Division 8A and pertain to both students and staff.

  • The offences represent the special status of a school “as places of education and learning. a sanctuary. ” and the “unique nature of a school will benefit from specific laws to discourage criminal activity. ” [21]
Assault during public disorder

In December 2005 a new offence was created in response to the violence and public disorder at Cronulla Beach (the “Cronulla Riots”).

59A - Assault during public disorder:

End

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References

Textbook refers to Brown et al, Criminal Laws: Materials and Commentary on Criminal Law and Process in New South Wales. (5th edition, Federation Press, 2011).

  1. ↑ [1994] 2 All ER 552.
  2. ↑ [2003] NSWCCA 351.
  3. ↑ Textbook, p. 669.
  4. ↑ Maximum punishment is 2 years imprisonment. In D [1984] 3 NSWLR 29, the CCA held that the degree of negligence required was akin to that required for manslaughter by criminal negligence (gross negligence).
  5. ↑ Textbook, pp. 670-1.
  6. ↑ (1888) 22 QBD 23.
  7. ↑ (1990) 19 NSWLR 467.
  8. ↑ Textbook, pp. 671-2.
  9. Pittman v Di Francesco (1985) 4 NSWLR 133.
  10. ↑ Textbook, pp. 672-6.
  11. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 42 .
  12. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 43 .
  13. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 44 .
  14. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 56 .
  15. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 57 .
  16. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 206 .
  17. ↑ [2000] NSWSC 75.
  18. ↑ [2002] NSWCCA 316.
  19. ↑ [1999] NSWCCA 356.
  20. ↑ Textbook, pp. 676-7.
  21. ↑ Second Reading Speech to the Crimes Amendment (School Protection) Bill 2002, Mr Watkins, Minister for Education and Training.

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