Pills blog


Category: Skincare


Betnovate is used to help relieve redness, itching, swelling, or other discomfort caused by skin conditions.

Active Ingredient: Betamethasone

Betnovate (Betasin) as known as: Akriderm, Alphatrex, Alpider, Anflavate, Antebate, Antroquoril, Asisone, Beben, Bectmiran, Bedicort g, Behealth, Beloderm, Belogent, Belosalic, Bemetson, Bemon, Benoson, Bentelan, Beprogel, Beprosone, Beprospen, Berbesolone, Besone, Bestflan, Beta cream, Beta micoter, Beta ointment, Béta septigen, Beta-micoter, Beta-val, Betabioptal, Betacap, Betacort, Betacorten, Betacream, Betacrem, Betaderm, Betadermic, Betafloroto, Betafoam, Betafusin, Betagalen, Betagentam, Betaject, Betalotio winthrop, Betam-ophtal, Betamatic, Betamed, Betamesol, Betameson, Betamet, Betametasona, Betametha, Betamethason, Bétaméthasone, Betamethasonum, Betamil, Betanoid, Betapred, Betariem, Betasalbe ksk, Betaselemin, Betasid, Betasin, Betason, Betasone, Betasone-g, Betatape, Betatopic, Betatrex, Betaval, Betaval-n, Betavate, Betavet, Betazon, Betesil, Betnelan, Betnelan v, Betnesalic, Betnesol, Betnesol-v, Betneval, Betnevate, Betnoval g, Betnovat, Betoblock, Betodermin, Betonate, Betopic, Betricin, Betsolan, Bettamousse, Bevalex, Bevason, Biorinil, Blacor, Blamy, Buccobet, Calamiraderon, Camnovate, Celesdepot, Celesemine, Célestamine, Celestan, Celestan biphase, Celestana, Célestène, Celestoderm, Celeston, Celeston valerat, Celestone, Celestonvalerat, Celestovet, Cevicort, Chlocodemin, Cidoten, Cidoten inyectable, Cidoten rapilento, Cidoten-v, Cilestoderme, Clotrasone, Coid, Colergis, Cordes beta, Coritex, Corsaderm, Cortamine, Corteroid, Cortibet, Cortiderma, Cortiflam, Cortimax, Cortispec, Cortival, Cortixyl, Cortixyl depot, Cremirit, Cronocorteroid, Cronolevel, Dacam, Daivobet, Debion-vg, Deflatop, Deltalaf, Dermabet, Dermabiolene, Dermasone, Dermesone, Dermizol, Dermosol, Dermosol-dp, Dermosone, Derzid, Dexacort depot, Dexan g, Dexan-vg, Digenta, Diprocel, Diproderm, Diprofast, Diproform, Diproforte, Diprofos, Diprogenta, Diprolen, Diprolene, Dipronova, Diprophos, Diprosalic, Diprosan, Diprosis, Diprosone, Diprosone depot, Diprospan, Diprostène, Diprotop, Diprovate, Disopranil, Dovobet, Dppollon, Ecoval, Egerian, Eleuphrat, Emperacin, Erispan, Exabet, Exabetin, Eye rinderon, Eyebet, Fidagenbeta, Floderm, Flogozyme, Flosteron, Fluororinil, Fubecot, Fucibet, Fucicort, Fucicream, Fuciderm, Fungolisin nf, Fusibact b, Fusibet, Futasone, Galinocort, Garamat, Garasone, Gentalyn, Gentamicin, Gentasone, Gentavet, Gentocin, Helpoderm, Hicort, Histablock, Hizubot, Ijilone v, Infanal, Inflacor, Inflacor retard, Isotic betaracin, Itisona, Kamelyn, Keligroll, Krimbeson, Kuterid, Kuterid g, Labosona, Lazar, Lenasone, Lenovate, Linolacort, Linolosal, Lotricomb, Luricul vg, Luxiq, Maxivate, Medobeta, Metaskin-n, Methasol, Methovate, Movithiol, Multiderm, Mytaderm, Nilacelin, Nisagon, Nolcot, Norbet, Ocuson, Oftasona p, Ophtamesone, Ophtasone, Opizole, Osmoran, Otomax, Oviskin, Persivate, Prevason, Prevex b, Propiochrone, Propioform, Proson, Psorcutan, Puradesmin, Quiacort, Ratio-topilene, Ratio-topisalic, Ratio-topisone, Repivate, Rinbeta pf, Rinderon, Rinderon-dp, Rinderon-v, Rinesteron, Saccortin, Salgen plus, Salibet, Sanbetason, Scanderma, Septon, Seroderm, Sinacort, Skilone, Skizon-n, Soderm, Solu-celestan, Soluderme, Solusone, Sonigen, Spel, Steromien, Steronema, Supraproct, Suprasone, Suprastene, Taclonex, Tanderil, Taro-sone, Tokuderm, Topagen, Topicasone, Topiderm, Topik, Topizone, Uciderm, Uniflex, Vabeta, Valbet, Valecort, Valederm, Valerpan, Valisone, Valnac, Verilona, Viltern, Vista-methasone, Walacort, Xamiol, Zensoderm, Zestam

MIN — Betacard, general information, pharmacology, Betacard for patients, Betacard interactions, Betacard contraindications, additional informat

Betacard Betacard - General Information

A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect.

Pharmacology of Betacard

Betacard, a competitive beta(1)-selective adrenergic antagonist, has the lowest lipid solubility of this drug class. Although it is similar to metoprolol, atenolol differs from pindolol and propranolol in that it does not have intrinsic sympathomimetic properties or membrane-stabilizing activity. Betacard is used alone or with chlorthalidone in the management of hypertension and edema.

Betacard for patients

This belongs to the group of medicines known as beta-blockers. Atenolol can
be used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain) and irregular
heartbeat. It has varied effects in different parts of the body. High Blood
Pressure: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages to the beta
receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart, decreasing
blood pressure. Angina: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages
to the beta receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart
and reduces the heart's need for oxygen. This makes angina attacks less likely
to occur. Irregular Heartbeat: Normally the heartbeat is regulated by special
tissues which conduct electricity. Some cases of irregular heartbeat are caused
by these tissues conducting electricity too quickly. Atenolol works by reducing
over-activity in the conducting tissue.

Betacard Interactions

Catecholamine-depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with TENORMIN plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo. syncope, or postural hypotension.

Calcium channel blockers may also have an additive effect when given with TENORMIN.

Beta blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If the two drugs are coadministered, the beta blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, the introduction of beta blockers should be delayed for several days after clonidine administration has stopped.

Concomitant use of prostaglandin synthase inhibiting drugs, eg, indomethacin, may decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers.

Information on concurrent usage of atenolol and aspirin is limited. Data from several studies, ie, TIMI-II, ISIS-2, currently do not suggest any clinical interaction between aspirin and beta blockers in the acute myocardial infarction setting.

While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may have a more severe reaction on repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat the allergic reaction.

Betacard Contraindications

TENORMIN is contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure.

TENORMIN is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the atenolol or any of the drug productís components.

Additional information about Betacard

Betacard Indication: For the management of hypertention and long-term management of patients with angina pectoris
Mechanism Of Action: Like metoprolol, atenolol competes with sympathomimetic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting sympathetic stimulation. This results in a reduction in resting heart rate, cardiac output, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflex orthostatic hypotension. Higher doses of atenolol also competitively block beta(2)-adrenergic responses in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscles.
Drug Interactions: Acetohexamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ampicillin Ampicillin decreases bioavailability of atenolol
Chlorpropamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped
Dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Diltiazem Increased risk of bradycardia
Disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide
Epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia
Ergonovine Ischmeia with risk of gangrene
Ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Fenoterol Antagonism
Formoterol Antagonism
Gliclazide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glipizide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glisoxepide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glibenclamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glycodiazine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Insulin The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-aspart The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glargine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-detemir The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glulisine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-lispro The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Isoproterenol Antagonism
Lidocaine The beta-blocker increases the effect and toxicity of lidocaine
Methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Orciprenaline Antagonism
Pirbuterol Antagonism
Piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy
Procaterol Antagonism
Repaglinide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Salbutamol Antagonism
Salmeterol Antagonism
Terbutaline Antagonism
Tolazamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolbutamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Verapamil Increased effect of both drugs
Food Interactions: Consult your doctor before taking large amounts of Vitamin K (Green leafy vegetables).
Take 30-60 minutes before meals, take at the same time each day.
Generic Name: Atenolol
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Sympatholytics; Antihypertensive Agents; Antiarrhythmic Agents; Adrenergic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Atenolol: Aircrit; Alinor; Altol; Anselol; Antipressan; Apo-Atenolol; Atcardil; Atecard; Atehexal; Atenblock; Atendol; Atenet; Ateni; Atenil; Atenol; Atenol 1A Pharma; Atenol Acis; Atenol AL; Atenol Atid; Atenol Cophar; Atenol CT; Atenol Fecofar; Atenol Gador; Atenol Genericon; Atenol GNR; Atenol Heumann; Atenol MSD; Atenol NM Pharma; Atenol Nordic; Atenol PB; Atenol Quesada; Atenol Stada; Atenol Tika; Atenol Trom; Atenol Von CT; Atenol-Mepha; Atenol-Ratiopharm; Atenol-Wolff; Atenolin; Atenomel; Atereal; Aterol; Betablok; Betacard; Betasyn; Betatop GE; Blocotenol; Blokium; Cardaxen; Cardiopress; Corotenol; Cuxanorm; Duraatenolol; Duratenol; Evitocor; Farnormin; Felo-Bits; Hipres; Hypoten; Ibinolo; Internolol; Jenatenol; Juvental; Lo-Ten; Loten; Lotenal; Myocord; Normalol; Normiten; Noten; Oraday; Ormidol; Panapres; Plenacor; Premorine; Prenolol; Prenormine; Prinorm; Scheinpharm Atenol; Seles Beta; Selobloc; Serten; Servitenol; Stermin; Tenidon; Teno-Basan; Tenobloc; Tenoblock; Tenolol; Tenoprin; Tenormin; Tenormine; Tensimin; Tredol; Unibloc; Uniloc; Vascoten; Vericordin; Wesipin; Xaten;
Absorption: Approximately 50% of an oral dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the remainder being excreted unchanged in the feces.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50 =2000-3000 mg/kg(orally in mice). Symptoms of an atenolol overdose include a slow heart beat, shortness of breath, fainting, dizziness. weakness, confusion, nausea, and vomiting.
Protein Binding: Plasma protein binding is 6-16%
Biotransformation: Hepatic (minimal)
Half Life: 6-7 hours
Dosage Forms of Betacard: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)propoxy]phenyl]acetamide
Chemical Formula: C14H22N2O3
Atenolol on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atenolol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals

Other articles

Aterol - drug review: dosage, side effects, action, buy Aterol

Aterol Aterol review

Aterol. used in the prevention of myocardial infarctions and irregular heart beat episodes and in treating migraine headaches and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. is primarily used to treat chest pains and hypertension. It is also effective in treating coronary heart illness, angina, arrhythmia and hypertension and can reduce symptoms of Graves Disease until the antithyroid medication kicks in. This medication works by slowing the heart rate and reducing the workload on the heart in the process. Aterol is considered a part of the beta-blocker group of medications. It works well since it does not pose a risk to the central nervous system. An added benefit is that this medication is filtered and excreted in the kidneys. reducing the workload on the liver and making Aterol suitable for the treatment of heart disorders in patients with extensive liver conditions. Available in 25, 50 and 100mg tablets, Aterol is taken orally.

Patients with unimpaired renal function who have hypertension may be administered 25 to 50 mg per day. Typically, for patients in this class, healthcare professionals prescribe a lower dose to start and increase the dosage each week, based on the patient's response to the treatment. Dosages range from 20 to 200mg depending on the patient and condition being treated, but for angina, 100mg is frequently quite sufficient.

Due to the risk of bronchospasms (tightening of the airways) as a result of taking Aterol, asthma patients are administered the lowest dose possible. Hexoprenaline or salbutamol may be administered to the patient in the event this condition occurs.

Dosages for patients with renal function impairment vary based on the healthcare professional's observations and the patient's response to the medication. End-stage renal failure patients dependent on dialysis are frequently administered 50mg of Aterol after the dialysis session. It is important to note that these patients may suffer from severe hypotonia after taking this medication.

Aterol has fewer reported side effects than other beta-blockers yet it still produces some side effects in patients. Common side effects include languor, dizziness. stomach pains, constipation. baldness. sexual dysfunction, difficulty sleeping and a runny or clogged nose. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact your healthcare professional.

Serious side effects, though rare, include hallucinations. visual distortion, a tingling feeling in the hands and feet, low blood pressure, rashes and skin disorders, and difficulty hearing or speaking. These symptoms are serious and should be treated as such. If you experience any of these conditions, seek immediate medical attention.

Aterol has a negative drug interaction with many other medications. Due of this, it is extremely important for you to inform your healthcare professional if you take allergy medication, MAO inhibitors, diabetes medication, or other cardiovascular medications. Patients with asthma need inform their healthcare professional of their condition so that their dosages can be properly managed and tested.

Aterol can cause the patient to become more docile and drowsy so the patient will want to avoid work requiring full attention. It is also advised that the patient avoid alcohol consumption to prevent increased somnolence while taking Aterol.

Patients who are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or are breastfeeding, note that this medication passes through breast milk and may affect fertility. Consult your healthcare professional if you fall into any of these categories prior to taking this medication.

Aterol has the following structural formula:

• Molecular formula of aterol is C14H22N2O3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethylamino)propoxy]phenyl]ethanamide
• Molecular weight is 266.336 g/mol
Aterol available. 100mg tablets and 150mg tablets

Generic name:Atenolol

Brand name(s): Aircrit. Alinor. Altol. Anselol. Antipressan. Atcardil. Atecard. Atehexal. Atenblock. Atendol. Atenet. Ateni. Atenil. Atenol. Atenolin. Atenomel. Atereal. Betablok, Betacard, Betasyn, Blocotenol, Blokium, Cardaxen, Cardiopress, Corotenol, Cuxanorm, Duraatenolol, Duratenol, Evitocor, Farnormin, Felo-Bits, Hipres, Hypoten, Ibinolo, Internolol, Jenatenol, Juvental, Loten, Lotenal, Myocord, Normalol, Normiten, Noten, Oraday, Ormidol, Panapres, Plenacor, Premorine, Prenolol, Prenormine, Prinorm, Scheinpharm Atenol, Seles Beta, Selobloc, Serten, Servitenol, Stermin, Tenidon, Teno-Basan, Tenobloc, Tenoblock, Tenolol, Tenoprin, Tenoretic. Tenormin. Tenormine, Tensimin, Tredol, Unibloc, Uniloc, Vascoten, Vericordin, Wesipin, Xaten

Beta sitosterine or Betasitosterol

Since 1997, the premier European information site on hair loss and healthcare. Treatments, therapies, diagnoses, scientific studies. Order direct from manufacturers in SSL safe mode. Some of our price are 30-40% cheaper than our competitors. S hipped anywhere within a few days.

s. These are potent phytochemicals found in a variety of botanical sources. There are a number of different sterols and these include the principal phytosterol, which is known as sitosterol.

In addition to sitosterol the most common sterols include campesterol, sitostanol and stigmasterol. The glucoside of sitosterol is known as sitosterolin and in plants it is always found together with the sterol. The ratio of sterol to sterolin varies in the plant kingdom ranging from 5% to 10% but in some cases being higher as in the case of potatoes.

Sterols are essential cell membrane components and the maintenance of adequate serum levels in humans seems to be necessary for an efficient immune system. Seeds are the richest source of the sterols and sterolins and yet, the refining processes applied by the food industry render the staple foods useless because they remove the sterols and sterolins to make the product more appealing to the eye.

For instance, in order to prevent precipitation of the fats in so-called "cold pressed oils," the oil is heated and refined to remove the sterols / sterolins. Sterols and sterolins have been shown to modulate the functions of the T-Cells both in vitro and in vivo by enhancing their cellular division.

Recent research conducted by Professor Patrick Bouic and his research team at the University of Stellenbosch Medical Faculty and published in the International Journal of Immunopharmacology, is providing an entirely new medical approach to the treatment of auto-immune diseases and other chronic diseases which only manifest themselves when the afflicted individuals are at cause. International medical and scientific interest on this breakthrough has been overwhelming.

Sitosterol assists in the conversion of linoleic acid to polyunsaturated fatty acids. This process is essential for the conversion of the Omega 6 fatty acids to prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are hormone like substances which are involved in immune support; they assist in the reduction of thrombo-embolic disorders by reducing platelet aggregation and they also assist in the reduction of inflammatory metabolites.

Sitosterol can be metabolized to pregnenolone and therefore to DHEA and the other hormones derived from pregnenolone and its analogues. In the human body there is a steady decline with age in the production of DHEA, which is the master hormone responsible for the synthesis of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and others.

By the age of 70 the DHEA production can be down to 10% or 20% of the levels found in a twenty year old, thus sitosterol supplements have an enormous potential for supporting the endocrine system in elderly people and, by implication, increasing their longevity.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Title: beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review.

Wilt TJ ; MacDonald R ; Ishani A

The VA Coordinating Center of the Cochrane Collaborative Review Group in Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Malignancies, 13/Minneapolis, VA, USA.

BJU Int, 83(9):976-83 1999 Jun

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the evidence for the efficacy of beta-sitosterol in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: Studies were identified through Medlinetrade mark (1966-98), EMBASEtrade mark, Phytodok, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of identified trials and review articles, and contact with study authors and pharmaceutical companies. Randomized trials were included if: men had symptomatic BPH; plant extract preparations contained beta-sitosterols ; a control group received placebo or a pharmacological therapy; and treatment duration was >/=30 days. Study characteristics, demographic information, enrolment criteria and outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: Four trials comprising a total of 519 men met the inclusion criteria. All were double-blind and lasted 4-26 weeks. Three studies used nonglucosidic beta-sitosterols and one used a preparation that contained only beta-sitosterol -beta-d-glucoside. Compared with placebo, beta-sitosterol improved urinary symptom scores and flow measures. For the two studies reporting the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the weighted mean difference (WMD) against placebo was –4.9 IPSS points (95% confidence interval, CI,-6.3 to-3.5). The WMD for peak urinary flow rate was 3.91 mL/s (95% CI 0.91 to 6.90, four studies) and for residual volume the WMD was –28.62 mL (95% CI-41.42 to-15.83, four studies). Beta-sitosterol did not reduce prostate size. The trial using pure beta-sitosterol -beta-d-glucoside (WA184) showed no improvement in urinary flow measures. Withdrawal rates for men assigned to beta-sitosterol and placebo were 7.8% and 8.0% (not significant), respectively. CONCLUSION: beta-sitosterol improves urological symptoms and flow measures. However, the existing studies are limited by short treatment duration and lack of standardized beta-sitosterol preparations. Their long-term effectiveness, safety and ability to prevent the complications of BPH are unknown.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Title: beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

von Holtz RL ; Fink CS ; Awad AB

Department of Physical Therapy, Exercise, and Nutrition Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo 14214-3000, USA.

Nutr Cancer, 32(1):8-12 1998

Epidemiological evidence has shown that men consuming a low-fat, high-fiber diet containing high amounts of plant products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than men consuming a Western diet. One of the main differences between these two diets is the type of dietary fat, including dietary sterols. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of two dietary sterols on prostate cancer cells in vitro. Beta-Sitosterol (SIT), the most common plant sterol, and cholesterol, an animal sterol, were compared for effect on LNCaP cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and sphingomyelin cycle intermediates. Cells were treated for up to seven days with sterols delivered by a cyclodextrin vehicle. Compared with cholesterol, SIT (16 microM) decreased growth by 24% and induced apoptosis fourfold, which was accompanied by cell rounding and a 50% increase in ceramide production. No effect was observed on differentiation as measured by prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, although total acid phosphatase increased with SIT treatment for up to seven days. The results suggest that the decrease in cell number and increase in apoptosis associated with SIT treatment are mediated by activating the sphingomyelin cycle.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Beta-sitosterol (BSS) and its glycoside (BSSG) are sterol molecules which are synthesized by plants. When humans eat plant foods phytosterols are ingested, and are found in the serum and tissues of healthy individuals, but at concentrations orders of magnitude lower than endogenous cholesterol. Epidemiological studies have correlated a reduced risk of numerous diseases with a diet high in fruits and vegetables, and have concluded that specific molecules, including b-carotene, tocopherols, vitamin C, and flavonoids, confer some of this protective benefit. However, these epidemiologic studies have not examined the potential effect that phytosterols ingested with fruits and vegetables might have on disease risk reduction. In animals, BSS and BSSG have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pyretic, and immune-modulating activity. A proprietary BSS:BSSG mixture has demonstrated promising results in a number of studies, including in vitro studies, animal models, and human clinical trials. This phytosterol complex seems to target specific T-helper lymphocytes, the Th1 and Th2 cells, helping normalize their functioning and resulting in improved T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell activity. A dampening effect on overactive antibody responses has also been seen, as well as normalization of the DHEA:cortisol ratio. The re-establishment of these immune parameters may be of help in numerous disease processes relating to chronic immune-mediated abnormalities, including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, cancer, and auto-immune diseases.

Importance of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Importance of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Anti-aging products promise to reverse the signs of aging and deliver younger looking skin. With such a vast range of skin care products on the market, consumers have had to get smarter about which products actually make good of their promises. Subsequently, marketers have had to get smarter as well. Many skin care product labels advertise "buzz word" ingredients, including antioxidants, proVitamin A, and beta-carotene.

Scientific/Medical Identification

Beta-carotene, found in many fruits and vegetables, is a precursor of Vitamin A. Most notably, beta-carotene is responsible for pigmentation qualities, such as the orange color of carrots. Considered an antioxidant for properties that protect from, and induce the breakdown of, free radical reactions in plants and animals, beta carotene increases resistance to various environmental influences.

Cosmetic Uses

Beta-carotene is usually synthesized from Vitamin A for cosmetic use, and is often used interchangeably with the term "proVitamin A." It is widely used in the cosmetics industry, in suntan products, cleansers, moisturizers, aftershave lotions, bath products, makeup, hair care products, and facial skin care products. Its common use is as a tinting agent in makeup products and sunless tanning lotions. In hair care products, "proVitamin A" is used to solve fragility and prevent split-ends. In skin care products, beta-carotene is used for its antioxidant properties, its ability to protect the skin from sun damage (note that it is not intended for, or should be used as, a method of sun protection), and its ability to help even the skin tone, deeming it an active "anti-aging" ingredient. It is also used in anti-aging products for its sun damage protection capabilities

Intended Effects of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Dermatologists use beta-carotene for its ability to increase cell turn-over and regeneration in the outer layers of the skin, making it effective for diseases and skin conditions related to epithelium damage. Topical application of beta-carotene in retailed skin care products can enhance the appearance of the skin by restoring suppleness and adding a "glowing" pigment that seemingly evens out the skin tone. Beta-carotene's antioxidant attributes, such as sun damage protection, are used to prevent the signs of aging in the skin; and, in conjunction with its tinting ability, used in suntan creams and lotions to promote a continuous suntan while protecting the skin from sun damage. Beta-carotene's corrective properties are used in skin creams to help heal scratches and prevent scarring, and to reduce skin irritation and itchiness.


Beware of marketing tricks when purchasing skin care products. Sales strategies highlight words like "antioxidants," which consumers can automatically link to truths, such as how antioxidants benefit the skin by protecting it from free radicals, and ensuring it gets enough nutrients for healthy collagen production. While these general benefits of antioxidants are true, it does not imply that the skin care product and its active ingredient(s) delivers sufficient quantity or quality of antioxidants to support the ultimate claim, which is that the product will deliver fountain-of-youth results. Beta-carotene is classified as an antioxidant, but the benefits of its topical application will not support such claims as "reversing the signs of aging." Even for the skin, antioxidants are more effective when taken from a healthy diet, or when taken as supplements, than when applied topically.


The "Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy" study conducted by medical professionals at UC Berkeley concluded that beta-carotene should not be taken as a supplement by smokers or even reformed smokers. This nutrient, as all nutrients, can be ingested safely from fruits and vegetables, but any antioxidant in supplement form should not be assumed safe or harmless. Consult a doctor before incorporating antioxidant supplements into daily vitamin intake. Also, excessive intake of beta-carotene can lead to a yellow-orange pigment of the skin that appears similar to jaundice.

Beta glucan may help treat skin disorders and remove fine lines and wrinkles

Beta glucan may help treat skin disorders and remove fine lines and wrinkles

Published on October 3, 2005 at 8:38 PM

The fight against aging has received a scientific boost thanks to an innovative study done in part by a University of Alberta spin-off company--research that dispels a hard-held belief about the natural ingredient, beta glucan.

The study, published in the current issue of International Journal of Cosmetic Science. is the first to show that oat beta glucan can penetrate the skin despite years of doctors and scientists believing that the large molecule was too big.

The finding is significant, not only in the treatment of skin disorders and removing fine lines and wrinkles but in the promotion of wound healing and reduction in scaring following surgical procedures, says Dr. Mark Redmond, president and CEO of Ceapro Inc, a spin-off company formed in the late 1980s to commercialize technology from the University of Alberta's faculties of pharmacy and medicine for the treatment of cold sores.

Beta-glucan is the soluble fiber found in the cell walls of oat kernels. Oat has a long history of safe use in providing fast, temporary relief of itching and pain associated with minor skin irritations, has reported to improve the appearance of smoother skin and has helped wound healing. But it has been long believed that such a large molecule as beta glucan was too big to penetrate the skin.

In this paper, Redmond and his co-authors describe using beta glucan-specific tracking dyes to show the skin penetration did take place. "Interestingly, the glucan penetrates in the same way that water penetrates a brick wall--it does not go through the brick, it goes through the concrete binding the bricks together," says Redmond. "As a result of our study, we now know that glucan works through the inter-cellular lipid matrix, or the cells' cement, to enter the lower levels of the skin. Of medical significance is the fact that beta glucan creams promote wound healing and reduction in scaring following surgical procedures."

The research team, made up of Redmond, Ravi Pillai and Joachim Roding both from Symrise, then measured the depth of the skin that the glucan penetrated. Photographs show the actual reduction of wrinkles and consumers should expect to see similar results on themselves in as little as 10 days, says Redmond. Beta glucan is already used in a number of products available to consumers including brand name products from Johnson and Johnson and Schering Plough. "The proof that we provide in this paper and other research that we have conducted is that glucan can have a specific and measurable effect on skin beyond making you look good and feeling great," says Redmond. "We also have indications that a number of applications in cosmetics are in the works to use glucan as the non-invasive alternative to Botox for those who are afraid of needles."

Ceapro has also discovered that beta glucan can be used as a transdermal delivery system to feed drugs and other compounds into the skin. This development may lead to new and better ways of delivering such medicines as antihistamines and pain relievers.

BETA-CAROTENE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings

Find a Vitamin or Supplement BETA - CAROTENE
BETA-CAROTENE Uses & Effectiveness
Effective for:
  • Treating sun sensitivity in people who have a form of inherited blood disorder called “erythropoietic protoporphyria.” Takin beta-carotene by mouth can reduce sensitivity to the sun in people with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Possibly Effective for:
  • An eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Taking beta-carotene by mouth along with vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc daily, seems to help prevent vision loss and worsening of AMD in people with advanced AMD. Taking beta-carotene plus antioxidants but without zinc does not seem to improve advanced AMD. There isn’t enough evidence to know taking beta-carotene along with other antioxidants works for people with less advanced macular disease. There is conflicting evidence about whether beta-carotene supplements can help reduce the risk of developing AMD.
  • Breast cancer. Eating more fruits and vegetable that contain beta-carotene seems decrease the risk of breast cancer in pre-menopausal women who are at high risk of getting breast cancer, including those with a family history and those who use alcohol excessively.
  • Preventing complications of lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD). Eating more beta-carotene in the diet seems to help prevent bronchitis and difficulty breathing in smokers with COPD, but beta-carotene supplements do not..
  • Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to reduce asthma attacks that are triggered by exercise.
  • White patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia.
  • Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent osteoarthritis from getting worse, but it does not seem to prevent osteoarthritis.
  • Ovarian cancer. Eating a diet rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene, reduces the risk of ovarian cancer in women after menopause.
  • Physical performance. Eating a diet that contains a higher amount of beta-carotene seems to improve physical performance and muscle strength in older people.
  • Preventing complications post-childbirth. Taking beta-carotene by mouth before, during, and after pregnancy seems to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and fever post-childbirth.
  • Pregnancy-related complications. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to reduce the risk of pregnancy-related death, pregnancy-related night blindness, and post-childbirth diarrhea and fever in underfed women.
  • Sunburn. Taking beta-carotene by mouth may decrease sunburn in people sensitive to the sun. However, taking beta-carotene is unlikely to have much effect on sunburn risk in most people. Also, beta-carotene does not appear to reduce the risk of skin cancer or other skin disorders associated with sun exposure.
Possibly Ineffective for:
  • Alzheimer’s disease. Eating a diet that contains a higher amount of beta-carotene does not seem to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Cataracts. Taking beta-carotene alone or in combination with vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc, for up to 8 years does not reduce the incidence or progression of cataracts.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 14 months does not improve lung health in people with cystic fibrosis.
  • Diabetes. Some early research suggests that eating a diet containing higher amounts of beta-carotene is linked with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, conflicting evidence exists. Taking beta-carotene supplements does not reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or the risk of experiencing complications associated with diabetes.
  • Moles. Research shows that taking beta-carotene by mouth for 3 years does not reduce the development of new moles.
  • Overall risk of death. Some research suggests that taking supplements containing beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc for about 7 years might lower the risk of death in men, but not women. However, other research shows that taking larger doses of beta-carotene in for up to 12 years may increase the risk of death in both men and women.
  • Stroke. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for about 6 years has no effect on the risk of stroke in male smokers. Also, there is some evidence that taking beta-carotene supplements increases the risk of bleeding in the brain in people who drink alcohol.
Likely Ineffective for:
  • Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running through the abdomen. Evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth for about 5.8 years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers.
  • Cancer. Beta-carotene does not seem to prevent or decrease death from uterine cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancers (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), brain cancer, and blood cancer (leukemia). However, some research suggests a combination of beta-carotene with vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc might lower cancer rates in men, but not women. Researchers speculate that men have lower intake of dietary antioxidants and therefore might benefit more from supplements.
  • Heart disease. A Science Advisory from the American Heart Association states that the evidence does not justify use of antioxidants such as beta-carotene for reducing the risk of heart disease. Evidence also shows that beta-carotene in combination with vitamin C and E does not decrease heart disease risk.
  • Colon cancer. Research shows that taking beta-carotene by mouth, alone or with vitamins C and E, selenium, and calcium carbonate, does not decrease the risk of colon tumor growth. In some people who have had colon tumors removed, taking beta-carotene supplements seems to reduce the risk of recurrence. However, in people that smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol, taking beta-carotene supplements increases the risk of new tumors. It is unclear if dietary beta-carotene reduces the risk of colon cancer.
  • Lung cancer. Taking beta-carotene actually seems to increase the risk of lung cancer in people who smoke (especially those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day), former smokers, people exposed to asbestos, and those who use alcohol (one or more drinks per day) in addition to smoking. However, beta-carotene from food does not seem to have this adverse effect. Also, taking supplements containing beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium for about 5 years does not reduce the risk of death in people previously diagnosed with lung cancer.
  • Prostate cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements does not prevent prostate cancer in most men. In fact, there is some concern that beta-carotene supplements might actually increase the risk of prostate cancer in some men. There is evidence that men who take a multivitamin daily along with a separate beta-carotene supplement have an increased risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. Also, men who smoke and take beta-carotene supplements have in increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Insufficient Evidence for:
  • Asthma. Eating a diet high in beta-carotene does not seem to be linked with a reduced occurrence of asthma.
  • Side effects from chemotherapy. Eating a diet high in beta-carotene is linked with reduced toxic effects in children undergoing chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene for one year does not improve thinking skills and memory in older men. However, taking beta-carotene for up to 18 years may improve these outcomes.
  • Esophageal cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements alone or in combination with vitamin A or vitamin E plus vitamin C doesn’t seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.
  • Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, which causes stomach ulcers. Taking beta-carotene by mouth, in combination with prescription drugs, does not help treat H. pylori infection better than prescription drugs alone.
  • HIV/AIDS. Some early research suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth for 4 weeks helps improve immune system function in people with HIV. However, conflicting evidence exists.
  • Stomach cancer. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene does not decrease risk of gastric cancer. Also, taking beta-carotene in combination with vitamins A, C, and/or E does not seem to reduce the risk of stomach cancer. However, some early evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium might reduce the risk of stomach cancer but not the risk of death in underfed, Chinese people who are at high risk. Also, taking beta-carotene seems to help treat precancerous lesions in the stomach in people at risk for stomach cancer.
  • Swelling and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Pancreatic cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements alone or in combination with other antioxidants such as vitamin A or vitamin E doesn't seem to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • A skin rash due to sun sensitivity called polymorphous light eruption. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth can improve sensitivity to sun exposure in people with polymorphous light eruptions. However, conflicting evidence exists.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Depression.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Headaches.
  • Heartburn.
  • Hypertension.
  • Infertility.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Psoriasis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate beta-carotene for these uses.
BETA-CAROTENE Side Effects & Safety

Beta-carotene is LIKELY SAFE in adults and children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts for certain specific medical conditions. However, beta-carotene supplements are not recommended for general use.

Beta-carotene is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses, especially when taken long-term. High doses of beta-carotene can turn skin yellow or orange.

There is growing concern that taking high doses of antioxidant supplements such as beta-carotene might do more harm than good. Some research shows that taking high doses of beta-carotene supplements might increase the chance of death from all causes, increase the risk of certain cancers, and possibly other serious side effects. In addition, there is also concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate beta-carotene supplement increases the chance of developing advanced prostate cancer in men.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding. Beta-carotene is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. However, large doses of beta-carotene supplements are not recommended for general use during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Smoking. In people who smoke, beta-carotene supplements might increase the risk of colon, lung, and prostate cancer. Don’t take beta-carotene supplements if you smoke.

History of asbestos exposure. In people who have been exposed to asbestos, beta-carotene supplements might increase the risk of cancer. Don’t take beta-carotene supplements if you have been exposed to asbestos.

Angioplasty, a heart procedure. There is some concern that when antioxidant vitamins, including beta-carotene, are used together they might have harmful effects after angioplasty. They can interfere with healing. Don’t use beta-carotene and other antioxidant vitamins before or after angioplasty without the recommendation of your healthcare provider.

BETA-CAROTENE Interactions
Moderate Interaction Be cautious with this combination
  • Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins) interacts with BETA-CAROTENE

Taking beta-carotene, selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if beta-carotene alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

  • Niacin interacts with BETA-CAROTENE

    Taking beta-carotene along with vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking beta-carotene along with these other vitamins might decrease the good cholesterol.


    The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

    • For erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP): dosage is based on age. For age 1 to 4, the daily dose is 60-90 mg; age 5 to 8 years, 90-120 mg; age 9 to 12 years, 120-150 mg; age 13 to 16 years, 150-180 mg; and age 16 and older, 180 mg. If people still remain too sensitive to the sun using these doses, beta-carotene can be increased by 30-60 mg per day for children under 16 years old, and up to a total of 300 mg per day for people older than age 16.
    • For preventing sunburn in sun-sensitive people: beta-carotene 25 mg orally daily.
    • For treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD): beta-carotene 15 mg plus vitamin C 500 mg, zinc oxide 80 mg, and vitamin E 400 IU daily.
    The recommended daily intake of beta-carotene has not been set because there hasn’t been enough research.

    Beta-carotene supplements are available in two forms. One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version seems to be absorbed better.

    Allen, S. Britton, J. R. and Leonardi-Bee, J. A. Association between antioxidant vitamins and asthma outcome measures: systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax 2009;64(7):610-619. View abstract.

    Antille, C. Tran, C. Sorg, O. and Saurat, J. H. Topical beta-carotene is converted to retinyl esters in human skin ex vivo and mouse skin in vivo. Exp.Dermatol. 2004;13(9):558-561. View abstract.

    Arnlov, J. Zethelius, B. Riserus, U. Basu, S. Berne, C. Vessby, B. Alfthan, G. and Helmersson, J. Serum and dietary beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a community-based study of Swedish men: report from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) study. Diabetologia 2009;52(1):97-105. View abstract.

    Astley, S. B. Hughes, D. A. Wright, A. J. Elliott, R. M. and Southon, S. DNA damage and susceptibility to oxidative damage in lymphocytes: effects of carotenoids in vitro and in vivo. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;91(1):53-61. View abstract.

    Aune, D. Chan, D. S. Vieira, A. R. Navarro Rosenblatt, D. A. Vieira, R. Greenwood, D. C. and Norat, T. Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96(2):356-373. View abstract.

    Baart, de la Faille, Suurmond, D. Went, L. N. van, Steveninck J. and Schothorst, A. A. -Carotene as a treatment for photohypersensitivity due to erythropoietic protoporphyria. Dermatologica 1972;145(6):389-394. View abstract.

    Bandera, E. V. Gifkins, D. M. Moore, D. F. McCullough, M. L. and Kushi, L. H. Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(5):699-711. View abstract.

    Bardia, A. Tleyjeh, I. M. Cerhan, J. R. Sood, A. K. Limburg, P. J. Erwin, P. J. and Montori, V. M. Efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in reducing primary cancer incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin.Proc. 2008;83(1):23-34. View abstract.

    Baron, J. A. Cole, B. F. Mott, L. Haile, R. Grau, M. Church, T. R. Beck, G. J. and Greenberg, E. R. Neoplastic and antineoplastic effects of beta-carotene on colorectal adenoma recurrence: results of a randomized trial. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 5-21-2003;95(10):717-722. View abstract.

    Barth, J. Fickweiler, E. Harnack, K. Herrmann, K. Hubner, U. Schaarschmidt, H. and Schiller, F. [Beta-carotene treatment of protoporphyrias and polymorphic light dermatoses]. Dermatol.Monatsschr. 1984;170(4):244-248. View abstract.

    Bath-Hextall, F. Leonardi-Bee, J. Somchand, N. Webster, A. Delitt, J. and Perkins, W. Interventions for preventing non-melanoma skin cancers in high-risk groups. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(4):CD005414. View abstract.

    Bayerl, C. Schwarz, B. and Jung, E. G. A three-year randomized trial in patients with dysplastic naevi treated with oral beta-carotene. Acta Derm.Venereol. 2003;83(4):277-281. View abstract.

    Beckert, E. and Metz, J. [Erythropoietic protoporthyria. Clinical aspects and therapy]. Fortschr.Med. 12-2-1976;94(34):1981-6, 1995. View abstract.

    Biesalski, H. K. Grune, T. Tinz, J. Zollner, I. and Blumberg, J. B. Reexamination of a meta-analysis of the effect of antioxidant supplementation on mortality and health in randomized trials. Nutrients. 2010;2(9):929-949. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Gluud, L. L. Nikolova, D. Bjelakovic, M. Nagorni, A. and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;(3):CD007749. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Gluud, L. L. Nikolova, D. Bjelakovic, M. Nagorni, A. and Gluud, C. Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for liver diseases - the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2010;32(3):356-367. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nagorni, A. Nikolova, D. Simonetti, R. G. Bjelakovic, M. and Gluud, C. Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention of colorectal adenoma. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 7-15-2006;24(2):281-291. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nikolova, D. Gluud, L. L. Simonetti, R. G. and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(2):CD007176. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nikolova, D. Gluud, L. L. Simonetti, R. G. and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;3:CD007176. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nikolova, D. Simonetti, R. G. and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;(4):CD004183. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nikolova, D. Simonetti, R. G. and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(3):CD004183. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic, G. Nikolova, D. Simonetti, R. G. and Gluud, C. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 9-15-2008;28(6):689-703. View abstract.

    Bleys, J. Miller, E. R. III, Pastor-Barriuso, R. Appel, L. J. and Guallar, E. Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84(4):880-887. View abstract.

    Blumberg, J. and Block, G. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in Finland. Nutr.Rev. 1994;52(7):242-245. View abstract.

    Bolling, B. W. Chen, C. Y. McKay, D. L. and Blumberg, J. B. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Nutr.Res.Rev. 2011;24(2):244-275. View abstract.

    Bonifant, C. M. Shevill, E. and Chang, A. B. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;8:CD006751. View abstract.

    Bub, A. Barth, S. Watzl, B. Briviba, K. Herbert, B. M. Luhrmann, P. M. Neuhauser-Berthold, M. and Rechkemmer, G. Paraoxonase 1 Q192R (PON1-192) polymorphism is associated with reduced lipid peroxidation in R-allele-carrier but not in QQ homozygous elderly subjects on a tomato-rich diet. Eur.J.Nutr. 2002;41(6):237-243. View abstract.

    Burri, B. J. Neidlinger, T. R. and Clifford, A. J. Serum carotenoid depletion follows first-order kinetics in healthy adult women fed naturally low carotenoid diets. J Nutr 2001;131(8):2096-2100. View abstract.

    Cardinault, N. Tyssandier, V. Grolier, P. Winklhofer-Roob, B. M. Ribalta, J. Bouteloup-Demange, C. Rock, E. and Borel, P. Comparison of the postprandial chylomicron carotenoid responses in young and older subjects. Eur.J.Nutr. 2003;42(6):315-323. View abstract.

    Cartmel, B. Dziura, J. Cullen, M. R. Vegso, S. Omenn, G. S. Goodman, G. E. and Redlich, C. A. Changes in cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the Vanguard population of the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET). Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2005;59(10):1173-1180. View abstract.

    Chan, J. M. Pietinen, P. Virtanen, M. Malila, N. Tangrea, J. Albanes, D. and Virtamo, J. Diet and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of smokers, with a specific focus on calcium and phosphorus (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11(9):859-867. View abstract.

    Chandra, R. K. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Lancet 11-7-1992;340(8828):1124-1127. View abstract.

    Chiu, C. J. and Taylor, A. Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy. Exp.Eye Res. 2007;84(2):229-245. View abstract.

    Cho, E. Hunter, D. J. Spiegelman, D. Albanes, D. Beeson, W. L. van den Brandt, P. A. Colditz, G. A. Feskanich, D. Folsom, A. R. Fraser, G. E. Freudenheim, J. L. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R. A. Graham, S. Miller, A. B. Rohan, T. E. Sellers, T. A. Virtamo, J. Willett, W. C. and Smith-Warner, S. A. Intakes of vitamins A, C and E and folate and multivitamins and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies. Int.J.Cancer 2-15-2006;118(4):970-978. View abstract.

    Chong, E. W. Wong, T. Y. Kreis, A. J. Simpson, J. A. and Guymer, R. H. Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 10-13-2007;335(7623):755. View abstract.

    Christen, W. G. Glynn, R. J. Chew, E. Y. and Buring, J. E. Vitamin E and age-related cataract in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmology 2008;115(5):822-829. View abstract.

    Christen, W. G. Manson, J. E. Glynn, R. J. Gaziano, J. M. Sperduto, R. D. Buring, J. E. and Hennekens, C. H. A randomized trial of beta carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians. Arch.Ophthalmol. 2003;121(3):372-378. View abstract.

    Christen, W. Glynn, R. Sperduto, R. Chew, E. and Buring, J. Age-related cataract in a randomized trial of beta-carotene in women. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2004;11(5):401-412. View abstract.

    Church, T. S. Earnest, C. P. Wood, K. A. and Kampert, J. B. Reduction of C-reactive protein levels through use of a multivitamin. Am.J.Med. 12-15-2003;115(9):702-707. View abstract.

    Cobanoglu, N. Ozcelik, U. Gocmen, A. Kiper, N. and Dogru, D. Antioxidant effect of beta-carotene in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis: clinical and laboratory parameters of a pilot study. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(7):793-798. View abstract.

    Coodley, G. O. Coodley, M. K. Lusk, R. Green, T. R. Bakke, A. C. Wilson, D. Wachenheim, D. Sexton, G. and Salveson, C. Beta-carotene in HIV infection: an extended evaluation. AIDS 1996;10(9):967-973. View abstract.

    Coodley, G. O. Nelson, H. D. Loveless, M. O. and Folk, C. Beta-carotene in HIV infection. J.Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 1993;6(3):272-276. View abstract.

    Cook, N. R. Albert, C. M. Gaziano, J. M. Zaharris, E. MacFadyen, J. Danielson, E. Buring, J. E. and Manson, J. E. A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and E and beta carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: results from the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study. Arch.Intern.Med. 8-13-2007;167(15):1610-1618. View abstract.

    Cooper, K. Squires, H. Carroll, C. Papaioannou, D. Booth, A. Logan, R. F. Maguire, C. Hind, D. and Tappenden, P. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol.Assess. 2010;14(32):1-206. View abstract.

    Corbett, M. F. Herxheimer, A. Magnus, I. A. Ramsay, C. A. and Kobza-Black, A. The long term treatment with beta-carotene in erythropoietic protoporphyria: a controlled trial. Br.J.Dermatol. 1977;97(6):655-662. View abstract.

    Corridan, B. M. O'Donoghue, M. Hughes, D. A. and Morrissey, P. A. Low-dose supplementation with lycopene or beta-carotene does not enhance cell-mediated immunity in healthy free-living elderly humans. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(8):627-635. View abstract.

    Cortes-Jofre, M. Rueda, J. R. Corsini-Munoz, G. Fonseca-Cortes, C. Caraballoso, M. and Bonfill, Cosp, X. Drugs for preventing lung cancer in healthy people. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;10:CD002141. View abstract.

    Coulter, I. D. Hardy, M. L. Morton, S. C. Hilton, L. G. Tu, W. Valentine, D. and Shekelle, P. G. Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin e for the prevention and treatment of cancer. J Gen.Intern Med 2006;21(7):735-744. View abstract.

    Darlington, S. Williams, G. Neale, R. Frost, C. and Green, A. A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch.Dermatol. 2003;139(4):451-455. View abstract.

    de Klerk, N. H. Musk, A. W. Ambrosini, G. L. Eccles, J. L. Hansen, J. Olsen, N. Watts, V. L. Lund, H. G. Pang, S. C. Beilby, J. and Hobbs, M. S. Vitamin A and cancer prevention II: comparison of the effects of retinol and beta-carotene. Int.J.Cancer 1-30-1998;75(3):362-367. View abstract.

    de, Selys R. Decroix, J. Frankart, M. Hassoun, A. Willocx, D. Pirard, C. and Bourlond, A. [Erythropoietic protoporphyria]. Ann.Dermatol.Venereol. 1988;115(5):555-560. View abstract.

    Devore, E. E. Grodstein, F. van Rooij, F. J. Hofman, A. Stampfer, M. J. Witteman, J. C. and Breteler, M. M. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia. Arch.Neurol. 2010;67(7):819-825. View abstract.

    Dijkhuizen, M. A. Wieringa, F. T. West, C. E. and Muhilal. Zinc plus beta-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to beta-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80(5):1299-1307. View abstract.

    Druesne-Pecollo, N. Latino-Martel, P. Norat, T. Barrandon, E. Bertrais, S. Galan, P. and Hercberg, S. Beta-carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Int.J.Cancer 7-1-2010;127(1):172-184. View abstract.

    Earnest, C. P. Wood, K. A. and Church, T. S. Complex multivitamin supplementation improves homocysteine and resistance to LDL-C oxidation. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2003;22(5):400-407. View abstract.

    Eliassen, A. H. Hendrickson, S. J. Brinton, L. A. Buring, J. E. Campos, H. Dai, Q. Dorgan, J. F. Franke, A. A. Gao, Y. T. Goodman, M. T. Hallmans, G. Helzlsouer, K. J. Hoffman-Bolton, J. Hulten, K. Sesso, H. D. Sowell, A. L. Tamimi, R. M. Toniolo, P. Wilkens, L. R. Winkvist, A. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A. Zheng, W. and Hankinson, S. E. Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-19-2012;104(24):1905-1916. View abstract.

    Esfahani, A. Wong, J. M. Truan, J. Villa, C. R. Mirrahimi, A. Srichaikul, K. and Kendall, C. W. Health effects of mixed fruit and vegetable concentrates: a systematic review of the clinical interventions. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2011;30(5):285-294. View abstract.

    Evans, J. Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eye (Lond) 2008;22(6):751-760. View abstract.

    Evans, J. R. and Henshaw, K. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(1):CD000253. View abstract.

    Evans, J. R. and Lawrenson, J. G. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;6:CD000253. View abstract.

    Evans, J. R. and Lawrenson, J. G. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;11:CD000254. View abstract.

    Evans, J. R. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2006;(2):CD000254. View abstract.

    Finley, J. W. Proposed criteria for assessing the efficacy of cancer reduction by plant foods enriched in carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols and selenocompounds. Ann.Bot. 2005;95(7):1075-1096. View abstract.

    Fulan, H. Changxing, J. Baina, W. Y. Wencui, Z. Chunqing, L. Fan, W. Dandan, L. Dianjun, S. Tong, W. Da, P. and Yashuang, Z. Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22(10):1383-1396. View abstract.

    Galli, F. Battistoni, A. Gambari, R. Pompella, A. Bragonzi, A. Pilolli, F. Iuliano, L. Piroddi, M. Dechecchi, M. C. and Cabrini, G. Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in cystic fibrosis. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2012;1822(5):690-713. View abstract.

    Gallicchio, L. Boyd, K. Matanoski, G. Tao, X. G. Chen, L. Lam, T. K. Shiels, M. Hammond, E. Robinson, K. A. Caulfield, L. E. Herman, J. G. Guallar, E. and Alberg, A. J. Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2008;88(2):372-383. View abstract.

    Gao, J. Gao, X. Li, W. Zhu, Y. and Thompson, P. J. Observational studies on the effect of dietary antioxidants on asthma: a meta-analysis. Respirology. 2008;13(4):528-536. View abstract.

    Garbagnati, F. Cairella, G. De, Martino A. Multari, M. Scognamiglio, U. Venturiero, V. and Paolucci, S. Is antioxidant and n-3 supplementation able to improve functional status in poststroke patients? Results from the Nutristroke Trial. Cerebrovasc.Dis. 2009;27(4):375-383. View abstract.

    Garmyn, M. Ribaya-Mercado, J. D. Russel, R. M. Bhawan, J. and Gilchrest, B. A. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn reaction. Exp.Dermatol. 1995;4(2):104-111. View abstract.

    Goerz, G. and Ippen, H. [Treatment of photodermatoses with carotinoids (author's transl)]. Dtsch.Med.Wochenschr. 7-22-1977;102(29):1051-1055. View abstract.

    Gollnick, H. P. M. W. Hopfenmu ller C. Hemmes S. C. Chun C. Schmid K. Sundermeier and H. K. Biesalski. Systemic beta carotene plus topical UV-sunscreen are an optimal protection against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight: Results of the Berlin-Eilath study. Eur.J.Dermatol. 1996;6:200-205.

    Goodman, G. E. Thornquist, M. D. Balmes, J. Cullen, M. R. Meyskens, F. L. Jr. Omenn, G. S. Valanis, B. and Williams, J. H. Jr. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-1-2004;96(23):1743-1750. View abstract.

    Gossage, C. P. Deyhim, M. Yamini, S. Douglass, L. W. and Moser-Veillon, P. B. Carotenoid composition of human milk during the first month postpartum and the response to beta-carotene supplementation. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;76(1):193-197. View abstract.

    Gray, J. Mao, J. T. Szabo, E. Kelley, M. Kurie, J. and Bepler, G. Lung cancer chemoprevention: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd Edition). Chest 2007;132(3 Suppl):56S-68S. View abstract.

    Greenberg, E. R. Baron, J. A. Stukel, T. A. Stevens, M. M. Mandel, J. S. Spencer, S. K. Elias, P. M. Lowe, N. Nierenberg, D. W. Bayrd, G. and. A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. N.Engl.J.Med. 9-20-1990;323(12):789-795. View abstract.

    Greenwald, P. Anderson, D. Nelson, S. A. and Taylor, P. R. Clinical trials of vitamin and mineral supplements for cancer prevention. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;85(1):314S-317S. View abstract.

    Greul, A. K. Grundmann, J. U. Heinrich, F. Pfitzner, I. Bernhardt, J. Ambach, A. Biesalski, H. K. and Gollnick, H. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl.Skin Physiol 2002;15(5):307-315. View abstract.

    Grieger, J. A. Nowson, C. A. Jarman, H. F. Malon, R. and Ackland, L. M. Multivitamin supplementation improves nutritional status and bone quality in aged care residents. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;63(4):558-565. View abstract.

    Gritz, D. C. Srinivasan, M. Smith, S. D. Kim, U. Lietman, T. M. Wilkins, J. H. Priyadharshini, B. John, R. K. Aravind, S. Prajna, N. V. Duraisami, Thulasiraj R. and Whitcher, J. P. The Antioxidants in Prevention of Cataracts Study: effects of antioxidant supplements on cataract progression in South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(7):847-851. View abstract.

    Grodstein, F. Kang, J. H. Glynn, R. J. Cook, N. R. and Gaziano, J. M. A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians' Health Study II. Arch.Intern.Med. 11-12-2007;167(20):2184-2190. View abstract.

    Haeger-Aronsen, B. Krook, G. and Abdulla, M. Oral carotenoids for photohypersensitivity in patients with erythrohepatic protoporphyria, polymorphous light eruptions and lupus erythematodes discoides. Int.J.Dermatol. 1979;18(1):73-82. View abstract.

    Heinrich, U. Gartner, C. Wiebusch, M. Eichler, O. Sies, H. Tronnier, H. and Stahl, W. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr 2003;133(1):98-101. View abstract.

    Hemila, H. Virtamo, J. Albanes, D. and Kaprio, J. Physical activity and the common cold in men administered vitamin E and beta-carotene. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35(11):1815-1820. View abstract.

    Hennekens, C. H. and Eberlein, K. A randomized trial of aspirin and beta-carotene among U.S. physicians. Prev.Med. 1985;14(2):165-168. View abstract.

    Hercberg, S. Ezzedine, K. Guinot, C. Preziosi, P. Galan, P. Bertrais, S. Estaquio, C. Briancon, S. Favier, A. Latreille, J. and Malvy, D. Antioxidant supplementation increases the risk of skin cancers in women but not in men. J.Nutr. 2007;137(9):2098-2105. View abstract.

    Hercberg, S. Kesse-Guyot, E. Druesne-Pecollo, N. Touvier, M. Favier, A. Latino-Martel, P. Briancon, S. and Galan, P. Incidence of cancers, ischemic cardiovascular diseases and mortality during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and minerals supplements: a postintervention follow-up in the SU.VI.MAX Study. Int.J.Cancer 10-15-2010;127(8):1875-1881. View abstract.

    Hiatt, R. A. Armstrong, M. A. Klatsky, A. L. and Sidney, S. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in California (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994;5(1):66-72. View abstract.

    Hininger, I. A. Meyer-Wenger, A. Moser, U. Wright, A. Southon, S. Thurnham, D. Chopra, M. van den, Berg H. Olmedilla, B. Favier, A. E. and Roussel, A. M. No significant effects of lutein, lycopene or beta-carotene supplementation on biological markers of oxidative stress and LDL oxidizability in healthy adult subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20(3):232-238. View abstract.

    Hofstad, B. Almendingen, K. Vatn, M. Andersen, S. N. Owen, R. W. Larsen, S. and Osnes, M. Growth and recurrence of colorectal polyps: a double-blind 3-year intervention with calcium and antioxidants. Digestion 1998;59(2):148-156. View abstract.

    Holzle, E. Plewig, G. von, Kries R. and Lehmann, P. Polymorphous light eruption. J.Invest Dermatol. 1987;88(3 Suppl):32s-38s. View abstract.

    Homnick, D. N. Spillers, C. R. Cox, S. R. Cox, J. H. Yelton, L. A. DeLoof, M. J. Oliver, L. K. and Ringer, T. V. Single- and multiple-dose-response relationships of beta-carotene in cystic fibrosis. J.Pediatr. 1995;127(3):491-494. View abstract.

    Honarbakhsh, S. and Schachter, M. Vitamins and cardiovascular disease. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;101(8):1113-1131. View abstract.

    Hsing, A. W. Comstock, G. W. Abbey, H. and Polk, B. F. Serologic precursors of cancer. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 6-6-1990;82(11):941-946. View abstract.

    Hsing, A. W. McLaughlin, J. K. Schuman, L. M. Bjelke, E. Gridley, G. Wacholder, S. Chien, H. T. and Blot, W. J. Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Cancer Res. 11-1-1990;50(21):6836-6840. View abstract.

    Hu, F. Wang, Yi B. Zhang, W. Liang, J. Lin, C. Li, D. Wang, F. Pang, D. and Zhao, Y. Carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 2012;131(1):239-253. View abstract.

    Huang, H. Y. Caballero, B. Chang, S. Alberg, A. J. Semba, R. D. Schneyer, C. R. Wilson, R. F. Cheng, T. Y. Vassy, J. Prokopowicz, G. Barnes, G. J. and Bass, E. B. The efficacy and safety of multivitamin and mineral supplement use to prevent cancer and chronic disease in adults: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference. Ann.Intern.Med. 9-5-2006;145(5):372-385. View abstract.

    Irlam, J. H. Visser, M. E. Rollins, N. and Siegfried, N. Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(4):CD003650. View abstract.

    Irlam, J. H. Visser, M. M. Rollins, N. N. and Siegfried, N. Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(12):CD003650. View abstract.

    Jacobson, J. S. Begg, M. D. Wang, L. W. Wang, Q. Agarwal, M. Norkus, E. Singh, V. N. Young, T. L. Yang, D. and Santella, R. M. Effects of a 6-month vitamin intervention on DNA damage in heavy smokers. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(12):1303-1311. View abstract.

    Jansen, C. T. Beta-carotene treatment of polymorphous light eruptions. Dermatologica 1974;149(6):363-373. View abstract.

    Jeon, Y. J. Myung, S. K. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. Chang, Y. J. Ju, W. Cho, H. J. Seo, H. G. and Huh, B. Y. Effects of beta-carotene supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr.Cancer 2011;63(8):1196-1207. View abstract.

    Jiang, L. Yang, K. H. Tian, J. H. Guan, Q. L. Yao, N. Cao, N. Mi, D. H. Wu, J. Ma, B. and Yang, S. H. Efficacy of antioxidant vitamins and selenium supplement in prostate cancer prevention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr.Cancer 2010;62(6):719-727. View abstract.

    John, J. H. Ziebland, S. Yudkin, P. Roe, L. S. and Neil, H. A. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 6-8-2002;359(9322):1969-1974. View abstract.

    Jones, A. A. Age related macular degeneration--should your patients be taking additional supplements? Aust.Fam.Physician 2007;36(12):1026-1028. View abstract.

    Kamangar, F. Qiao, Y. L. Yu, B. Sun, X. D. Abnet, C. C. Fan, J. H. Mark, S. D. Zhao, P. Dawsey, S. M. and Taylor, P. R. Lung cancer chemoprevention: a randomized, double-blind trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(8):1562-1564. View abstract.

    Kataja-Tuomola, M. K. Kontto, J. P. Mannisto, S. Albanes, D. and Virtamo, J. R. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on macrovascular complications and total mortality from diabetes: results of the ATBC Study. Ann.Med. 2010;42(3):178-186. View abstract.

    Keefe, K. A. Schell, M. J. Brewer, C. McHale, M. Brewster, W. Chapman, J. A. Rose, G. S. McMeeken, D. S. Lagerberg, W. Peng, Y. M. Wilczynski, S. P. Anton-Culver, H. Meyskens, F. L. and Berman, M. L. A randomized, double blind, Phase III trial using oral beta-carotene supplementation for women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(10):1029-1035. View abstract.

    Kennedy-Oji, C. Coutsoudis, A. Kuhn, L. Pillay, K. Mburu, A. Stein, Z. and Coovadia, H. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. J.Health Popul.Nutr. 2001;19(3):167-176. View abstract.

    Knekt, P. Aromaa, A. Maatela, J. Aaran, R. K. Nikkari, T. Hakama, M. Hakulinen, T. Peto, R. and Teppo, L. Serum vitamin A and subsequent risk of cancer: cancer incidence follow-up of the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Am.J.Epidemiol. 1990;132(5):857-870. View abstract.

    Kockar, C. Ozturk, M. and Bavbek, N. Helicobacter pylori eradication with beta carotene, ascorbic acid and allicin. Acta Medica.(Hradec.Kralove) 2001;44(3):97-100. View abstract.

    Kopcke, W. and Krutmann, J. Protection from sunburn with beta-Carotene--a meta-analysis. Photochem.Photobiol. 2008;84(2):284-288. View abstract.

    Krook, G. and Haeger-Aronsen, B. Erythrohepatic protoporphyria and its treatment with beta-carotene. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1974;54(1):39-44. View abstract.

    Kubo, A. and Corley, D. A. Meta-analysis of antioxidant intake and the risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 2007;102(10):2323-2330. View abstract.

    Lahner, E. Persechino, S. and Annibale, B. Micronutrients (Other than iron) and Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review. Helicobacter. 2012;17(1):1-15. View abstract.

    Lee, I. M. Cook, N. R. Manson, J. E. and Buring, J. E. Randomised beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level? Br.J.Cancer 3-4-2002;86(5):698-701. View abstract.

    Lee, J. Jiang, S. Levine, N. and Watson, R. R. Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med. 2000;223(2):170-174. View abstract.

    Lee, T. and Dugoua, J. J. Nutritional supplements and their effect on glucose control. Curr.Diab.Rep. 2011;11(2):142-148. View abstract.

    Lehmann, P. Scharffetter, K. Kind, P. and Goerz, G. [Erythropoietic protoporphyria: synopsis of 20 patients]. Hautarzt 1991;42(9):570-574. View abstract.

    Lewis, M. B. The effect of -carotene on serum vitamin A levels in erythropoietic protoporphyria. Australas.J.Dermatol. 1972;13(2):75-78. View abstract.

    Li, F. J. Shen, L. and Ji, H. F. Dietary intakes of vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis. J.Alzheimers.Dis. 2012;31(2):253-258. View abstract.

    Li, J. Y. Taylor, P. R. Li, B. Dawsey, S. Wang, G. Q. Ershow, A. G. Guo, W. Liu, S. F. Yang, C. S. Shen, Q. and. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: multiple vitamin/mineral supplementation, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality among adults with esophageal dysplasia. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-15-1993;85(18):1492-1498. View abstract.

    Li, L. Ying, X. J. Sun, T. T. Yi, K. Tian, H. L. Sun, R. Tian, J. H. and Yang, K. H. Overview of methodological quality of systematic reviews about gastric cancer risk and protective factors. Asian Pac.J.Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):2069-2079. View abstract.

    Lin, J. Cook, N. R. Albert, C. Zaharris, E. Gaziano, J. M. Van, Denburgh M. Buring, J. E. and Manson, J. E. Vitamins C and E and beta carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a randomized controlled trial. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-7-2009;101(1):14-23. View abstract.

    Liu, B. A. McGeer, A. McArthur, M. A. Simor, A. E. Aghdassi, E. Davis, L. and Allard, J. P. Effect of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on episodes of infection in nursing home residents: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2007;55(1):35-42. View abstract.

    Loane, E. Kelliher, C. Beatty, S. and Nolan, J. M. The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy. Br.J.Ophthalmol. 2008;92(9):1163-1168. View abstract.

    Lodi, G. Sardella, A. Bez, C. Demarosi, F. and Carrassi, A. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;(3):CD001829. View abstract.

    Lodi, G. Sardella, A. Bez, C. Demarosi, F. and Carrassi, A. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(4):CD001829. View abstract.

    Ma, A. Duthie, S. J. Ross, M. A. and Collins, A. R. [Effects of vitamins E, C and beta-carotene on DNA damage]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1999;33(1):16-17. View abstract.

    MacLennan, R. Macrae, F. Bain, C. Battistutta, D. Chapuis, P. Gratten, H. Lambert, J. Newland, R. C. Ngu, M. Russell, A. and. Randomized trial of intake of fat, fiber, and beta carotene to prevent colorectal adenomas. The Australian Polyp Prevention Project. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 12-6-1995;87(23):1760-1766. View abstract.

    Malila, N. Taylor, P. R. Virtanen, M. J. Korhonen, P. Huttunen, J. K. Albanes, D. and Virtamo, J. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on gastric cancer incidence in male smokers (ATBC Study, Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2002;13(7):617-623. View abstract.

    Malila, N. Virtamo, J. Virtanen, M. Pietinen, P. Albanes, D. and Teppo, L. Dietary and serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol, and risk for colorectal cancer in male smokers. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(7):615-621. View abstract.

    Mannisto, S. Yaun, S. S. Hunter, D. J. Spiegelman, D. Adami, H. O. Albanes, D. van den Brandt, P. A. Buring, J. E. Cerhan, J. R. Colditz, G. A. Freudenheim, J. L. Fuchs, C. S. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R. A. Harnack, L. Leitzmann, M. McCullough, M. L. Miller, A. B. Rohan, T. E. Schatzkin, A. Virtamo, J. Willett, W. C. Wolk, A. Zhang, S. M. and Smith-Warner, S. A. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2-1-2007;165(3):246-255. View abstract.

    Mathew, M. C. Ervin, A. M. Tao, J. and Davis, R. M. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;6:CD004567. View abstract.

    Mathews-Roth, M. M. Treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria with beta-carotene. Photodermatol. 1984;1(6):318-321. View abstract.

    Mathews-Roth, M. M. Pathak, M. A. Fitzpatrick, T. B. Harber, L. H. and Kass, E. H. Beta carotene therapy for erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases. Arch.Dermatol. 1977;113(9):1229-1232. View abstract.

    Mathews-Roth, M. M. Pathak, M. A. Parrish, J. Fitzpatrick, T. B. Kass, E. H. Toda, K. and Clemens, W. A clinical trial of the effects of oral beta-carotene on the responses of human skin to solar radiation. J.Invest Dermatol. 1972;59(4):349-353. View abstract.

    Mathews-Roth, M. M. Pathak, U. A. Fitzpatrick, T. B. Harber, L. C. and Kass, E. H. Beta-carotene as an oral photoprotective agent in erythropoietic protoporphyria. JAMA 5-20-1974;228(8):1004-1008. View abstract.

    Mayne, S. T. Cartmel, B. Baum, M. Shor-Posner, G. Fallon, B. G. Briskin, K. Bean, J. Zheng, T. Cooper, D. Friedman, C. and Goodwin, W. J. Jr. Randomized trial of supplemental beta-carotene to prevent second head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 2-15-2001;61(4):1457-1463. View abstract.

    McArdle, F. Rhodes, L. E. Parslew, R. A. Close, G. L. Jack, C. I. Friedmann, P. S. and Jackson, M. J. Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80(5):1270-1275. View abstract.

    McKechnie, R. Rubenfire, M. and Mosca, L. Antioxidant nutrient supplementation and brachial reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease. J.Lab Clin.Med. 2002;139(3):133-139. View abstract.

    McKeever, T. M. and Britton, J. Diet and asthma. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 10-1-2004;170(7):725-729. View abstract.

    McNaughton, S. A. Marks, G. C. and Green, A. C. Role of dietary factors in the development of basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(7):1596-1607. View abstract.

    Meijer, E. P. Goris, A. H. Senden, J. van Dongen, J. L. Bast, A. and Westerterp, K. R. Antioxidant supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in the 60-year-old as measured by antipyrine hydroxylates. Br.J.Nutr. 2001;86(5):569-575. View abstract.

    Mente, A. de, Koning L. Shannon, H. S. and Anand, S. S. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch.Intern.Med. 4-13-2009;169(7):659-669. View abstract.

    Michaud, D. S. Pietinen, P. Taylor, P. R. Virtanen, M. Virtamo, J. and Albanes, D. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study. Br.J.Cancer 10-21-2002;87(9):960-965. View abstract.

    Michels, K. B. Mohllajee, A. P. Roset-Bahmanyar, E. Beehler, G. P. and Moysich, K. B. Diet and breast cancer: a review of the prospective observational studies. Cancer 6-15-2007;109(12 Suppl):2712-2749. View abstract.

    Miller, P. E. and Snyder, D. C. Phytochemicals and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2012;27(5):599-612. View abstract.

    Mills, E. E. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. Br.J.Cancer 1988;57(4):416-417. View abstract.

    Minder, E. I. Schneider-Yin, X. Steurer, J. and Bachmann, L. M. A systematic review of treatment options for dermal photosensitivity in erythropoietic protoporphyria. Cell Mol.Biol.(Noisy.-le-grand) 2009;55(1):84-97. View abstract.

    Myung, S. K. Ju, W. Kim, S. C. and Kim, H. Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a meta-analysis. BJOG. 2011;118(11):1285-1291. View abstract.

    Niebauer G. Mischer P. and Formanek I. Lightsensitive dermatoses in children. Mod.Probl.Paediatr. 1976;20:86-101.

    No author. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 7-6-2002;360(9326):23-33. View abstract.

    No author. NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements and Chronic Disease Prevention. NIH Consens.State Sci.Statements. 5-15-2006;23(2):1-30. View abstract.

    No author. The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene lung cancer prevention study: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. The ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group. Ann.Epidemiol. 1994;4(1):1-10. View abstract.

    Novotny, J. A. Dueker, S. R. Zech, L. A. and Clifford, A. J. Compartmental analysis of the dynamics of beta-carotene metabolism in an adult volunteer. J.Lipid Res. 1995;36(8):1825-1838. View abstract.

    Nurmatov, U. Devereux, G. and Sheikh, A. Nutrients and foods for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy: systematic review and meta-analysis. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 2011;127(3):724-733. View abstract.

    O'Neil, C. Shevill, E. and Chang, A. B. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(1):CD006751. View abstract.

    Oliveira-Menegozzo, J. M. Bergamaschi, D. P. Middleton, P. and East, C. E. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(10):CD005944. View abstract.

    Onning, G. Berggren, A. Drevelius, M. Jeppsson, B. Lindberg, A. M. and Johansson Hagslatt, M. L. Influence of a drink containing different antioxidants and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on plasma total antioxidant capacity, selenium status and faecal microbial flora. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2003;54(4):281-289. View abstract.

    Ovesen, L. F. [Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease]. Ugeskr.Laeger 6-20-2005;167(25-31):2742-2747. View abstract.

    Pabalan, N. Jarjanazi, H. Sung, L. Li, H. and Ozcelik, H. Menopausal status modifies breast cancer risk associated with the myeloperoxidase (MPO) G463A polymorphism in Caucasian women: a meta-analysis. PLoS.One. 2012;7(3):e32389. View abstract.

    Pan, M. H. and Ho, C. T. Chemopreventive effects of natural dietary compounds on cancer development. Chem.Soc.Rev. 2008;37(11):2558-2574. View abstract.

    Papaioannou, D. Cooper, K. L. Carroll, C. Hind, D. Squires, H. Tappenden, P. and Logan, R. F. Antioxidants in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(10):1085-1099. View abstract.

    Park, Y. Spiegelman, D. Hunter, D. J. Albanes, D. Bergkvist, L. Buring, J. E. Freudenheim, J. L. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R. A. Harnack, L. Kato, I. Krogh, V. Leitzmann, M. F. Limburg, P. J. Marshall, J. R. McCullough, M. L. Miller, A. B. Rohan, T. E. Schatzkin, A. Shore, R. Sieri, S. Stampfer, M. J. Virtamo, J. Weijenberg, M. Willett, W. C. Wolk, A. Zhang, S. M. and Smith-Warner, S. A. Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21(11):1745-1757. View abstract.

    Parrish, J. A. Le Vine, M. J. Morison, W. L. Gonzalez, E. and Fitzpatrick, T. B. Comparison of PUVA and beta-carotene in the treatment of polymorphous light eruption. Br.J.Dermatol. 1979;100(2):187-191. View abstract.

    Perry, J. R. Ferrucci, L. Bandinelli, S. Guralnik, J. Semba, R. D. Rice, N. Melzer, D. Saxena, R. Scott, L. J. McCarthy, M. I. Hattersley, A. T. Zeggini, E. Weedon, M. N. and Frayling, T. M. Circulating beta-carotene levels and type 2 diabetes-cause or effect? Diabetologia 2009;52(10):2117-2121. View abstract.

    Philipp, W. [Carotinoid deposits in the retina]. Klin.Monbl.Augenheilkd. 1985;187(5):439-440. View abstract.

    Plummer, M. Vivas, J. Lopez, G. Bravo, J. C. Peraza, S. Carillo, E. Cano, E. Castro, D. Andrade, O. Sanchez, V. Garcia, R. Buiatti, E. Aebischer, C. Franceschi, S. Oliver, W. and Munoz, N. Chemoprevention of precancerous gastric lesions with antioxidant vitamin supplementation: a randomized trial in a high-risk population. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-17-2007;99(2):137-146. View abstract.

    Prince, M. I. Mitchison, H. C. Ashley, D. Burke, D. A. Edwards, N. Bramble, M. G. James, O. F. and Jones, D. E. Oral antioxidant supplementation for fatigue associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2003;17(1):137-143. View abstract.

    Rapola, J. M. Virtamo, J. Haukka, J. K. Heinonen, O. P. Albanes, D. Taylor, P. R. and Huttunen, J. K. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 3-6-1996;275(9):693-698. View abstract.

    Renner, S. Rath, R. Rust, P. Lehr, S. Frischer, T. Elmadfa, I. and Eichler, I. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation for six months on clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 2001;56(1):48-52. View abstract.

    Richer, S. Multicenter ophthalmic and nutritional age-related macular degeneration study--part 2: antioxidant intervention and conclusions. J.Am.Optom.Assoc. 1996;67(1):30-49. View abstract.

    Rodrigues, M. J. Bouyon, A. and Alexandre, J. [Role of antioxidant complements and supplements in oncology in addition to an equilibrate regimen: a systematic review]. Bull.Cancer 2009;96(6):677-684. View abstract.

    Ruiz, B. Garay, J. Correa, P. Fontham, E. T. Bravo, J. C. Bravo, L. E. Realpe, J. L. and Mera, R. Morphometric evaluation of gastric antral atrophy: improvement after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 2001;96(12):3281-3287. View abstract.

    Sackett, C. S. and Schenning, S. The age-related eye disease study: the results of the clinical trial. Insight. 2002;27(1):5-7. View abstract.

    Sankaranarayanan, R. Mathew, B. Varghese, C. Sudhakaran, P. R. Menon, V. Jayadeep, A. Nair, M. K. Mathews, C. Mahalingam, T. R. Balaram, P. and Nair, P. P. Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia with vitamin A and beta carotene: an assessment. Oral Oncol. 1997;33(4):231-236. View abstract.

    Sasazuki, S. Sasaki, S. Tsubono, Y. Okubo, S. Hayashi, M. Kakizoe, T. and Tsugane, S. The effect of 5-year vitamin C supplementation on serum pepsinogen level and Helicobacter pylori infection. Cancer Sci. 2003;94(4):378-382. View abstract.

    Satia, J. A. Littman, A. Slatore, C. G. Galanko, J. A. and White, E. Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Am.J.Epidemiol. 4-1-2009;169(7):815-828. View abstract.

    Schaumberg, D. A. Frieling, U. M. Rifai, N. and Cook, N. No effect of beta-carotene supplementation on risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer among men with low baseline plasma beta-carotene. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(6):1079-1080. View abstract.

    Schmidt, M. C. Askew, E. W. Roberts, D. E. Prior, R. L. Ensign, W. Y. Jr. and Hesslink, R. E. Jr. Oxidative stress in humans training in a cold, moderate altitude environment and their response to a phytochemical antioxidant supplement. Wilderness.Environ.Med. 2002;13(2):94-105. View abstract.

    Schroder, H. Navarro, E. Mora, J. Galiano, D. and Tramullas, A. Effects of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid on oxidative, hormonal and enzymatic exercise stress markers in habitual training activity of professional basketball players. Eur.J.Nutr. 2001;40(4):178-184. View abstract.

    Schuurman, A. G. Goldbohm, R. A. Brants, H. A. and van den Brandt, P. A. A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 2002;13(6):573-582. View abstract.

    Seddon, J. M. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements and eye disease: age-related macular degeneration and cataract. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;85(1):304S-307S. View abstract.

    Sesso, H. D. Buring, J. E. Christen, W. G. Kurth, T. Belanger, C. MacFadyen, J. Bubes, V. Manson, J. E. Glynn, R. J. and Gaziano, J. M. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 11-12-2008;300(18):2123-2133. View abstract.

    Shamseer, L. Adams, D. Brown, N. Johnson, J. A. and Vohra, S. Antioxidant micronutrients for lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(12):CD007020. View abstract.

    Shibata, A. Paganini-Hill, A. Ross, R. K. and Henderson, B. E. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. Br.J.Cancer 1992;66(4):673-679. View abstract.

    Sivan, Y. S. Alwin, Jayakumar Y. Arumughan, C. Sundaresan, A. Jayalekshmy, A. Suja, K. P. Soban Kumar, D. R. Deepa, S. S. Damodaran, M. Soman, C. R. Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. J.Trop.Pediatr. 2002;48(1):24-28. View abstract.

    Song, Y. Cook, N. R. Albert, C. M. Van, Denburgh M. and Manson, J. E. Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk of type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;90(2):429-437. View abstract.

    Stratton, J. and Godwin, M. The effect of supplemental vitamins and minerals on the development of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam.Pract. 2011;28(3):243-252. View abstract.

    Suhonen, R. and Plosila, M. The effect of beta-carotene in combination with canthaxanthin, Ro 8-8427 (Phenoro), in treatment of polymorphous light eruptions. Dermatologica 1981;163(2):172-176. View abstract.

    Swanbeck, G. and Wennersten, G. Treatment of polymorphous light eruptions with beta-carotene. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1972;52(6):462-466. View abstract.

    Tanvetyanon, T. and Bepler, G. Beta-carotene in multivitamins and the possible risk of lung cancer among smokers versus former smokers: a meta-analysis and evaluation of national brands. Cancer 7-1-2008;113(1):150-157. View abstract.

    Tauler, P. Aguilo, A. Fuentespina, E. Tur, J. A. and Pons, A. Diet supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene cocktail enhances basal neutrophil antioxidant enzymes in athletes. Pflugers Arch. 2002;443(5-6):791-797. View abstract.

    Thomsen, K. Schmidt, H. and Fischer, A. Beta-carotene in erythropoietic protoporphyria: 5 years' experience. Dermatologica 1979;159(1):82-86. View abstract.

    Thorne-Lyman, A. L. and Fawzi, W. W. Vitamin A and carotenoids during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2012;26 Suppl 1:36-54. View abstract.

    Toma, S. Bonelli, L. Sartoris, A. Mira, E. Antonelli, A. Beatrice, F. Giordano, C. Benazzo, M. Caroggio, A. Cavalot, A. L. Gandolfo, S. Garozzo, A. Margarino, G. Schenone, G. Spadini, N. Zibordi, F. Balzarini, F. Serafini, I. Miani, P. and Cortesina, G. beta-carotene supplementation in patients radically treated for stage I-II head and neck cancer: results of a randomized trial. Oncol.Rep. 2003;10(6):1895-1901. View abstract.

    Tornwall, M. E. Virtamo, J. Haukka, J. K. Albanes, D. and Huttunen, J. K. Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation does not affect the risk for large abdominal aortic aneurysm in a controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 2001;157(1):167-173. View abstract.

    Tornwall, M. E. Virtamo, J. Korhonen, P. A. Virtanen, M. J. Albanes, D. and Huttunen, J. K. Postintervention effect of alpha tocopherol and beta carotene on different strokes: a 6-year follow-up of the Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Stroke 2004;35(8):1908-1913. View abstract.

    Tsiligianni, I. G. and van der Molen, T. A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD. Respir.Res. 2010;11:171. View abstract.

    van den Broek, N. Dou, L. Othman, M. Neilson, J. P. Gates, S. and Gulmezoglu, A. M. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(11):CD008666. View abstract.

    van Gils, C. H. Bostick, R. M. Stern, M. C. and Taylor, J. A. Differences in base excision repair capacity may modulate the effect of dietary antioxidant intake on prostate cancer risk: an example of polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(11):1279-1284. View abstract.

    van Stuijvenberg, M. E. Dhansay, M. A. Lombard, C. J. Faber, M. and Benade, A. J. The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene on the vitamin A status of primary school children: a comparison with beta-carotene from a synthetic source in a randomised controlled trial. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(8):657-662. View abstract.

    von Laar, J. Stahl, W. Bolsen, K. Goerz, G. and Sies, H. Beta-carotene serum levels in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria on treatment with the synthetic all-trans isomer or a natural isomeric mixture of beta-carotene. J.Photochem.Photobiol.B 1996;33(2):157-162. View abstract.

    Von Low, E. C. Perabo, F. G. Siener, R. and Muller, S. C. Review. Facts and fiction of phytotherapy for prostate cancer: a critical assessment of preclinical and clinical data. In Vivo 2007;21(2):189-204. View abstract.

    Watters, J. M. Vallerand, A. Kirkpatrick, S. M. Abbott, H. E. Norris, S. Wells, G. and Barber, G. G. Limited effects of micronutrient supplementation on strength and physical function after abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(4):321-327. View abstract.

    Weber, U. and Goerz, G. [Carotinoid retinopathy. III. Reversibility]. Klin.Monbl.Augenheilkd. 1986;188(1):20-22. View abstract.

    Wennersten, G. Carotenoid treatment for light sensitivity: a reappraisal and six years' experience. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1980;60(3):251-255. View abstract.

    Wenzel, G. Kuklinski, B. Ruhlmann, C. and Ehrhardt, D. [Alcohol-induced toxic hepatitis--a "free radical" associated disease. Lowering fatality by adjuvant antioxidant therapy]. Z.Gesamte Inn.Med. 1993;48(10):490-496. View abstract.

    Werneke, U. Risk management of nutritional supplements in chronic illness: the implications for the care of cancer and depression. Proc.Nutr.Soc. 2007;66(4):483-492. View abstract.

    Wieringa, F. T. Dijkhuizen, M. A. Muhilal, and Van der Meer, J. W. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2010;64(10):1072-1079. View abstract.

    Wolters, M. Hermann, S. and Hahn, A. Effects of 6-month multivitamin supplementation on serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and vitamin C in healthy elderly women. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2004;74(2):161-168. View abstract.

    Wood, L. G. Fitzgerald, D. A. Lee, A. K. and Garg, M. L. Improved antioxidant and fatty acid status of patients with cystic fibrosis after antioxidant supplementation is linked to improved lung function. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;77(1):150-159. View abstract.

    Woodside, J. V. McCall, D. McGartland, C. and Young, I. S. Micronutrients: dietary intake v. supplement use. Proc Nutr Soc 2005;64(4):543-553. View abstract.

    Worthington, H. V. Clarkson, J. E. and Eden, O. B. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD000978. View abstract.

    Worthington, H. V. Clarkson, J. E. and Eden, O. B. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(4):CD000978. View abstract.

    Wright, M. E. Virtamo, J. Hartman, A. M. Pietinen, P. Edwards, B. K. Taylor, P. R. Huttunen, J. K. and Albanes, D. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a large, randomized controlled trial. Cancer 3-1-2007;109(5):891-898. View abstract.

    Yamini, S. West, K. P. Jr. Wu, L. Dreyfuss, M. L. Yang, D. X. and Khatry, S. K. Circulating levels of retinol, tocopherol and carotenoid in Nepali pregnant and postpartum women following long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2001;55(4):252-259. View abstract.

    Ye, Z. and Song, H. Antioxidant vitamins intake and the risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur.J.Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2008;15(1):26-34. View abstract.

    You, W. C. Chang, Y. S. Heinrich, J. Ma, J. L. Liu, W. D. Zhang, L. Brown, L. M. Yang, C. S. Gail, M. H. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. and Xu, G. W. An intervention trial to inhibit the progression of precancerous gastric lesions: compliance, serum micronutrients and S-allyl cysteine levels, and toxicity. Eur.J.Cancer Prev. 2001;10(3):257-263. View abstract.

    Zaynoun, S. T. Hunter, J. A. Darby, F. J. Zarembski, P. Johnson, B. E. and Frain-Bell, W. The treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria. Experience with beta-carotene. Br.J.Dermatol. 1977;97(6):663-668. View abstract.

    Zeb, A. Anticarcinogenic potential of lipids from Hippophae--evidence from the recent literature. Asian Pac.J.Cancer Prev. 2006;7(1):32-35. View abstract.

    Zhang, X. Dai, B. Zhang, B. and Wang, Z. Vitamin A and risk of cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Gynecol.Oncol. 2012;124(2):366-373. View abstract.

    Zhang, Y. Coogan, P. Palmer, J. R. Strom, B. L. and Rosenberg, L. Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the case-control surveillance study. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(5):691-698. View abstract.

    Zhu S, Mason J Shi Y et al. The interventional effect of folic acid on the development of gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers-clinical trial and follow-up for seven years. Chin J Gastroenterol 2002;7:73-78.

    Zhu, S. Mason, J. Shi, Y. Hu, Y. Li, R. Wahg, M. Zhou, Y. Jin, G. Xie, Y. Wu, G. Xia, D. Qian, Z. Sohg, H. Zhang, L. Russell, R. and Xiao, S. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2003;116(1):15-19. View abstract.

    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36. View abstract.

    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1439-52. View abstract.

    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Potential public health impact of age-related eye disease study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1621-4. View abstract.

    Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Taylor PR, et al. Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of baseline characteristics and study compliance. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1560-70. View abstract.

    Albanes D, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, et al. Effects of supplemental beta-carotene, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on serum carotenoids in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:366-72. View abstract.

    Alberg AJ, Chen JC, Zhao H, et al. Household exposure to passive cigarette smoking and serum micronutrient concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1576-82. View abstract.

    Becker GL. The case against mineral oil. Am J Digestive Dis 1952;19:344-8. View abstract.

    Biesalski HK, Obermueller-Jevic UC. UV light, beta-carotene and human skin--beneficial and potentially harmful effects. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001;389:1-6. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, et al. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007;297:842-57. View abstract.

    Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2004;364:1219-28. View abstract.

    Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR. Nutritional intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483-92. View abstract.

    Briviba, K. Schnabele, K. Rechkemmer, G. and Bub, A. Supplementation of a diet low in carotenoids with tomato or carrot juice does not affect lipid peroxidation in plasma and feces of healthy men. J Nutr 2004;134(5):1081-1083. View abstract.

    Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.

    Cesari M, Pahor M, Bartali B, et al. Antioxidants and physical performance in elderly persons: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:289-94. View abstract.

    Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1320-6. View abstract.

    Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, et al. Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:883-92. View abstract.

    Christian P, Khatry SK, Yamini S, et al. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1045-51. View abstract.

    Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, et al. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces but does not eliminate maternal night blindness in Nepal. J Nutr 1998;128:1458-63. View abstract.

    Christian P, West KP, Khatry SK, et al. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. J Nutr 2000;130:2675-82. View abstract.

    Chylack LT, Brown NP, Bron A, et al. The Roche European American Cataract Trial (REACT): A randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of an oral antioxidant micronutrient mixture to slow progression of age-related cataract. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2002;9:49-80. View abstract.

    Clark JH, Russell GJ, Fitzgerald JF, et al. Serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels during mineral oil therapy for constipation. Am J Dis Child 1987;141:1210-2. View abstract.

    Cook NR, Le IM, Manson JE, et al. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence by baseline characteristics in the Physicians' Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:617-26. View abstract.

    Cook NR, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, et al. Beta-carotene supplementation for patients with low baseline levels and decreased risks of total and prostate carcinoma. Cancer 1999;86:1783-92. View abstract.

    Cooper DA, Eldridge AL, Peters JC. Dietary carotenoids and certain cancers, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration: a review of recent research. Nutr Rev 1999;57:201-14. View abstract.

    Cooper DA, Eldridge AL, Peters JC. Dietary carotenoids and lung cancer: a review of recent research. Nutr Rev 1999;57:133-45. View abstract.

    Correa P, Fontham ETH, Bravo JC, et al. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1881-8. View abstract.

    Cramer DW, Kuper H, Harlow BL, Titus-Ernstoff L. Carotenoids, antioxidants and ovarian cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 94:128-34. View abstract.

    Dagnelie PC, Schuurman AG, Goldbohm RA, Van den Brandt PA. Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: a review of prospective cohort and intervention studies. BJU Int 2004;93:1139-50. View abstract.

    Darlington S, Williams G, Neale R, et al. A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol 2003;139:451-5. View abstract.

    Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Persky V, et al. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the Western Electric Study. Epidemiology 1996;7:472-7. View abstract.

    Ehrenfeld M, Levy M, Sharon P, et al. Gastrointestinal effects of long-term colchicine therapy in patients with recurrent polyserositis (Familial Mediterranean Fever). Dig Dis Sci 1982;27:723-7. View abstract.

    Elinder LS, Hadell K, Johansson J, et al. Probucol treatment decreases serum concentrations of diet-derived antioxidants. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995;15:1057-63. View abstract.

    Elsayed NM, Bendich A. Dietary antioxidants: potential effects on oxidative products in cigarette smoke. Nutr Res 2001;21:551-67.

    Erlinger TP, Guallar E, Miller ER, et al. Relationship between systemic markers of inflammation and serum beta-carotene levels. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1903-8. View abstract.

    Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069351/html/.

    Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.

    Food Standards Agency. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Available at: http://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/vitmin2003.pdf.

    Frieling UM, Schaumberg DA, Kupper TS, et al. A randomized, 12-year primary-prevention trial of beta carotene supplementation for nonmelanoma skin cancer in the physicians' health study. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:179-84. View abstract.

    Fuller CJ, Butterfoss DN, Failla ML. Relative bioavailability of beta-carotene from supplement sources. Nutr Res 2001;21:1209-15.

    Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer 2000;36:636-46. View abstract.

    Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 1999;59:1225-30. View abstract.

    Garewal HS, Katz RV, Meyskens F, et al. Beta-carotene produces sustained remissions in patients with oral leukoplakia: results of a multicenter prospective trial. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1305-10. View abstract.

    Gey KF, Stahelin HB, Eichholzer M. Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Investig 1993;71:3-6. View abstract.

    Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1767-76. View abstract.

    Girodon F, Galan P, Monget AL, et al. Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized, controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:748-54. View abstract.

    Girodon F, Lombard M, Galan P, et al. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in institutionalized elderly subjects: a controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:98-107. View abstract.

    Giuliano AR, Gapstur S. Can cervical dysplasia and cancer be prevented with nutrients? Nutr Rev 1998;56:9-16. View abstract.

    Graat JM, Schouten EG, Kok FJ. Effect of daily vitamin E and multivitamin-mineral supplementation on acute respiratory tract infections in elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:715-21. View abstract.

    Green A, Williams G, Neale R, et al. Daily sunscreen applications and beta-carotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 1999;354:723-9. View abstract.

    Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Karagas MR, et al. Mortality associated with low plasma concentration of beta carotene and the effect of oral supplementation. JAMA 1996;275:699-703. View abstract.

    Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Tosteson TD, et al. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. Polyp Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;331:141-7. View abstract.

    Hartman TJ, Albanes D, Pietinen P, et al. The association between baseline vitamin E, selenium, and prostate cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:335-40. View abstract.

    Hathcock JN. Metabolic mechanisms of drug-nutrient interactions. Fed Proc 1985;44:124-9. View abstract.

    Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:23-33. View abstract.

    Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:440-6. View abstract.

    Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1145-9. View abstract.

    Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42. View abstract.

    Hickenbottom SJ, Follett JR, Lin Y, et al. Variability in conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in men as measured by using a double-tracer study design. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:900-7. View abstract.

    Jacobson ED, Faloon WW. Malasorptive effects of neomycin in commonly used doses. JAMA 1961;175:187-90. View abstract.

    Jula, A. Marniemi, J. Huupponen, R. Virtanen, A. Rastas, M. and Ronnemaa, T. Effects of diet and simvastatin on serum lipids, insulin, and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemic men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2-6-2002;287(5):598-605. View abstract.

    Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, et al. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or -carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized, cluster trial in Nepal. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1570-6. View abstract.

    Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.

    Kennedy DD, Tucker KL, Ladas ED, et al. Low antioxidant vitamin intakes are associated with increases in adverse effects of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:1029-36. View abstract.

    Kim MK, Ahn SH, Lee-Kim. Relationship of serum alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and retinol with the risk of breast cancer. Nutr Res 2001;21:797-809.

    Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, et al. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:245-54. View abstract.

    Klipstein-Grobusch K, den Breeijen JH, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: the Rotterdam study. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:145-9. View abstract.

    Klipstein-Grobusch K, Geleijnse JM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:261-6. View abstract.

    Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1180-9. View abstract.

    Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1508-20. View abstract.

    Knodel LC, Talbert RL. Adverse effects of hypolipidaemic drugs. Med Toxicol 1987;2:10-32. View abstract.

    Koonsvitsky BP, Berry DA, et al. Olestra affects serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids but not vitamin D or vitamin K status in free-living subjects. J Nutr 1997;127:1636S-45S. View abstract.

    Kris-Etherton PM, Lichtenstein AH, Howard BV, et al. AHA Science Advisory: Antioxidant vitamin supplements and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2004;110:637-41. View abstract.

    Kumar B, Cole WC, Prasad KN. Alpha tocopheryl succinate, retinoic acid and polar carotenoids enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of a cholesterol-lowering drug on immortalized and transformed nerve cells in culture. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:628-36. View abstract.

    Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:754-64. View abstract.

    Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: The Women's Health Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294:56-65. View abstract.

    Lee IM, Cook NR, Manson JE, et al. Beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:2102-6. View abstract.

    Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:230-5. View abstract.

    Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9. View abstract.

    Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F, La Vecchia C. Selected micronutrients and colorectal cancer: a case-control study from the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. Eur J Cancer 2000;36:2115-9. View abstract.

    Luchsinger JA, Tang M, Shea S, Mayeux R. Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:203-8. View abstract.

    Malila N, Virtamo J, Virtanen M, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on colorectal adenomas in middle-aged male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:489-93. View abstract.

    Mathews-Roth MM. Treatment of the cutaneous porphyrias. Clin Dermatol 1998;16:295-8. View abstract.

    Matsui MS, Rozovski SJ. Drug-nutrient interaction. Clin Ther 1982;4:423-40. View abstract.

    McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:648-56. View abstract.

    Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182-6. View abstract.

    Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:362-6. View abstract.

    Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan A, Selvaduray KR, et al. Effect of palm oil carotene on breast cancer tumorigenicity in nude mice. Lipids 2002;37:557-60. View abstract.

    Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Prevention of exercise-induced asthma by a natural isomer mixture of beta-carotene. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:549-53. View abstract.

    Norrish AE, Jackson RT, Sharpe SJ, Skeaff CM. Prostate cancer and dietary carotenoids. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:119-23. View abstract.

    Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1550-9. View abstract.

    Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1150-5. View abstract.

    Omenn GS. Chemoprevention of lung cancer: the rise and demise of beta-carotene. Annu Rev Public Health 1998;19:73-99. View abstract.

    Patrick L. Beta-carotene: the controversy continues. Alt Med Rev 2000;5:530-45. View abstract.

    Prakash P, Russell RM, Krinsky NI. In vitro inhibition of proliferation of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent human breast cancer cells treated with carotenoids or retinoids. J Nutr 2001;131:1574-80. View abstract.

    Pryor WA, Stahl W, Rock CL. Beta carotene: from biochemistry to clinical trials. Nutr Rev 2000;58:39-53. View abstract.

    Race TF, Paes IC, Faloon WW. Intestinal malabsorption induced by oral colchicine. Comparison with neomycin and cathartic agents. Am J Med Sci 1970;259:32-41. View abstract.

    Radhika MS, Bhaskaram P, Balakrishna N, Ramalakshmi BA. Red palm oil supplementation: a feasible diet-based approach to improve vitamin A status of pregnant women and their infants. Food Nutr Bull 2003;24:208-17. View abstract.

    Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet 1997;349:1715-20. View abstract.

    Rautalahti M, Virtamo J, Haukka J, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on COPD symptoms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:1447-52. View abstract.

    Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degermation: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial). Optometry 2004;75:216-30. View abstract.

    Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1450-6. View abstract.

    Roche Laboratories, Inc. Package insert for Xenical. April 1999.

    Roodenburg AJ, Leenen R, van het Hof KH, et al. Amount of fat in the diet affects bioavailability of lutein esters but not of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin E in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1187-93. View abstract.

    Russell RM. The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:878-84. View abstract.

    Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto R, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 1994;272:1413-20. View abstract.

    Slattery ML, Benson J, Curtin K, et al. Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:575-82. View abstract.

    Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, et al. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:795-8. View abstract.

    Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. Gastric acidity influences the blood response to a beta-carotene dose in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:622-6. View abstract.

    Tardif JC. Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. N Engl J Med 1997;337:365-372. View abstract.

    Teikari JM, Laatikainen L, Virtamo J, et al. Six-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and age-related maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998;76:224-9. View abstract.

    Teikari JM, Rautalahti M, Haukka J, et al. Incidence of cataract operations in Finnish male smokers unaffected by alpha tocopherol or beta carotene supplements. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;52:468-72. View abstract.

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029-35. View abstract.

    Thurmann, P. A. Steffen, J. Zwernemann, C. Aebischer, C. P. Cohn, W. Wendt, G. and Schalch, W. Plasma concentration response to drinks containing beta-carotene as carrot juice or formulated as a water dispersible powder. Eur J Nutr 2002;41(5):228-235. View abstract.

    Todd S, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Bolton-Smith C. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and fiber in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and all-causes mortality: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:1073-80. View abstract.

    Tonstad S, Silverstein M, Aksnes L, Ose L. Low dose colestipol in adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arch Dis Child 1996;74:157-60. View abstract.

    Tribble DL. AHA Science Advisory. Antioxidant consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: emphasis on vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 1999;99:591-5. View abstract.

    van der Vliet A. Cigarettes, cancer and the carotenoids: a continuing, unresolved antioxidant paradox. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1421-3. View abstract.

    van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 2005;294:3101-7. View abstract.

    Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, et al. Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. JAMA 2003;290:476-85. View abstract.

    Virtamo J, Rapola JM, Ripatti S, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of primary nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:668-75. View abstract.

    West KP Jr, Katz J, Khatry SK, et al. Double-blind cluster, randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. BMJ 1999;318:570-5. View abstract.

    Yeum KJ, Ahn SH, Rupp de Paiva SA, et al. Correlation between carotenoid concentrations in serum and normal breast adipose tissue of women with benign breast tumor or breast cancer. J Nutr 1998;128:1920-6. View abstract.

    You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.

    Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:547-56. View abstract.

  • Betnovate (Betasin) Delivery

    You can order delivery of a Betnovate (Betasin) to the Austria, Singapore, Netherlands or any other country in the world. Residents of the USA can order Betnovate (Betasin) to any city, to any address, for example to Harrisburg, Las Vegas, Los Angeles or Bronx.