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Betasin

Category: Skincare

Description

Betnovate is used to help relieve redness, itching, swelling, or other discomfort caused by skin conditions.

Active Ingredient: Betamethasone

Betnovate (Betasin) as known as: Akriderm, Alphatrex, Alpider, Anflavate, Antebate, Antroquoril, Asisone, Beben, Bectmiran, Bedicort g, Behealth, Beloderm, Belogent, Belosalic, Bemetson, Bemon, Benoson, Bentelan, Beprogel, Beprosone, Beprospen, Berbesolone, Besone, Bestflan, Beta cream, Beta micoter, Beta ointment, Béta septigen, Beta-micoter, Beta-val, Betabioptal, Betacap, Betacort, Betacorten, Betacream, Betacrem, Betaderm, Betadermic, Betafloroto, Betafoam, Betafusin, Betagalen, Betagentam, Betaject, Betalotio winthrop, Betam-ophtal, Betamatic, Betamed, Betamesol, Betameson, Betamet, Betametasona, Betametha, Betamethason, Bétaméthasone, Betamethasonum, Betamil, Betanoid, Betapred, Betariem, Betasalbe ksk, Betaselemin, Betasid, Betasin, Betason, Betasone, Betasone-g, Betatape, Betatopic, Betatrex, Betaval, Betaval-n, Betavate, Betavet, Betazon, Betesil, Betnelan, Betnelan v, Betnesalic, Betnesol, Betnesol-v, Betneval, Betnevate, Betnoval g, Betnovat, Betoblock, Betodermin, Betonate, Betopic, Betricin, Betsolan, Bettamousse, Bevalex, Bevason, Biorinil, Blacor, Blamy, Buccobet, Calamiraderon, Camnovate, Celesdepot, Celesemine, Célestamine, Celestan, Celestan biphase, Celestana, Célestène, Celestoderm, Celeston, Celeston valerat, Celestone, Celestonvalerat, Celestovet, Cevicort, Chlocodemin, Cidoten, Cidoten inyectable, Cidoten rapilento, Cidoten-v, Cilestoderme, Clotrasone, Coid, Colergis, Cordes beta, Coritex, Corsaderm, Cortamine, Corteroid, Cortibet, Cortiderma, Cortiflam, Cortimax, Cortispec, Cortival, Cortixyl, Cortixyl depot, Cremirit, Cronocorteroid, Cronolevel, Dacam, Daivobet, Debion-vg, Deflatop, Deltalaf, Dermabet, Dermabiolene, Dermasone, Dermesone, Dermizol, Dermosol, Dermosol-dp, Dermosone, Derzid, Dexacort depot, Dexan g, Dexan-vg, Digenta, Diprocel, Diproderm, Diprofast, Diproform, Diproforte, Diprofos, Diprogenta, Diprolen, Diprolene, Dipronova, Diprophos, Diprosalic, Diprosan, Diprosis, Diprosone, Diprosone depot, Diprospan, Diprostène, Diprotop, Diprovate, Disopranil, Dovobet, Dppollon, Ecoval, Egerian, Eleuphrat, Emperacin, Erispan, Exabet, Exabetin, Eye rinderon, Eyebet, Fidagenbeta, Floderm, Flogozyme, Flosteron, Fluororinil, Fubecot, Fucibet, Fucicort, Fucicream, Fuciderm, Fungolisin nf, Fusibact b, Fusibet, Futasone, Galinocort, Garamat, Garasone, Gentalyn, Gentamicin, Gentasone, Gentavet, Gentocin, Helpoderm, Hicort, Histablock, Hizubot, Ijilone v, Infanal, Inflacor, Inflacor retard, Isotic betaracin, Itisona, Kamelyn, Keligroll, Krimbeson, Kuterid, Kuterid g, Labosona, Lazar, Lenasone, Lenovate, Linolacort, Linolosal, Lotricomb, Luricul vg, Luxiq, Maxivate, Medobeta, Metaskin-n, Methasol, Methovate, Movithiol, Multiderm, Mytaderm, Nilacelin, Nisagon, Nolcot, Norbet, Ocuson, Oftasona p, Ophtamesone, Ophtasone, Opizole, Osmoran, Otomax, Oviskin, Persivate, Prevason, Prevex b, Propiochrone, Propioform, Proson, Psorcutan, Puradesmin, Quiacort, Ratio-topilene, Ratio-topisalic, Ratio-topisone, Repivate, Rinbeta pf, Rinderon, Rinderon-dp, Rinderon-v, Rinesteron, Saccortin, Salgen plus, Salibet, Sanbetason, Scanderma, Septon, Seroderm, Sinacort, Skilone, Skizon-n, Soderm, Solu-celestan, Soluderme, Solusone, Sonigen, Spel, Steromien, Steronema, Supraproct, Suprasone, Suprastene, Taclonex, Tanderil, Taro-sone, Tokuderm, Topagen, Topicasone, Topiderm, Topik, Topizone, Uciderm, Uniflex, Vabeta, Valbet, Valecort, Valederm, Valerpan, Valisone, Valnac, Verilona, Viltern, Vista-methasone, Walacort, Xamiol, Zensoderm, Zestam

MIN — Betacard, general information, pharmacology, Betacard for patients, Betacard interactions, Betacard contraindications, additional informat

Betacard Betacard - General Information

A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect.

Pharmacology of Betacard

Betacard, a competitive beta(1)-selective adrenergic antagonist, has the lowest lipid solubility of this drug class. Although it is similar to metoprolol, atenolol differs from pindolol and propranolol in that it does not have intrinsic sympathomimetic properties or membrane-stabilizing activity. Betacard is used alone or with chlorthalidone in the management of hypertension and edema.

Betacard for patients

This belongs to the group of medicines known as beta-blockers. Atenolol can
be used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain) and irregular
heartbeat. It has varied effects in different parts of the body. High Blood
Pressure: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages to the beta
receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart, decreasing
blood pressure. Angina: Atenolol works by blocking the transmission of messages
to the beta receptors in the heart which slows down the activity of the heart
and reduces the heart's need for oxygen. This makes angina attacks less likely
to occur. Irregular Heartbeat: Normally the heartbeat is regulated by special
tissues which conduct electricity. Some cases of irregular heartbeat are caused
by these tissues conducting electricity too quickly. Atenolol works by reducing
over-activity in the conducting tissue.

Betacard Interactions

Catecholamine-depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients treated with TENORMIN plus a catecholamine depletor should therefore be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo. syncope, or postural hypotension.

Calcium channel blockers may also have an additive effect when given with TENORMIN.

Beta blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension which can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If the two drugs are coadministered, the beta blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, the introduction of beta blockers should be delayed for several days after clonidine administration has stopped.

Concomitant use of prostaglandin synthase inhibiting drugs, eg, indomethacin, may decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers.

Information on concurrent usage of atenolol and aspirin is limited. Data from several studies, ie, TIMI-II, ISIS-2, currently do not suggest any clinical interaction between aspirin and beta blockers in the acute myocardial infarction setting.

While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may have a more severe reaction on repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat the allergic reaction.

Betacard Contraindications

TENORMIN is contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure.

TENORMIN is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the atenolol or any of the drug productís components.

Additional information about Betacard

Betacard Indication: For the management of hypertention and long-term management of patients with angina pectoris
Mechanism Of Action: Like metoprolol, atenolol competes with sympathomimetic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting sympathetic stimulation. This results in a reduction in resting heart rate, cardiac output, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflex orthostatic hypotension. Higher doses of atenolol also competitively block beta(2)-adrenergic responses in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscles.
Drug Interactions: Acetohexamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ampicillin Ampicillin decreases bioavailability of atenolol
Chlorpropamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped
Dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Diltiazem Increased risk of bradycardia
Disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide
Epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia
Ergonovine Ischmeia with risk of gangrene
Ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Fenoterol Antagonism
Formoterol Antagonism
Gliclazide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glipizide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glisoxepide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glibenclamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Glycodiazine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Insulin The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-aspart The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glargine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-detemir The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-glulisine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Insulin-lispro The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Isoproterenol Antagonism
Lidocaine The beta-blocker increases the effect and toxicity of lidocaine
Methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene
Orciprenaline Antagonism
Pirbuterol Antagonism
Piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins
Prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy
Procaterol Antagonism
Repaglinide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Salbutamol Antagonism
Salmeterol Antagonism
Terbutaline Antagonism
Tolazamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Tolbutamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia
Verapamil Increased effect of both drugs
Food Interactions: Consult your doctor before taking large amounts of Vitamin K (Green leafy vegetables).
Take 30-60 minutes before meals, take at the same time each day.
Generic Name: Atenolol
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Sympatholytics; Antihypertensive Agents; Antiarrhythmic Agents; Adrenergic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Atenolol: Aircrit; Alinor; Altol; Anselol; Antipressan; Apo-Atenolol; Atcardil; Atecard; Atehexal; Atenblock; Atendol; Atenet; Ateni; Atenil; Atenol; Atenol 1A Pharma; Atenol Acis; Atenol AL; Atenol Atid; Atenol Cophar; Atenol CT; Atenol Fecofar; Atenol Gador; Atenol Genericon; Atenol GNR; Atenol Heumann; Atenol MSD; Atenol NM Pharma; Atenol Nordic; Atenol PB; Atenol Quesada; Atenol Stada; Atenol Tika; Atenol Trom; Atenol Von CT; Atenol-Mepha; Atenol-Ratiopharm; Atenol-Wolff; Atenolin; Atenomel; Atereal; Aterol; Betablok; Betacard; Betasyn; Betatop GE; Blocotenol; Blokium; Cardaxen; Cardiopress; Corotenol; Cuxanorm; Duraatenolol; Duratenol; Evitocor; Farnormin; Felo-Bits; Hipres; Hypoten; Ibinolo; Internolol; Jenatenol; Juvental; Lo-Ten; Loten; Lotenal; Myocord; Normalol; Normiten; Noten; Oraday; Ormidol; Panapres; Plenacor; Premorine; Prenolol; Prenormine; Prinorm; Scheinpharm Atenol; Seles Beta; Selobloc; Serten; Servitenol; Stermin; Tenidon; Teno-Basan; Tenobloc; Tenoblock; Tenolol; Tenoprin; Tenormin; Tenormine; Tensimin; Tredol; Unibloc; Uniloc; Vascoten; Vericordin; Wesipin; Xaten;
Absorption: Approximately 50% of an oral dose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the remainder being excreted unchanged in the feces.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50 =2000-3000 mg/kg(orally in mice). Symptoms of an atenolol overdose include a slow heart beat, shortness of breath, fainting, dizziness. weakness, confusion, nausea, and vomiting.
Protein Binding: Plasma protein binding is 6-16%
Biotransformation: Hepatic (minimal)
Half Life: 6-7 hours
Dosage Forms of Betacard: Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(propan-2-ylamino)propoxy]phenyl]acetamide
Chemical Formula: C14H22N2O3
Atenolol on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atenolol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals

Other articles

Aterol - drug review: dosage, side effects, action, buy Aterol

Aterol Aterol review


Aterol. used in the prevention of myocardial infarctions and irregular heart beat episodes and in treating migraine headaches and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. is primarily used to treat chest pains and hypertension. It is also effective in treating coronary heart illness, angina, arrhythmia and hypertension and can reduce symptoms of Graves Disease until the antithyroid medication kicks in. This medication works by slowing the heart rate and reducing the workload on the heart in the process. Aterol is considered a part of the beta-blocker group of medications. It works well since it does not pose a risk to the central nervous system. An added benefit is that this medication is filtered and excreted in the kidneys. reducing the workload on the liver and making Aterol suitable for the treatment of heart disorders in patients with extensive liver conditions. Available in 25, 50 and 100mg tablets, Aterol is taken orally.

Patients with unimpaired renal function who have hypertension may be administered 25 to 50 mg per day. Typically, for patients in this class, healthcare professionals prescribe a lower dose to start and increase the dosage each week, based on the patient's response to the treatment. Dosages range from 20 to 200mg depending on the patient and condition being treated, but for angina, 100mg is frequently quite sufficient.

Due to the risk of bronchospasms (tightening of the airways) as a result of taking Aterol, asthma patients are administered the lowest dose possible. Hexoprenaline or salbutamol may be administered to the patient in the event this condition occurs.

Dosages for patients with renal function impairment vary based on the healthcare professional's observations and the patient's response to the medication. End-stage renal failure patients dependent on dialysis are frequently administered 50mg of Aterol after the dialysis session. It is important to note that these patients may suffer from severe hypotonia after taking this medication.

Aterol has fewer reported side effects than other beta-blockers yet it still produces some side effects in patients. Common side effects include languor, dizziness. stomach pains, constipation. baldness. sexual dysfunction, difficulty sleeping and a runny or clogged nose. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact your healthcare professional.

Serious side effects, though rare, include hallucinations. visual distortion, a tingling feeling in the hands and feet, low blood pressure, rashes and skin disorders, and difficulty hearing or speaking. These symptoms are serious and should be treated as such. If you experience any of these conditions, seek immediate medical attention.

Aterol has a negative drug interaction with many other medications. Due of this, it is extremely important for you to inform your healthcare professional if you take allergy medication, MAO inhibitors, diabetes medication, or other cardiovascular medications. Patients with asthma need inform their healthcare professional of their condition so that their dosages can be properly managed and tested.

Aterol can cause the patient to become more docile and drowsy so the patient will want to avoid work requiring full attention. It is also advised that the patient avoid alcohol consumption to prevent increased somnolence while taking Aterol.

Patients who are pregnant, plan to become pregnant or are breastfeeding, note that this medication passes through breast milk and may affect fertility. Consult your healthcare professional if you fall into any of these categories prior to taking this medication.

Aterol has the following structural formula:

• Molecular formula of aterol is C14H22N2O3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethylamino)propoxy]phenyl]ethanamide
• Molecular weight is 266.336 g/mol
Aterol available. 100mg tablets and 150mg tablets

Generic name:Atenolol

Brand name(s): Aircrit. Alinor. Altol. Anselol. Antipressan. Atcardil. Atecard. Atehexal. Atenblock. Atendol. Atenet. Ateni. Atenil. Atenol. Atenolin. Atenomel. Atereal. Betablok, Betacard, Betasyn, Blocotenol, Blokium, Cardaxen, Cardiopress, Corotenol, Cuxanorm, Duraatenolol, Duratenol, Evitocor, Farnormin, Felo-Bits, Hipres, Hypoten, Ibinolo, Internolol, Jenatenol, Juvental, Loten, Lotenal, Myocord, Normalol, Normiten, Noten, Oraday, Ormidol, Panapres, Plenacor, Premorine, Prenolol, Prenormine, Prinorm, Scheinpharm Atenol, Seles Beta, Selobloc, Serten, Servitenol, Stermin, Tenidon, Teno-Basan, Tenobloc, Tenoblock, Tenolol, Tenoprin, Tenoretic. Tenormin. Tenormine, Tensimin, Tredol, Unibloc, Uniloc, Vascoten, Vericordin, Wesipin, Xaten

Beta sitosterine or Betasitosterol

Since 1997, the premier European information site on hair loss and healthcare. Treatments, therapies, diagnoses, scientific studies. Order direct from manufacturers in SSL safe mode. Some of our price are 30-40% cheaper than our competitors. S hipped anywhere within a few days.

s. These are potent phytochemicals found in a variety of botanical sources. There are a number of different sterols and these include the principal phytosterol, which is known as sitosterol.

In addition to sitosterol the most common sterols include campesterol, sitostanol and stigmasterol. The glucoside of sitosterol is known as sitosterolin and in plants it is always found together with the sterol. The ratio of sterol to sterolin varies in the plant kingdom ranging from 5% to 10% but in some cases being higher as in the case of potatoes.

Sterols are essential cell membrane components and the maintenance of adequate serum levels in humans seems to be necessary for an efficient immune system. Seeds are the richest source of the sterols and sterolins and yet, the refining processes applied by the food industry render the staple foods useless because they remove the sterols and sterolins to make the product more appealing to the eye.

For instance, in order to prevent precipitation of the fats in so-called "cold pressed oils," the oil is heated and refined to remove the sterols / sterolins. Sterols and sterolins have been shown to modulate the functions of the T-Cells both in vitro and in vivo by enhancing their cellular division.

Recent research conducted by Professor Patrick Bouic and his research team at the University of Stellenbosch Medical Faculty and published in the International Journal of Immunopharmacology, is providing an entirely new medical approach to the treatment of auto-immune diseases and other chronic diseases which only manifest themselves when the afflicted individuals are at cause. International medical and scientific interest on this breakthrough has been overwhelming.

Sitosterol assists in the conversion of linoleic acid to polyunsaturated fatty acids. This process is essential for the conversion of the Omega 6 fatty acids to prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are hormone like substances which are involved in immune support; they assist in the reduction of thrombo-embolic disorders by reducing platelet aggregation and they also assist in the reduction of inflammatory metabolites.

Sitosterol can be metabolized to pregnenolone and therefore to DHEA and the other hormones derived from pregnenolone and its analogues. In the human body there is a steady decline with age in the production of DHEA, which is the master hormone responsible for the synthesis of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and others.

By the age of 70 the DHEA production can be down to 10% or 20% of the levels found in a twenty year old, thus sitosterol supplements have an enormous potential for supporting the endocrine system in elderly people and, by implication, increasing their longevity.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Title: beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review.

Author
Wilt TJ ; MacDonald R ; Ishani A

Address
The VA Coordinating Center of the Cochrane Collaborative Review Group in Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Malignancies, 13/Minneapolis, VA, USA.

Source
BJU Int, 83(9):976-83 1999 Jun

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the evidence for the efficacy of beta-sitosterol in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: Studies were identified through Medlinetrade mark (1966-98), EMBASEtrade mark, Phytodok, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of identified trials and review articles, and contact with study authors and pharmaceutical companies. Randomized trials were included if: men had symptomatic BPH; plant extract preparations contained beta-sitosterols ; a control group received placebo or a pharmacological therapy; and treatment duration was >/=30 days. Study characteristics, demographic information, enrolment criteria and outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: Four trials comprising a total of 519 men met the inclusion criteria. All were double-blind and lasted 4-26 weeks. Three studies used nonglucosidic beta-sitosterols and one used a preparation that contained only beta-sitosterol -beta-d-glucoside. Compared with placebo, beta-sitosterol improved urinary symptom scores and flow measures. For the two studies reporting the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the weighted mean difference (WMD) against placebo was –4.9 IPSS points (95% confidence interval, CI,-6.3 to-3.5). The WMD for peak urinary flow rate was 3.91 mL/s (95% CI 0.91 to 6.90, four studies) and for residual volume the WMD was –28.62 mL (95% CI-41.42 to-15.83, four studies). Beta-sitosterol did not reduce prostate size. The trial using pure beta-sitosterol -beta-d-glucoside (WA184) showed no improvement in urinary flow measures. Withdrawal rates for men assigned to beta-sitosterol and placebo were 7.8% and 8.0% (not significant), respectively. CONCLUSION: beta-sitosterol improves urological symptoms and flow measures. However, the existing studies are limited by short treatment duration and lack of standardized beta-sitosterol preparations. Their long-term effectiveness, safety and ability to prevent the complications of BPH are unknown.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Title: beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

Author
von Holtz RL ; Fink CS ; Awad AB

Address
Department of Physical Therapy, Exercise, and Nutrition Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo 14214-3000, USA.

Source
Nutr Cancer, 32(1):8-12 1998

Abstract
Epidemiological evidence has shown that men consuming a low-fat, high-fiber diet containing high amounts of plant products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than men consuming a Western diet. One of the main differences between these two diets is the type of dietary fat, including dietary sterols. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of two dietary sterols on prostate cancer cells in vitro. Beta-Sitosterol (SIT), the most common plant sterol, and cholesterol, an animal sterol, were compared for effect on LNCaP cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and sphingomyelin cycle intermediates. Cells were treated for up to seven days with sterols delivered by a cyclodextrin vehicle. Compared with cholesterol, SIT (16 microM) decreased growth by 24% and induced apoptosis fourfold, which was accompanied by cell rounding and a 50% increase in ceramide production. No effect was observed on differentiation as measured by prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, although total acid phosphatase increased with SIT treatment for up to seven days. The results suggest that the decrease in cell number and increase in apoptosis associated with SIT treatment are mediated by activating the sphingomyelin cycle.

Research abstract on BetaSitosterol

Beta-sitosterol (BSS) and its glycoside (BSSG) are sterol molecules which are synthesized by plants. When humans eat plant foods phytosterols are ingested, and are found in the serum and tissues of healthy individuals, but at concentrations orders of magnitude lower than endogenous cholesterol. Epidemiological studies have correlated a reduced risk of numerous diseases with a diet high in fruits and vegetables, and have concluded that specific molecules, including b-carotene, tocopherols, vitamin C, and flavonoids, confer some of this protective benefit. However, these epidemiologic studies have not examined the potential effect that phytosterols ingested with fruits and vegetables might have on disease risk reduction. In animals, BSS and BSSG have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pyretic, and immune-modulating activity. A proprietary BSS:BSSG mixture has demonstrated promising results in a number of studies, including in vitro studies, animal models, and human clinical trials. This phytosterol complex seems to target specific T-helper lymphocytes, the Th1 and Th2 cells, helping normalize their functioning and resulting in improved T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell activity. A dampening effect on overactive antibody responses has also been seen, as well as normalization of the DHEA:cortisol ratio. The re-establishment of these immune parameters may be of help in numerous disease processes relating to chronic immune-mediated abnormalities, including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, cancer, and auto-immune diseases.

Importance of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Importance of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Anti-aging products promise to reverse the signs of aging and deliver younger looking skin. With such a vast range of skin care products on the market, consumers have had to get smarter about which products actually make good of their promises. Subsequently, marketers have had to get smarter as well. Many skin care product labels advertise "buzz word" ingredients, including antioxidants, proVitamin A, and beta-carotene.

Scientific/Medical Identification

Beta-carotene, found in many fruits and vegetables, is a precursor of Vitamin A. Most notably, beta-carotene is responsible for pigmentation qualities, such as the orange color of carrots. Considered an antioxidant for properties that protect from, and induce the breakdown of, free radical reactions in plants and animals, beta carotene increases resistance to various environmental influences.

Cosmetic Uses

Beta-carotene is usually synthesized from Vitamin A for cosmetic use, and is often used interchangeably with the term "proVitamin A." It is widely used in the cosmetics industry, in suntan products, cleansers, moisturizers, aftershave lotions, bath products, makeup, hair care products, and facial skin care products. Its common use is as a tinting agent in makeup products and sunless tanning lotions. In hair care products, "proVitamin A" is used to solve fragility and prevent split-ends. In skin care products, beta-carotene is used for its antioxidant properties, its ability to protect the skin from sun damage (note that it is not intended for, or should be used as, a method of sun protection), and its ability to help even the skin tone, deeming it an active "anti-aging" ingredient. It is also used in anti-aging products for its sun damage protection capabilities

Intended Effects of Beta-Carotene in Skin Creams

Dermatologists use beta-carotene for its ability to increase cell turn-over and regeneration in the outer layers of the skin, making it effective for diseases and skin conditions related to epithelium damage. Topical application of beta-carotene in retailed skin care products can enhance the appearance of the skin by restoring suppleness and adding a "glowing" pigment that seemingly evens out the skin tone. Beta-carotene's antioxidant attributes, such as sun damage protection, are used to prevent the signs of aging in the skin; and, in conjunction with its tinting ability, used in suntan creams and lotions to promote a continuous suntan while protecting the skin from sun damage. Beta-carotene's corrective properties are used in skin creams to help heal scratches and prevent scarring, and to reduce skin irritation and itchiness.

Considerations

Beware of marketing tricks when purchasing skin care products. Sales strategies highlight words like "antioxidants," which consumers can automatically link to truths, such as how antioxidants benefit the skin by protecting it from free radicals, and ensuring it gets enough nutrients for healthy collagen production. While these general benefits of antioxidants are true, it does not imply that the skin care product and its active ingredient(s) delivers sufficient quantity or quality of antioxidants to support the ultimate claim, which is that the product will deliver fountain-of-youth results. Beta-carotene is classified as an antioxidant, but the benefits of its topical application will not support such claims as "reversing the signs of aging." Even for the skin, antioxidants are more effective when taken from a healthy diet, or when taken as supplements, than when applied topically.

Warning

The "Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy" study conducted by medical professionals at UC Berkeley concluded that beta-carotene should not be taken as a supplement by smokers or even reformed smokers. This nutrient, as all nutrients, can be ingested safely from fruits and vegetables, but any antioxidant in supplement form should not be assumed safe or harmless. Consult a doctor before incorporating antioxidant supplements into daily vitamin intake. Also, excessive intake of beta-carotene can lead to a yellow-orange pigment of the skin that appears similar to jaundice.

Beta glucan may help treat skin disorders and remove fine lines and wrinkles

Beta glucan may help treat skin disorders and remove fine lines and wrinkles

Published on October 3, 2005 at 8:38 PM

The fight against aging has received a scientific boost thanks to an innovative study done in part by a University of Alberta spin-off company--research that dispels a hard-held belief about the natural ingredient, beta glucan.

The study, published in the current issue of International Journal of Cosmetic Science. is the first to show that oat beta glucan can penetrate the skin despite years of doctors and scientists believing that the large molecule was too big.

The finding is significant, not only in the treatment of skin disorders and removing fine lines and wrinkles but in the promotion of wound healing and reduction in scaring following surgical procedures, says Dr. Mark Redmond, president and CEO of Ceapro Inc, a spin-off company formed in the late 1980s to commercialize technology from the University of Alberta's faculties of pharmacy and medicine for the treatment of cold sores.

Beta-glucan is the soluble fiber found in the cell walls of oat kernels. Oat has a long history of safe use in providing fast, temporary relief of itching and pain associated with minor skin irritations, has reported to improve the appearance of smoother skin and has helped wound healing. But it has been long believed that such a large molecule as beta glucan was too big to penetrate the skin.

In this paper, Redmond and his co-authors describe using beta glucan-specific tracking dyes to show the skin penetration did take place. "Interestingly, the glucan penetrates in the same way that water penetrates a brick wall--it does not go through the brick, it goes through the concrete binding the bricks together," says Redmond. "As a result of our study, we now know that glucan works through the inter-cellular lipid matrix, or the cells' cement, to enter the lower levels of the skin. Of medical significance is the fact that beta glucan creams promote wound healing and reduction in scaring following surgical procedures."

The research team, made up of Redmond, Ravi Pillai and Joachim Roding both from Symrise, then measured the depth of the skin that the glucan penetrated. Photographs show the actual reduction of wrinkles and consumers should expect to see similar results on themselves in as little as 10 days, says Redmond. Beta glucan is already used in a number of products available to consumers including brand name products from Johnson and Johnson and Schering Plough. "The proof that we provide in this paper and other research that we have conducted is that glucan can have a specific and measurable effect on skin beyond making you look good and feeling great," says Redmond. "We also have indications that a number of applications in cosmetics are in the works to use glucan as the non-invasive alternative to Botox for those who are afraid of needles."

Ceapro has also discovered that beta glucan can be used as a transdermal delivery system to feed drugs and other compounds into the skin. This development may lead to new and better ways of delivering such medicines as antihistamines and pain relievers.

BETA-CAROTENE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings

Find a Vitamin or Supplement BETA - CAROTENE
BETA-CAROTENE Uses & Effectiveness
Effective for:
  • Treating sun sensitivity in people who have a form of inherited blood disorder called “erythropoietic protoporphyria.” Takin beta-carotene by mouth can reduce sensitivity to the sun in people with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Possibly Effective for:
  • An eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Taking beta-carotene by mouth along with vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc daily, seems to help prevent vision loss and worsening of AMD in people with advanced AMD. Taking beta-carotene plus antioxidants but without zinc does not seem to improve advanced AMD. There isn’t enough evidence to know taking beta-carotene along with other antioxidants works for people with less advanced macular disease. There is conflicting evidence about whether beta-carotene supplements can help reduce the risk of developing AMD.
  • Breast cancer. Eating more fruits and vegetable that contain beta-carotene seems decrease the risk of breast cancer in pre-menopausal women who are at high risk of getting breast cancer, including those with a family history and those who use alcohol excessively.
  • Preventing complications of lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD). Eating more beta-carotene in the diet seems to help prevent bronchitis and difficulty breathing in smokers with COPD, but beta-carotene supplements do not..
  • Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to reduce asthma attacks that are triggered by exercise.
  • White patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia.
  • Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent osteoarthritis from getting worse, but it does not seem to prevent osteoarthritis.
  • Ovarian cancer. Eating a diet rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene, reduces the risk of ovarian cancer in women after menopause.
  • Physical performance. Eating a diet that contains a higher amount of beta-carotene seems to improve physical performance and muscle strength in older people.
  • Preventing complications post-childbirth. Taking beta-carotene by mouth before, during, and after pregnancy seems to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and fever post-childbirth.
  • Pregnancy-related complications. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to reduce the risk of pregnancy-related death, pregnancy-related night blindness, and post-childbirth diarrhea and fever in underfed women.
  • Sunburn. Taking beta-carotene by mouth may decrease sunburn in people sensitive to the sun. However, taking beta-carotene is unlikely to have much effect on sunburn risk in most people. Also, beta-carotene does not appear to reduce the risk of skin cancer or other skin disorders associated with sun exposure.
Possibly Ineffective for:
  • Alzheimer’s disease. Eating a diet that contains a higher amount of beta-carotene does not seem to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Cataracts. Taking beta-carotene alone or in combination with vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc, for up to 8 years does not reduce the incidence or progression of cataracts.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 14 months does not improve lung health in people with cystic fibrosis.
  • Diabetes. Some early research suggests that eating a diet containing higher amounts of beta-carotene is linked with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, conflicting evidence exists. Taking beta-carotene supplements does not reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or the risk of experiencing complications associated with diabetes.
  • Moles. Research shows that taking beta-carotene by mouth for 3 years does not reduce the development of new moles.
  • Overall risk of death. Some research suggests that taking supplements containing beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc for about 7 years might lower the risk of death in men, but not women. However, other research shows that taking larger doses of beta-carotene in for up to 12 years may increase the risk of death in both men and women.
  • Stroke. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for about 6 years has no effect on the risk of stroke in male smokers. Also, there is some evidence that taking beta-carotene supplements increases the risk of bleeding in the brain in people who drink alcohol.
Likely Ineffective for:
  • Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running through the abdomen. Evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth for about 5.8 years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers.
  • Cancer. Beta-carotene does not seem to prevent or decrease death from uterine cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancers (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), brain cancer, and blood cancer (leukemia). However, some research suggests a combination of beta-carotene with vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc might lower cancer rates in men, but not women. Researchers speculate that men have lower intake of dietary antioxidants and therefore might benefit more from supplements.
  • Heart disease. A Science Advisory from the American Heart Association states that the evidence does not justify use of antioxidants such as beta-carotene for reducing the risk of heart disease. Evidence also shows that beta-carotene in combination with vitamin C and E does not decrease heart disease risk.
  • Colon cancer. Research shows that taking beta-carotene by mouth, alone or with vitamins C and E, selenium, and calcium carbonate, does not decrease the risk of colon tumor growth. In some people who have had colon tumors removed, taking beta-carotene supplements seems to reduce the risk of recurrence. However, in people that smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol, taking beta-carotene supplements increases the risk of new tumors. It is unclear if dietary beta-carotene reduces the risk of colon cancer.
  • Lung cancer. Taking beta-carotene actually seems to increase the risk of lung cancer in people who smoke (especially those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day), former smokers, people exposed to asbestos, and those who use alcohol (one or more drinks per day) in addition to smoking. However, beta-carotene from food does not seem to have this adverse effect. Also, taking supplements containing beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium for about 5 years does not reduce the risk of death in people previously diagnosed with lung cancer.
  • Prostate cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements does not prevent prostate cancer in most men. In fact, there is some concern that beta-carotene supplements might actually increase the risk of prostate cancer in some men. There is evidence that men who take a multivitamin daily along with a separate beta-carotene supplement have an increased risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. Also, men who smoke and take beta-carotene supplements have in increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Insufficient Evidence for:
  • Asthma. Eating a diet high in beta-carotene does not seem to be linked with a reduced occurrence of asthma.
  • Side effects from chemotherapy. Eating a diet high in beta-carotene is linked with reduced toxic effects in children undergoing chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene for one year does not improve thinking skills and memory in older men. However, taking beta-carotene for up to 18 years may improve these outcomes.
  • Esophageal cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements alone or in combination with vitamin A or vitamin E plus vitamin C doesn’t seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.
  • Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, which causes stomach ulcers. Taking beta-carotene by mouth, in combination with prescription drugs, does not help treat H. pylori infection better than prescription drugs alone.
  • HIV/AIDS. Some early research suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth for 4 weeks helps improve immune system function in people with HIV. However, conflicting evidence exists.
  • Stomach cancer. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene does not decrease risk of gastric cancer. Also, taking beta-carotene in combination with vitamins A, C, and/or E does not seem to reduce the risk of stomach cancer. However, some early evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium might reduce the risk of stomach cancer but not the risk of death in underfed, Chinese people who are at high risk. Also, taking beta-carotene seems to help treat precancerous lesions in the stomach in people at risk for stomach cancer.
  • Swelling and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Pancreatic cancer. Taking beta-carotene supplements alone or in combination with other antioxidants such as vitamin A or vitamin E doesn't seem to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • A skin rash due to sun sensitivity called polymorphous light eruption. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene by mouth can improve sensitivity to sun exposure in people with polymorphous light eruptions. However, conflicting evidence exists.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Depression.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Headaches.
  • Heartburn.
  • Hypertension.
  • Infertility.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Psoriasis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate beta-carotene for these uses.
BETA-CAROTENE Side Effects & Safety

Beta-carotene is LIKELY SAFE in adults and children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts for certain specific medical conditions. However, beta-carotene supplements are not recommended for general use.

Beta-carotene is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses, especially when taken long-term. High doses of beta-carotene can turn skin yellow or orange.

There is growing concern that taking high doses of antioxidant supplements such as beta-carotene might do more harm than good. Some research shows that taking high doses of beta-carotene supplements might increase the chance of death from all causes, increase the risk of certain cancers, and possibly other serious side effects. In addition, there is also concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate beta-carotene supplement increases the chance of developing advanced prostate cancer in men.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding. Beta-carotene is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. However, large doses of beta-carotene supplements are not recommended for general use during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Smoking. In people who smoke, beta-carotene supplements might increase the risk of colon, lung, and prostate cancer. Don’t take beta-carotene supplements if you smoke.

History of asbestos exposure. In people who have been exposed to asbestos, beta-carotene supplements might increase the risk of cancer. Don’t take beta-carotene supplements if you have been exposed to asbestos.

Angioplasty, a heart procedure. There is some concern that when antioxidant vitamins, including beta-carotene, are used together they might have harmful effects after angioplasty. They can interfere with healing. Don’t use beta-carotene and other antioxidant vitamins before or after angioplasty without the recommendation of your healthcare provider.

BETA-CAROTENE Interactions
Moderate Interaction Be cautious with this combination
  • Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins) interacts with BETA-CAROTENE

Taking beta-carotene, selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if beta-carotene alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

  • Niacin interacts with BETA-CAROTENE

    Taking beta-carotene along with vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking beta-carotene along with these other vitamins might decrease the good cholesterol.

    BETA-CAROTENE Dosing

    The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

    BY MOUTH.
    • For erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP): dosage is based on age. For age 1 to 4, the daily dose is 60-90 mg; age 5 to 8 years, 90-120 mg; age 9 to 12 years, 120-150 mg; age 13 to 16 years, 150-180 mg; and age 16 and older, 180 mg. If people still remain too sensitive to the sun using these doses, beta-carotene can be increased by 30-60 mg per day for children under 16 years old, and up to a total of 300 mg per day for people older than age 16.
    • For preventing sunburn in sun-sensitive people: beta-carotene 25 mg orally daily.
    • For treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD): beta-carotene 15 mg plus vitamin C 500 mg, zinc oxide 80 mg, and vitamin E 400 IU daily.
    The recommended daily intake of beta-carotene has not been set because there hasn’t been enough research.

    Beta-carotene supplements are available in two forms. One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version seems to be absorbed better.

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    Oliveira-Menegozzo, J. M. Bergamaschi, D. P. Middleton, P. and East, C. E. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(10):CD005944. View abstract.

    Onning, G. Berggren, A. Drevelius, M. Jeppsson, B. Lindberg, A. M. and Johansson Hagslatt, M. L. Influence of a drink containing different antioxidants and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on plasma total antioxidant capacity, selenium status and faecal microbial flora. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2003;54(4):281-289. View abstract.

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    Pabalan, N. Jarjanazi, H. Sung, L. Li, H. and Ozcelik, H. Menopausal status modifies breast cancer risk associated with the myeloperoxidase (MPO) G463A polymorphism in Caucasian women: a meta-analysis. PLoS.One. 2012;7(3):e32389. View abstract.

    Pan, M. H. and Ho, C. T. Chemopreventive effects of natural dietary compounds on cancer development. Chem.Soc.Rev. 2008;37(11):2558-2574. View abstract.

    Papaioannou, D. Cooper, K. L. Carroll, C. Hind, D. Squires, H. Tappenden, P. and Logan, R. F. Antioxidants in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(10):1085-1099. View abstract.

    Park, Y. Spiegelman, D. Hunter, D. J. Albanes, D. Bergkvist, L. Buring, J. E. Freudenheim, J. L. Giovannucci, E. Goldbohm, R. A. Harnack, L. Kato, I. Krogh, V. Leitzmann, M. F. Limburg, P. J. Marshall, J. R. McCullough, M. L. Miller, A. B. Rohan, T. E. Schatzkin, A. Shore, R. Sieri, S. Stampfer, M. J. Virtamo, J. Weijenberg, M. Willett, W. C. Wolk, A. Zhang, S. M. and Smith-Warner, S. A. Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21(11):1745-1757. View abstract.

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    Perry, J. R. Ferrucci, L. Bandinelli, S. Guralnik, J. Semba, R. D. Rice, N. Melzer, D. Saxena, R. Scott, L. J. McCarthy, M. I. Hattersley, A. T. Zeggini, E. Weedon, M. N. and Frayling, T. M. Circulating beta-carotene levels and type 2 diabetes-cause or effect? Diabetologia 2009;52(10):2117-2121. View abstract.

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    Plummer, M. Vivas, J. Lopez, G. Bravo, J. C. Peraza, S. Carillo, E. Cano, E. Castro, D. Andrade, O. Sanchez, V. Garcia, R. Buiatti, E. Aebischer, C. Franceschi, S. Oliver, W. and Munoz, N. Chemoprevention of precancerous gastric lesions with antioxidant vitamin supplementation: a randomized trial in a high-risk population. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-17-2007;99(2):137-146. View abstract.

    Prince, M. I. Mitchison, H. C. Ashley, D. Burke, D. A. Edwards, N. Bramble, M. G. James, O. F. and Jones, D. E. Oral antioxidant supplementation for fatigue associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2003;17(1):137-143. View abstract.

    Rapola, J. M. Virtamo, J. Haukka, J. K. Heinonen, O. P. Albanes, D. Taylor, P. R. and Huttunen, J. K. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 3-6-1996;275(9):693-698. View abstract.

    Renner, S. Rath, R. Rust, P. Lehr, S. Frischer, T. Elmadfa, I. and Eichler, I. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation for six months on clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 2001;56(1):48-52. View abstract.

    Richer, S. Multicenter ophthalmic and nutritional age-related macular degeneration study--part 2: antioxidant intervention and conclusions. J.Am.Optom.Assoc. 1996;67(1):30-49. View abstract.

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    Ruiz, B. Garay, J. Correa, P. Fontham, E. T. Bravo, J. C. Bravo, L. E. Realpe, J. L. and Mera, R. Morphometric evaluation of gastric antral atrophy: improvement after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 2001;96(12):3281-3287. View abstract.

    Sackett, C. S. and Schenning, S. The age-related eye disease study: the results of the clinical trial. Insight. 2002;27(1):5-7. View abstract.

    Sankaranarayanan, R. Mathew, B. Varghese, C. Sudhakaran, P. R. Menon, V. Jayadeep, A. Nair, M. K. Mathews, C. Mahalingam, T. R. Balaram, P. and Nair, P. P. Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia with vitamin A and beta carotene: an assessment. Oral Oncol. 1997;33(4):231-236. View abstract.

    Sasazuki, S. Sasaki, S. Tsubono, Y. Okubo, S. Hayashi, M. Kakizoe, T. and Tsugane, S. The effect of 5-year vitamin C supplementation on serum pepsinogen level and Helicobacter pylori infection. Cancer Sci. 2003;94(4):378-382. View abstract.

    Satia, J. A. Littman, A. Slatore, C. G. Galanko, J. A. and White, E. Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Am.J.Epidemiol. 4-1-2009;169(7):815-828. View abstract.

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    Schmidt, M. C. Askew, E. W. Roberts, D. E. Prior, R. L. Ensign, W. Y. Jr. and Hesslink, R. E. Jr. Oxidative stress in humans training in a cold, moderate altitude environment and their response to a phytochemical antioxidant supplement. Wilderness.Environ.Med. 2002;13(2):94-105. View abstract.

    Schroder, H. Navarro, E. Mora, J. Galiano, D. and Tramullas, A. Effects of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid on oxidative, hormonal and enzymatic exercise stress markers in habitual training activity of professional basketball players. Eur.J.Nutr. 2001;40(4):178-184. View abstract.

    Schuurman, A. G. Goldbohm, R. A. Brants, H. A. and van den Brandt, P. A. A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 2002;13(6):573-582. View abstract.

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    Sesso, H. D. Buring, J. E. Christen, W. G. Kurth, T. Belanger, C. MacFadyen, J. Bubes, V. Manson, J. E. Glynn, R. J. and Gaziano, J. M. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 11-12-2008;300(18):2123-2133. View abstract.

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    Sivan, Y. S. Alwin, Jayakumar Y. Arumughan, C. Sundaresan, A. Jayalekshmy, A. Suja, K. P. Soban Kumar, D. R. Deepa, S. S. Damodaran, M. Soman, C. R. Raman, Kutty, V, and Sankara, Sarma P. Impact of vitamin A supplementation through different dosages of red palm oil and retinol palmitate on preschool children. J.Trop.Pediatr. 2002;48(1):24-28. View abstract.

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    Zhu, S. Mason, J. Shi, Y. Hu, Y. Li, R. Wahg, M. Zhou, Y. Jin, G. Xie, Y. Wu, G. Xia, D. Qian, Z. Sohg, H. Zhang, L. Russell, R. and Xiao, S. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2003;116(1):15-19. View abstract.

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    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1439-52. View abstract.

    Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Potential public health impact of age-related eye disease study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1621-4. View abstract.

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    Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.

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  • Betnovate (Betasin) Delivery

    You can order delivery of a Betnovate (Betasin) to the Austria, Singapore, Netherlands or any other country in the world. Residents of the USA can order Betnovate (Betasin) to any city, to any address, for example to Harrisburg, Las Vegas, Los Angeles or Bronx.