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Broncovaleas

Category: Asthma

Description

Ventolin is used for treating or preventing breathing problems in patients who have asthma or certain other airway diseases.

Active Ingredient: Albuterol

Ventolin (Broncovaleas) as known as: Airet, Airomir, Apo-salvent, Assal, Asthalin, Aurosal, Avedox-fc, Broncovaleas, Ecutamol, Farbutamol, Novo-salmol, Salamol, Salbubronch, Salbutalan, Salbutamol, Salvent, Sultanol, Ventide, Ventodisk, Ventorlin, Volmax

MIN — Airomir, general information, pharmacology, Airomir for patients, Airomir interactions, Airomir contraindications, additional information

Airomir Airomir - General Information

A racemic mixture with a 1:1 ratio of the r-isomer, levalbuterol, and s-albuterol. It is a short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist with its main clinical use in asthma.

Pharmacology of Airomir

Airomir (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity. The R-enantiomer is sold in its pure form as Levalbuterol. The manufacturer of levalbuterol, Sepracor, has implied (although not directly claimed) that the presence of only the R-enantiomer produces fewer side-effects.

Airomir for patients

The action of albuterol may last up to 6 hours or longer. Albuterol should not be used more frequently than recommended. Do not increase the dose or frequency of albuterol without consulting your physician. If you find that treatment with albuterol becomes less effective for symptomatic relief, your symptoms become worse, and/or you need to use the product more frequently than usual, you should seek medical attention immediately. While you are using albuterol, other inhaled drugs and asthma medications should be taken only as directed by your physician. Common adverse effects include palpitations, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and tremor or nervousness. If you are pregnant or nursing, contact your physician about use of albuterol. Effective and safe use of albuterol includes an understanding of the way that it should be administered.

Additional Information for Inhalation Aerosol: In general, the technique for administering albuterol inhalation aerosol to children is similar to that for adults, since children's smaller ventilatory exchange capacity automatically provides proportionally smaller aerosol intake. Children should use albuterol aerosol under adult supervision, as instructed by the patient's physician.

Additional Information for Inhalation Solutions: Drug compatibility (physical and chemical), efficacy, and safety of albuterol inhalation solution when mixed with other drugs in a nebulizer have not been established. 0.05% Solution Only: To avoid microbial contamination, proper aseptic techniques should be used each time the bottle is opened. Precautions should be taken to prevent contact of the dropper tip of the bottle with any surface, including the nebulizer reservoir and associated ventilatory equipment. In addition, if the solution changes color or becomes cloudy, it should not be used.

Additional Information for Capsules for Inhalation: Children should use albuterol capsules for inhalation under adult supervision, as instructed by the patient's physician.

Airomir Interactions

Other short-acting sympathomimetic aerosol bronchodilators should not be used concomitantly with albuterol. If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution to avoid deleterious cardiovascular effects.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or Tricyclic Antidepressants: Albuterol should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of albuterol on the vascular system may be potentiated.

Beta-Blockers: Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as VENTOLIN Inhalation Aerosol, but may produce severe bronchospasm in patients with asthma. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g. as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.

Diuretics: The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of nonpotassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta-agonists with nonpotassium-sparing diuretics.

Digoxin: Mean decreases of 16% to 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single-dose intravenous and oral administration of albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical significance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving albuterol and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to carefully evaluate the serum digoxin levels in patients who are currently receiving digoxin and albuterol.

Airomir Contraindications

VENTOLIN Inhalation Aerosol is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to albuterol or any of its components.

Additional information about Airomir

Airomir Indication: For relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
Mechanism Of Action: Airomir is a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist and thus it stimulates beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Binding of albuterol to beta(2)-receptors in the lungs results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. It is believed that salbutamol increases cAMP production by activating adenylate cyclase, and the actions of salbutamol are mediated by cAMP. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP increases the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular calcium concentrations. A lowered intracellular calcium concentration leads to a smooth muscle relaxation. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations also cause an inhibition of the release of mediators from mast cells in the airways.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Salbutamol
Synonyms: Albuterol; Albuterol Sulfate; Salbutamol Sulfate; Salbutamol Sulphate; Albuterol Sulphate; Levalbuterol
Drug Category: Adrenergic beta-Agonists; Tocolytic Agents; Bronchodilator Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Salbutamol: Accuneb ; Aerolin; Asmaven; Broncovaleas; Cetsim; Cobutolin; Ecovent; Loftan; Proventil; Rotahaler; Salbulin; Salbutard; Salbutine; Salbuvent; Solbutamol; Sultanol; Venetlin; Ventalin Inhaler; Ventolin; Ventolin Inhaler; Ventolin Rotacaps; Volma; Volmax; Xopenex; Airomir; Asthalin; Asthavent; Asmol; Buventol; ProAir; Salamol;
Absorption: Systemic absorption is rapid following aerosol administration.
Toxicity (Overdose): LD50 =1100 mg/kg (orally in mice)
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Hydrolyzed by esterases in tissue and blood to the active compound colterol. The drug is also conjugatively metabolized to salbutamol 4'-O-sulfate.
Half Life: 1.6 hours
Dosage Forms of Airomir: Liquid Oral
Aerosol, metered Respiratory (inhalation)
Powder Respiratory (inhalation)
Solution Respiratory (inhalation)
Solution Intramuscular
Solution Intravenous
Solution Oral
Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: 4-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
Chemical Formula: C13H21NO3
Salbutamol on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salbutamol
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals

Other articles

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Albuterol: Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Active ingredient: Albuterol - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data Drug Category
  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists
  • Tocolytic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
Dosage Forms
  • Oral solution
  • Syrup
  • Tablet
  • Tablet (extended-release)
  • Injection (intramuscular, intravenous)

Accuneb; Aerolin; Albuterol ; Albuterol HFA ; Albuterol Sulfate; Albuterol Sulfate Hfa; Asmaven; Broncovaleas; Cetsim; Cobutolin; Combivent ; Combivent Respimat ; Duoneb ; Ecovent; Ipratropium and Albuterol ; Loftan; Proair HFA ; Proventil; Proventil Inhaler; Proventil-Hfa; Rotahaler; Salbulin; Salbutamol; Salbutamol Free Base; Salbutamol Sulfate; Salbutamol Sulphate; Salbutard; Salbutine; Salbuvent; Solbutamol; Sultanol; Venetlin; Ventalin Inhaler; Ventolin; Ventolin Hfa; Ventolin Inhaler; Ventolin Rotacaps; Volma; Volmax; Xopenex; Xopenex HFA

For relief and prevention of bronchospasm due to asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis

Albuterol, a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity.

Mechanism of Action

Albuterol is a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist. It stimulates beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Binding of albuterol to beta(2)-receptors in the lungs results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. It is believed that Albuterol increases cAMP production by activating adenylate cyclase, and the actions of albuterol are mediated by cAMP. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP increases the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular calcium concentrations. A lowered intracellular calcium concentrations leads to a smooth muscle relaxation. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations also cause an inhibition of the release of mediators from mast cells in the airways.

Systemic absorption is rapid following aerosol administration

LD50 =1100 mg/kg (orally in mice)

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism

Hydrolyzed by esterases in tissue and blood to the active compound colterol. The drug is also conjugatively metabolized to albuterol 4'-O-sulfate.

VENTOLIN Inhalation Aerosol is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to albuterol or any of its components.

Other short-acting sympathomimetic aerosol bronchodilators should not be used concomitantly with albuterol. If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution to avoid deleterious cardiovascular effects.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or Tricyclic Antidepressants: Albuterol should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of albuterol on the vascular system may be potentiated.

Beta-Blockers: Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as VENTOLIN Inhalation Aerosol, but may produce severe bronchospasm in patients with asthma. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g. as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.

Diuretics: The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of nonpotassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta-agonists with nonpotassium-sparing diuretics.

Digoxin: Mean decreases of 16% to 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single-dose intravenous and oral administration of albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical significance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving albuterol and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to carefully evaluate the serum digoxin levels in patients who are currently receiving digoxin and albuterol.

Broncovaleas - drug review: dosage, side effects, action, buy Broncovaleas

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Asthmatic patients are all too familiar with Broncovaleas as it is one of their help lines when breathing difficulty, chest tightness, and wheezing occurs. Broncovaleas works by relaxing the muscles in the air passageways to improve breathing. It is also effective in treating pulmonary illnesss other than asthma.

Broncovaleas comes in a liquid solurinary tract infectionon form, which is placed either in the nebulizer or the inhaler. When used to treat lung illnesss, it is used at least every six hours; when used to improve breathing, it is used every 15 to 30 minutes. Consult your doctor for the exact dosage needed in your case based on your symptoms. He will know the correct amount of Broncovaleas you should use every dosage time and how often you should use it. Do not change the dosage without orders from your doctor. If Broncovaleas no longer controls your symptoms or if you feel that your symptoms worsen even after taking the drug, call your doctor immediately. If your symptoms get better before you complete the prescription period, call your doctor and ask him whether you must continue using Broncovaleas or not. Never stop using the medicament unless it is advised to do so by your doctor.

Broncovaleas used through inhalers comes in canisters. Each canister contains 200 inhalations. Once you have used up the labeled number of inhalations the canister contains, you must throw it away and make use of another canister. Some canisters do not have counters. In this case, you need to keep track of the number of inhalations you have used up by yourself so you will know when to change it. The inhaler with Broncovaleas aerosol is meant for use only with Broncovaleas. Do not use other medicines with it in the same way that you cannot use a canister of Broncovaleas with another inhaler.

Be careful in using the inhaler and the nebulizer. The solurinary tract infectionon must not come into contact your eyes. It must also not be used near a source of heat or flame. Broncovaleas may explode when near very high temperatures. Take a lesson from your doctor on the proper way of using the inhaler or nebulizer. Let him watch during your first try. If you are using it on your child, always watch over them while they inhale the medicine.

Extra care must be taken for patients with histories of allergies. heart illness, hypertension. diabetes. and hyperthyroidism. Current drug use, whether it is just a vitamin or herbal supplement, must be mentioned to the doctor as well. Pregnant women and nursing mothers are also considered special cases. As such, doctors may need to adjust the dosages when any of the above mentioned conditions are present.

Broncovaleas causes side effects. Normally, side effects like cephalalgia, nausea. emesis, coughing, and throat irritation come mildly. If they persist or worsen as you continue using Broncovaleas, you will need to make an immediate appointment with your doctor. Equally alarming signs include chest pains, rashes, itching. swelling. swallowing difficulty, and hoarseness.

Broncovaleas must be stored tightly closed and out of reach of children at room temperatures. It must also be kept away from excessive heat and moisture. Ask your doctor on proper handling and disposal of Broncovaleas to be safe.

Broncovaleas has the following structural formula:

• Molecular formula of broncovaleas is C13H21NO3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(1-hydroxy-2-tert-butylamino-ethyl)-phenol
• Molecular weight is 239.311 g/mol
Broncovaleas available. 0.63mg/3ml solution 3ml plastic container, 2mg/5ml syrup, 2mg tablets, 4mg tablets

Generic name:Albuterol

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Broncovaleas diseases

Effective Dose: Varies

Active Ingredient: Albuterol Sulfate

Chemical Formula: C13H21N O3

Molecular Weight: 239.31074

Chemical Name: 4-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2- (hydroxymethyl)phenol

Albuterol is a selective beta-2-adrenergic agonist, also called beta-2 stimulant.

Used therapeutically as a bronchodilator, Albuterol is administered for the prevention and treatment of breathing complications like asthma, and chest tightness often precipitated by lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways). Classified as a bronchodilator, Albuterol is absorbed at the beta-receptor level and works by relaxing and opening air passages to the lungs for easier breathing.

Originally introduced within the United States in 1980 and sold under the brand name Ventolin, Albuterol is one of the most popular asthma medications on the market. Consequently, it can be found under a variety of generic brand names, and is marketed as both an inhalant and oral drug in many companies by names such as Vospire, Aerolin, Asthalin, Buventol, Salbutamol, Sultanol, Broncovaleas, Salamol, Ventolin, Volmax, Cobutolin, Novosalmol, and Proventil.

ALBUTEROL FUNCTIONS & TRAITS

Structurally speaking, Albuterol's chemical name is 4-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol, it's a short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist, and it is a member of a wide range of drugs called sympathomimetics which diversely affect the sympathetic nervous system. In short, the body is contains nine different types of receptors, classified as alpha or beta, which are further specified by type number. It is sometimes said that the receptor has an affinity for the drug, but can also be stated that the drug has an affinity for the receptor, nevertheless a very direct attraction exists between the two.

Most often prescribed for inhalation in the treatment and prevention of bronchospasms in people with reversible obstructive airway disease, Albuterol is also used to specifically prevent exercise-induced bronchospasms. Catecholamines and sympathomimetics like Albuterol, are broadly classified by types of actions which often overlap into more than one of seven groups: 1) metabolic – increases the rate of glycogenolysis (metabolism/mobilization) of stored energy in fat and muscle cells, and within the liver; 2) peripheral excitatory – affects certain types of smooth muscles such as blood vessels which supply the glandular cells (such as the salivary glands, sweat glands, etc.), kidneys, mucous membranes, and skin; 3) central nervous system – promotes increases in psychomotor activity, respiratory stimulation, wakefulness, and a decrease in appetite; 4) endocrine – causes modulation of the secretion of rennin, pituitary hormones, and insulin; 5) cardiac excitatory – responsible for increases in heart rate the force with which the heart contracts; 6) presynaptic – results in the inhibition or facilitation of the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine; and 7) peripheral inhibitory – impacts specific smooth muscle groups like those within the bronchial tree, blood vessels that supply the muscular system, and gut.

Sold in most other countries under the very popular name Salbutamol, Albuterol is primarily found in the form of an inhaler designed to provide the amount of drug necessary to instantly and directly open bronchial tubes for during asthma attacks. Inhaler's very specific minimal dosing largely prevents unnecessary cardiovascular side effects.

As a central nervous system stimulant (CNS), Albuterol can increase alertness and mental clarity, while enhancing respiratory and cardiovascular efficiency. Very similar to its chemical cousin Clenbuterol, Albuterol increases the metabolic rate, which breaks stored fat and triglycerides down into forms of energy that the body can readily process. Due to its ability to increase thermogenesis (the process in which the body raises its temperature, to release said energy), Albuterol can also be effectively administered by athletes.

EFFECTS OFALBUTEROL

Traditionally taken by athletes and bodybuilders as an ancillary drug within anabolic steroid cycles, Albuterol accelerates thermogenesis and is primarily administered for definition enhancement. Albuterol possesses all the traditional properties of its more popular chemical cousin Clenbuterol. Although both compounds provide virtually the same efficient fat-burning benefits, Albuterol may be better for athletes firstly due to a significantly shorter half-life of approximately 4 hours as compared to 34 hours, and secondly because Albuterol exhibits some rather interesting effects on strength as well.

In one study, subjects performed isokinetic knee extensions twice weekly for a total of 9 weeks. Albuterol was given to group one for 6 weeks, while group two received a placebo. Both groups were routinely given 16 mg of either treatment, in conjunction with strength training, and had their results recorded. The group receiving that Albuterol treatment showed greater strength increases during both mid- and post-testing. Such results demonstrate that even at therapeutic doses Albuterol can impact strength improvement when administered in conjunction with regular weight training. Clenbuterol and Ephedrine, two other beta-agonists, have also demonstrated some capacity for strength enhancement when combined with training.

ALBUTEROL ADMINISTRATION

The performance enhancement administration protocol for Albuterol is the same as the clinical administration. The usual recommended dosage for adults and pediatric patients over 12 years of age is one extended-release tablet 8 mg every 12 hours. Because of its short, approximately 4-hour half-life the non-extended release tablets, aerosol, and syrup are typically administered three or four times daily. It is recommended that Albuterol be administered at or around the same times every day.

Albuterol, and all such beta-agonists, possess a propensity towards somewhat rapid tolerance, i.e. the thermogenic and stimulating effects of these drugs tend to be lessened and/or to wear off more rapidly within single dosages. These diminished effects can be easily measured by comparing one's normal temperature (baseline) to the temperature while taking Albuterol. Thus, when diminished effects are suspected, the user has both measures with which to compare. Albuterol dosages should not be continually increased beyond recommended upper limits to chase the side effects as tolerance to them builds, as this can be dangerous. Instead, for those who ascribe to the on/off cycle regimen, Albuterol administration should be discontinued for approximately four weeks, or as a general rule the same duration of time that it was being used (i.e. two weeks on, two weeks off) in order to permit the body's beta-receptors to upregulate (restore normalcy). First generation antihistamines, such as Benadryl, which naturally cleanse beta-receptor sites may aid in the upregulation of these receptors.

Individuals with any of below conditions should not use Albuterol as complications can arise:

  • a seizure disorder such as epilepsy
  • a heart rhythm disorder
  • overactive thyroid

· heart disease, high blood pressure, or congestive heart failure

SIDE EFFECTS OF ALBUTEROL

There are several manufacturer listed possible side effects, but very few are actually experienced including: shakiness or slight tremors; increased mental alertness; muscle cramping; difficulty falling asleep; and slightly accelerated (not irregular) heartbeat. However, when excessive amounts are taken, or when someone is reacting poorly to these medications they often experience: dizziness; headaches; uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; nosebleeds; nausea; fast pounding or irregular heartbeat; chest pains; fevers; blisters or rash; hives; swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; difficulty breathing; difficulty swallowing; and hoarseness.

Albuterol also has contraindicated drugs and drug categories (those that should not be taken at the same time) among which are:

  • a beta-blockers like metoprolol (Dutoprol, Lopressor, Toprol), nadolol (Corgard), nebivolol (Bystolic), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), atenolol (Tenormin, Tenoretic), carvedilol (Coreg), labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate)
  • MAO inhibitor like furazolidone (Furoxone), isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), or tranylcypromine (Parnate) or similar bronchodilators like levalbuterol (Xopenex), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethine, Bricanyl), salmeterol (Advair, Serevent), metaproterenol (Alupent, Metaprel), or isoproterenol (Isuprel Mistometer)
  • digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin)
  • antidepressant like amitriptyline (Elavil, Vanatrip, Limbitrol), doxepin (Sinequan, Silenor), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and others
  • diuretics
  • some over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and herbal products
AVAILABILITY OF ALBUTEROL

Albuterol can be found in various dosages and forms including that of liquid syrups, aerosol sprays, tablets, and in extended-release (long-acting) tablets.

In raw form, Albuterol is a white or off-white powder that’s water soluble, slightly ethanol soluble, and often converted into 2, 4, and 8 mg tablets. Albuterol instructions explicitly state that extended-released tablets should not be cut, broken, crushed, or chewed because such actions disrupt absorption. For all delivery methods, maximum plasma concentrations of about 18 ng/mL are achieved within 2 hours of administration.

Albuterol is manufactured by numerous companies within a variety of different countries and also goes by a diversity of brand names including Salbutamol, Sultanol, Broncovaleas, Aerolin, Asthalin, Buventol, Cobutolin, Novosalmol, Proventil, Salamol, Ventolin, Volmax, and Vospire.

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ALBUTEROL REVIEW

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* These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Our website and the domain name "Anabolics .com" is representative of products that may enhance blood levels of steroid hormones in the body. Anabolic Research is offering these very strong alternatives to anabolic steroids. These products are NOT intended for users under the age of 18. Use under a doctors supervision. This product is not a drug and should be used correctly. Use in conjunction with a well balanced diet and an intense bodybuilding or exercise program. For a list of ingredients, click here.

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The Chocolate

The Chocolate Chocolate through the ages

It's strange how history does things. Most of the great chocolate manufacturers are European, and yet chocolate is American in its origin. Yes, the Aztecs were fond of it. They consumed it mainly in a hot beverage appreciated for its medicinal and aphrodisiac qualities.

Since 4000 BC, cacao trees and indigenous peaples have lived on good terms with each other in the virgin forests of Yucutan and Guatemala. Ih these countries, where the cacao tree grows wild, the people of that era ate only the fruit pulp and not the beans. That's normal since, in its natural state, this whiteish pulp is deliciously tart in flavor, while the beans have a sharp bitter taste.

We will never know who the clever Indian was that one day had the idea to roast the almond-shaped beans discovering in the process a delightful aroma until then unknown. "If it smells good, it must be good". And with his first bite came a revolution. the world of food would never be the same. In its earliest days, the cacao bean acted as an indigneous alternative to money. A pumpkin, for example, was worth four beans, and a woman for the night, ten beans, the sameprice as a rabbit.

Once the beans had suffered wear in a number of exchanges, they were eaten!

The virtues of chocolate

«If chocolate were bad, it would have lost its appeal a long time ago.»
- Edouard de Pomiane(1875-1964). French doctor and gourmet

  1. Chocolate give muscle tone. TRUE

Nutritionists claim without reserve that chocolate is not only a candy, but also a food endowed with exceptional nutritional qualities. With its 800 componets discovered so far, it is beneficial to the organism for more that one reason, a tonic for both body and soul.

  • Chocolate causes liver attacks. FALSE

    The liver copes with it perfectly: research done under the supervision of Professor Gounelle de Pontanel has demonstrated this. Administered in high doses to people suffering from hepatitis, it caused them not the slightest difficulty and biological tests did not show any harmful effects on the hepatitis carrying cells.

  • Chocolate produces weight gain. TRUS and FALSE

    First of all, this question is based on false pretenses for our diet is not based on chocolate. Even in the rare cases where it would have a tendency to become the basis, it has been noted, all things being equal, the chocoholics are not any fatter than other people. If we really had to debate the question, the first argument of any significance in favour of chocolate would be to blaeme the rest of our diet which is too rich in sugars and fats. "It's not it, it's them".

  • Chocolate causes cholesterol problems. FALSE

    - Cocoa, like almost every vegetable substance does not contain cholesterol. Howeber, be careful here. milk chocolate, because of its milk content, does contain cholesterol.
    - Its natural elements hinder the absorption of cholesterol from other foods.
    - Its fats cause a lowering of the blood cholesterol level and incease the "good cholesterol" that protects the arteries. In fact, cacao provides (afeter assimilation) 72% of unsaturated fatty acids - like aleic acid for example - that ower the level of cholesterol and that clean the arteries. In addition, it only contains 20% of saturated fatty acids that play an opposite role

  • Chocolate causes constipation. FALSE

    Since it is a fibreless food with no waste, it was long believed to cause constipation. On the contrary, radiologist have described its role as an accelerator of peristalsis. In fact, its tannins stimulate the contraction of the smooth muscular fibres in the small intestine. And what's more, its fats favor the secretion of bile which insures proper functioning of the intestines.

  • Chocolate creates cavities. FALSE

    In fact the very opposite is the case as long as it is not too sweet. Recent studies have shown that chocolate contains three types of substances that work to prevent cavities. the tainins inhibit the development of plaque which is caused by bacteria. As fro phosphates (200 mg/100 g) and fluoride, everyone knows of their preventive abilitiles.

  • Chocolates causes acne. FALSE

    The pimply faces of certain adolescents are not due to chocolate binges! Even a large consmption dose not make acne worse. Experiments have benn done in this area under medical control.

  • Chocolate causes migraines. TRUE and FALSE

    According to certain studies, chocolate is suspected to be the main trigger of migraines in 19 to 25% of the cases. Other studies, just as noteworthy, conclude that it is impossible to determine with precision to what extent chocolate is responsabilie in this affair. It is a complete blur. Recent impressive chemical analyses tend to bring everyone to agreement. They suggest that chocolate never acts alone but only alongside other factors like hypoglycemia, alcohol, stress or indigestion due to another products. One of these factors added to certain elements in chocolate (theobromine, phenylethylamine, serotonin, and especially tyramine) could provoke the migriane.

  • Chocolate causes allergies. FALSE

    Never has there been observed an elevation of the histamine level in the blood after eating chocolate. Of course, like any other food, it can be shown to read in certain sensitive subjects and bring on problems (asthma, rhinitis, or rash). Fortunately, cases are rare since chocolate intolerance is much less frequent than those to fish, seafood, milk, eggs and strawberries. Therefore, only persons who are prone to allergies would be affected and ever then, only 1,5% of these are susceptible.

  • Chocolate os forbidden to diabetics. FALSE

    Chocolate provides only a very low glycemic peak. Diabetics must be aware of their total intake of glucides and preferably choose a dark chocolat that contains at least 60% cacao.

  • "Light" chocolate has fewer calories. FALSE

    "light" chocolate has more calories than regular chocolate. ITS sugar level has been well diminished, but to compensate for te resultant lack of a binding element, the proportions of fat have benn increased. Glucides have only four calories per gram, whereas fats produce over twice as mucnh, nine per gram.

  • Chocolate is very rich in magnesium. TRUE

    Dark chocolate well deserves its reputation of being a food rich in magnesium (300mg/100g). Milk chocolate has five times less than that, still an honest showing. As a point of reference, be advised that moset of the foods that have the reputation of being rich in magnesium have about the same content as that of milk chocolate. Chocolate, therefore, is very promising in this era where our daily requirements of magnesium are barely covered by what we eat.

  • Chocoalte is as rich in potassium as a banana: TRUE

    The Potassium content of dark chocolate (535mg/100g) is about the same as that of a fresh banana (dried bananas, however, account for phenomenal quantities).

    How to preserve chocolate

    Those who resist the temptation to eat at once should be aware that cocoa and chocolate are small fragile things and that their life is not eternal. The sacrilege to absolutely avoid is the refrigerator, it's a torture chamber for the chocolate!

    Chocolate has four notorious enemies: light, odours, humidity and unexpected variations in temperature. The only comfortable place for it is dark, well ventilated and dry (65% relative humidity and about 18 to 20°c). The ideal place to store chocolate is an airtight, either plastic or metal box, left at room temperature in your home.

    If the chocolate is exposed to an atmosphere high in humidity or to excessive changes in temerature, it will turn white: first the sugar crystalizes on the surface, then the cocoa butter melts and floats to the surface. Theoretically this only alters the appearance and not the taste. What's more, if the chocolate is not kept from the light, it will go rancid. Finally, like all other gats, cocoa butter, willingly soaks up surrounding odours, particularly in cold environments. Therefore, the cohabitation of chocolate with javex or strong cheese is to be avoided. If you wish to try a new and exotic (though unmarketable) flabour, place a piece of chocolate next to an onion in the refrigerator. You'll taste the difference!

    In the summertime, you will notice ofther to your displeasure that chocolate melts at 32°C. (So, event in the winter, carrying a bar in your pockets for 4 hours is not a good idea!). Resorting to a refrigerator is preferable while respecting a certain ritual to keep it from melting. In order to avoid ruining chocolate bars, it is important to keep them in a plastic container opaque and airtight and to remove the container from the refrigerator, keeping it closed, one hour before you plan to eat the contents. This way, not only will the chocolate be gently brought to room temperature, but protected from the humidity in the air, it will not take on condensation.

    A good dark chocolate will keep up to a year and a half. Past this limit, it loses its aroma, but will still be perfect for desserts. Milk chocolate, pralines and filled chocolates are much more sensitives; at the end of eight months, say goodbye to flavour and smoothness! Industrial chocolate makers stuff their products with stabilisers and preservatives. None of those products are used in our production.

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