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Category: Blood Pressure


Hydrochlorothiazide is used for treating high blood pressure.

Active Ingredient:

Hydrochlorothiazide (Co-mepril) as known as: Acesistem, Acortiz, Acuren, Adelphan, Aldoril, Altace hct, Amiloretic, Ampril hd, Angiozide, Aquazide, Aratan-d, Belsar plus, Benalapril plus, Benazeplus, Berlipril, Beta-turfa, Bifril plus, Bifrizide, Bihasal, Bisobeta comp, Bisocombin, Bisohexal plus, Bisolich comp, Bisoplus, Bisostad plus, Bitensil diu, Blopress plus, Bpzide, Briazide, Bumeftyl, Byol, Capto-corax comp, Capto-isis plus, Captobeta comp, Captogamma hct, Captosol comp, Cardace comp, Cesplon plus, Cibadrex, Cilazil, Clorana, Co aprovel, Co diovan forte, Co renitec, Co-amilozide, Co-enac hexal, Co-enalapril, Co-enatec, Co-epril, Co-inhibace, Co-lisinopril, Co-lisinostad, Co-mepril, Co-quinapril, Co-renistad, Co-renitec, Co-reniten, Coepratenz plus, Comilorid-mepha, Concor plus, Condiuren, Cordinate plus, Corodil comp, Corodin d, Corvo hct, Cosaar, Coteveten, Crinoretic, Dehydratin, Dehydratin neo, Di-ertride, Di-eudrin, Dichlotride, Diclotride, Dilabar diu, Disalunil, Disothiazide, Disys plus, Ditenside, Dithiazide, Diu venostasin, Diunorm, Diur, Diurace, Diuretidin, Diuretikum verla, Do-hydro, Dociteren, Drenol, Duopril, Duradiuret, Dynacil comp, Dynorm plus, Dytenzide, Dytide, Ednyt hct, Elektra, Elpradil hct, Emconcor comp, Emcoretic, Emestar plus, Enacecor, Enacomi, Enahexal comp, Enala-q comp, Enalagamma hct, Enalich comp, Enap-co, Enaplus, Enulid 15, Epratenz, Epratenzide plus, Epril plus, Eprosartan, Eprotan, Esidrex, Esidrix, Femipres plus, Fempress plus, Fosicard plus, Fosicomb, Fosicombi, Fosicomp, Fosinopril, Fosinorm comp, Fositens plus, Fozide, Foziretic, Futuran plus, Gamathiazid, Gentipress, Gliotenzide, Herten plus, Hexal-lisinopril, Hexazide, Hidroclorotiazida, Hidroronol, Hidrosaluretil, Hidrotiadol, Hiperlex plus, Hipoartel plus, Hydra-zide, Hydrene, Hydrex, Hydrodiuril, Hydromet, Hydrozide, Hypodehydra, Hypothiazid, Inderide, Inhibace, Inibace plus, Initiss plus, Inocar plus, Iperton, Irtan plus, Isoptin rr plus, Ixia plus, Kalpress plus, Konveril plus, Labodrex, Lidaltrin diu, Linatil comp, Lisi tad hct, Lisi-puren comp, Lisibeta comp, Lisigamma hct, Lisihexal comp, Lisiplus, Lisoretic, Lispirl, Lodoz, Logroton retard, Loortan plus, Loren-press, Lorzaar, Losapot-h, Losar-q comp, Losar-tevacomp, Losargamma hct, Losarplus al, Losartas ht, Losatan hz, Losatrix comp, Losavik-h, Lotrial d, Maxsoten, Medozide, Mencord plus, Meramyl hct, Meto-succinat hct, Metobeta comp, Metodura comp, Metohexal comp, Metostad comp, Microzide, Miten plus, Modrex, Monoplus, Monopril, Monozide, Navixen plus, Nefrix, Neo lotan plus, Neoprex, Neotensin diu, Nephral, Newtolide, Nolarmin, Normolose-h, Nu-triazide, Olina, Olinapril h, Olmax-h, Openvas plus, Oretic, Pantemon, Parapres plus, Pharmapress co, Pressitan plus, Prestole, Pritor plus, Propra, Quinaplus, Quinaretic, Quiril comp, Ramasar hct, Rasilez hct, Regulaten plus, Renacor, Renapril plus, Renezide, Renil hct, Reniten plus, Rethizid, Ridaq, Rofucal, Sarilen plus, Sarteg hct, Sectrazide, Selokomb, Synerpril, Tandiur, Tekturna hct, Tevafos, Tevanap, Tevetec, Teveten plus, Tevetens plus, Tiaren, Tiazid, Timolide, Tri-thiazid, Triamizide, Triampur, Triamtereen, Triamteril, Triastad hct, Triatec comp, Triniton, Tritace comp, Tritace hct, Turfa, Uniretic, Urirex k, Vaseretic, Votum plus, Wytens, Zaprace-d, Zapto-co, Ziak, Zofenil diu, Zofenil plus, Zofenilduo, Zok-zid, Zopranol diu, Zoprazide

Co-mepril, Enalapril Maleate, Hydrochlorothiazide

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Severe renal dysfunction, severe liver impairment, post-renal transplant, hyperaldosteronism, porphyria, pregnancy, lactation. Renal artery stenosis.

Rarely, cough, dizziness, headache, fatigue, hypotension including orthostatic hypotension, GI disturbance, asthenia, insomnia, nervousness, paraesthesia, somnolence, vertigo, muscle, cramps, pruritus, skin rash, angioedema, impotence, deterioration of gout, disturbed liver, pancreas or kidney function, photosensitivity.

Alcohol, drugs for treating increased BP or sedatives, sleeping pills, drugs for treating psychic disturbances, lithium, digitalis, spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene &/or adjunctive use of K, NSAIDs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, food high in Na. Concurrent use of corticosteroids, oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. Sulphonamide antibiotics, oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents.

Severe heart failure, renal impairment, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, salt-free diet, diarrhea, vomiting, hemodialysis, elderly, IHD, severe cerebrovascular disease, severe aortic stenosis, generalised arteriosclerosis. Prior to desensitisation against the wasp or bee venom. pregnancy: Category C: Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the foetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus. Category D: There is positive evidence of human foetal risk, but the benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the risk (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).


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Disease dictionary definition

Sentence Examples
  • Usually they succumb to the cold, heat or disease. but sometimes they simply disappear.
  • Keene was once called The Elm City before Dutch elm disease destroyed the massive trees that surrounded the grassy area at the head of the square.
  • New, disease resistant trees are bringing back the splendor of what has been called one of the prettiest towns in New England.
  • But now I've narrowed my quest to just three possible locations and I'm sure at one of these disease-laden phones stood the infamous Psychic Tipster!
  • "So, Speck," she said with an exaggerated sigh, "they're more like humans with some nasty disease that might have a cure and not like vamps, which are just good for pushing up daisies.
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Superhero DNA? Study finds individuals immune to ‘severe diseases’

Superhero DNA? Study finds individuals immune to ‘severe diseases’

A new study has found that certain people’s genes have evolved in such a way that they are immune to certain severe inherited conditions.

The study involved the analysis of previously collected DNA sets totaling 589,306 genomes from around the world with researchers hoping to discover individuals who were immune to genetic diseases and then to figure out why it is they aren’t affected.

Conducted as part of the worldwide Resilience Project, led by the US-based Icahn Institute for Genomics at Mount Sinai and Sage Bionetworks, a total of 13 healthy adults were discovered to be resistant to Mendelian conditions, and there’s thought to be many more people with such genes.

Mendelian conditions, which usually include metabolic conditions, neurological diseases and developmental disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, can be caused by a defect in just one gene.

Scientists behind the study say the 13 people should have developed one of eight genetic diseases but mutations in their genes have warded off the development of the diseases and scientists would now like to figure out why.

"Millions of years of evolution have produced far more protective mechanisms than we currently understand,” said Eric Schadt, Founding Director of the Icahn Institute. “Characterizing the intricacies of our genomes will ultimately reveal elements that could promote health in ways we haven't even imagined."

Researchers have hit a major snag, however, since they do not know who the 13 people question are or how to contact them.

The consent forms initially used when the subjects’ DNA was taken don't allow for such follow-ups or identify the people in any way.

This means scientists cannot delve any deeper into what exactly creates this so-called “superhero DNA” to see what is protecting the people from such diseases.

A lack of further study into the DNA also means researchers can’t prove errors in initial DNA testing.

Digestion and Inflammatory Disease (April 2006)

Online Publication Only

According to Michael D. Gershon, MD, approximately 20% of Americans are disabled, or at least miserably affected, by functional bowel disease. However, only ten percent of those afflicted discuss their disorder with a doctor. 1 People are often too embarrassed to mention their bad breath, gas, bloating and fullness after meals, food sensitivities, diarrhea, or constipation. 1,2 Many are unaware that these symptoms are frequently caused by too little stomach acid. If treated early on, they can easily be corrected with the help of a physician skilled in natural medicine. 3 Left untreated, or worse still treated with acid stoppers, they can eventually cause irreparable harm. 2,4

The stomach is essentially where digestion begins; it is also the gateway to the intestine's immune system. 1,2 Sufficient stomach acid destroys harmful microbes and simultaneously provides the substrates and stimuli required for the secretion of bile that sterilizes the small intestine. 1 Without an adequate production of stomach acid, we cannot maintain the necessary pH levels for optimal enzymatic activity throughout the entire body, nor can we maintain a healthy bacterial balance. 5 Harmful bacteria, fungi, and parasites accumulate, worsening the aforementioned digestive problems. These intractable infections poison and damage the gastrointestinal tract, causing intestinal permeability (leaky gut), which can lead to deep-seated autoimmune diseases. 2 Thus, throughout the entire body, nutritional deficiencies and oxidative stress increase, causing maintenance, immune, and repair systems to fail. 5 By the time a person realizes that their diarrhea or heartburn is not simply due to what they eat, it can take a great deal of time and effort to eliminate the layers of infection and toxicity, heal the gastrointestinal tract, and develop good digestion. 6,7

What can we do to prevent low stomach acid? How can people who have battled to regain a healthy digestion keep it and never lose it? A healthy digestion depends on our innate ability to metabolize large amounts of oxygen. 1,8 We cannot make stomach acid without the process of oxidative phosphorylation in the oversized mitochondria in the stomach's parietal cells. 9 Because it goes against all chemical and electrical gradients, this process requires substantial quantities of oxygen and calories to generate sufficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP), our energy currency, to get the work done. 1 However, because of pollution and the destruction of trees, overall oxygen is steadily decreasing. Oxygen in the air in developed areas has decreased by at least 40% in the last century. 10 At the same time, our need for oxygen (to fight infection, to reduce inflammation, to detoxify harmful chemicals, and to make adrenal hormones) has escalated. By improving the way one metabolizes oxygen, each of us can have a much healthier digestion – indeed, a much healthier life. Bear in mind that oxygen, like food, is a double-edged sword; it can cause continual free radical damage. 10,11 This is especially true when there is insufficient antioxidant protection, which occurs with low gastric activity. 5,12

I am particularly interested in this subject because I have been diagnosed with a genetic inflammatory disease, variegate porphyria, that reduces one's ability to metabolize oxygen. 13 The subject is vast, so I will limit the rest of this article to an aspect of oxygen metabolism that is perhaps less understood. Have you realized to what extent our efficient use of oxygen depends on the compound carnitine and on fatty acids and cholesterol? The following facts recently became evident during my latest struggle with variegate, which can make it difficult (and, for lengthy periods, impossible) to digest fat: 14

1. Oxygen is useless when our cells cannot receive it to create energy. 15 The flow of oxygen into cells is controlled by the correct balance and availability, not only of eicosanoids formed from cell membrane fatty acids, but also of adrenal hormones synthesized from cholesterol. 16 These important regulators of the in-flow of oxygen also require oxygen for their production. 17

2. Heme is a protein which binds an oxygen molecule at its iron center; it is absolutely essential for all of life's processes, including the transport of oxygen to the tissues in the red blood cells' (RBCs) hemoglobin. 18 For example, heme is required for the intracellular creation of energy, for the production of eicosanoids, adrenal hormones, and bile. Heme is needed also for the production of carnitine, which transports fatty acids into the cells' mitochondria, thereby increasing energy production. 19 (The oxidation of fatty acids provides significantly more energy per carbon atom than does that of carbohydrates. 20 ) A deficiency of either of the amino acids lysine or methionine, or of vitamins C, B6, niacin, or heme iron, causes a carnitine deficiency. 16

3. The final enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of heme is stimulated by fatty acids that
depend on carnitine. 21,22 For an enzyme to function, it often needs to be "well oiled" by
specific fatty acids. 22 Research shows that palmitic acid and oleic acid (a saturated and a monounsaturated fatty acid) stimulate the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme
ferrochelatase in the production of heme, but that linoleic acid (an omega-6
polyunsaturated fatty acid) inhibits ferrochelatase. 22,23

Fat is so vital for the functioning of our bodies that excess carbohydrates and even excess protein ends up as fat. 22 When newly made, fat is saturated fat, most of which is palmitic acid. 24 If sufficient palmitic acid is available, it can be elongated by further enzymatic activity to form unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid. 22 The biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol declines when sufficient quantities are assimilated from our diets. 22 People who don't consume (or digest) enough fats and oils often have all of the saturated and unsaturated fat and cholesterol that they need, but they are probably deficient in essential polyunsaturated omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, that regulate the RBCs' transport of oxygen (but cannot be synthesized). 11,16,22 Scientists recommend that we ingest 30% of our dietary calories as fat. At least two to three percent of these calories must be in the form of omega-6 fatty acids, and at least one percent to 1.5% in the form of omega-3 fatty acids. 22 The structure and health of all cells depend on the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol in their membranes. 22,25

Cholesterol (which is an alcohol, not a fat) is a very important component of cellular membranes. 22 For example, 25% of a healthy RBC's membrane lipid is cholesterol, and it gives RBCs their resilient discoid shape. 25 Unlike fats and oils, cholesterol does not need to be digested or broken down into smaller particles, nor does cholesterol provide us with energy. It is, however, essential for use as a tissue repairer, as an antioxidant, in the skin as a substrate for provitamin D3, and as a precursor for bile acids and many important hormones. We cannot ingest enough cholesterol to supply our daily needs. 22 The liver and other organs and cells actively synthesize cholesterol from acetylCoA, which is also a central intermediate for synthesizing fatty acids. 26 The "anti-stress vitamin" pantothenic acid is vital to the structure of acetylCoA and also to that of heme and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. 22,27 For people under stress, or those with high insulin levels (whose cholesterol level is usually high), and for vegans (because cholesterol is found in the lean tissue of animals), the biosynthesis of cholesterol is much more active. 22

However, for numerous reasons, people with low stomach acid can have difficulty not only digesting fat, but also properly metabolizing and synthesizing cholesterol and fatty acids.

With low stomach acid, many deficiencies develop and the necessary substrates – cofactors and enzymes for fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism – become deficient. For example, an adequate production of hydrochloric acid is necessary for the secretion and activation of the proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzyme pepsin. 1,28 Pepsinogen (the inactive form of pepsin) is synthesized in pyramid-shaped chief cells at the base of the same glands in the fundus and corpus regions of the stomach that also house the parietal cells that produce hydrochloric acid. 1 Pepsin needs an extremely acid working environment; the optimal pH for pepsin is 1.0 to 2.0.28 A healthy stomach produces enough hydrochloric acid to dissolve a meal; the acid coats and permeates the food, taking the stomach's enzymes, such as pepsin, with it. 1,29

Normally, we absorb 90% of the sodium and potassium in our diet. 30 Because nature abhors a vacuum, especially a charge separation, positively charged sodium and potassium ions take the place of hydrogen and chloride ions when they are secreted, and then they combine to form hydrochloric acid in the stomach's lumen. 1,31 By doing so, these ions constitute what is known as the "alkaline tide" in the bloodstream during meals. 31 When the stomach's acidic "chyme" empties into the duodenum, it stimulates the secretion of neutralizing sodium/potassium alkali from cells that line the tunnels in the pancreas from Brunner's glands in the duodenal wall, and also an alkaline bile from the gall bladder, providing for further necessary digestive activity. 1

All these steps, required for an adequate digestion, become defective with low stomach acid. 11 The small intestine, being deficient in alkali, is too acid, inhibiting the activity of pancreatic enzymes such as lipase, which needs a pH of 6.0 to 8.0. 28 The common bile duct cannot empty properly because the pylorus (or small intestine's opening) is in spasm. 32 In a stagnant gall bladder that is deficient in choline, iron, and vitamin C, gall stones form. 5,33 There are also deficiencies of the essential cofactors, chromium, copper, and manganese-reducing protective HDL cholesterol levels. 16,34 Low HDL causes far more heart disease in the United States than does high cholesterol. 35 The absorption of these (and other) trace minerals is facilitated by chelating amino acids and by a number of proteins, including a transporter protein called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMTI). 36,37 Because amino acids and endogenous proteins, such as DMT1, are missing in the gastrointestinal tracts of people with low stomach acid, mineral deficiencies develop. The production of all endogenous proteins (including lipase) depends on the minerals, co-enzymcs, and amino acids that sufficient stomach acid provides. 38 When there is a higher concentration of ionic copper in the intestine than in the bloodstream, it diffuses through narrow cellular junctions in the intestinal wall. 39 However, even this passive form of absorption fails in an inflamed intestinal tract that is often found with long-term low-gastric activity. 2

Without sufficient stomach acid, food stagnates, ferments, and encourages the growth of intractable bacterial infections. 2 Constant use of antibiotics interferes with the production of biotin that is manufactured by intestinal bacteria. 40 Biotin is the coenzyme of the first committed enzymatic step in the manufacture of fatty acids. 24 People with stomach disease or with the inflammatory diseases that accompany poor digestion have been noted to have "poor biotin status. 40 All the B complex vitamins are vital for the metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol, and they all become deficient with low stomach acid because, for the above reasons, zinc is missing and is required for their absorption. 41 Biotin, pantothenic acid (B5), niacin (B3), and riboflavin (B2) are especially needed for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. 24,42

The liver becomes overburdened and congested with the deficiencies and toxic byproducts of digestive disease and with the accompanying infections. 41 Toxins accumulate when the oxygen level is low, because the enzymes and oxygen required to neutralize and remove them are missing. 19 The liver stores environmental toxins that it cannot break down in its lower lobe. This is the same place where fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are stored for the production of cholesterol and hormones. 2 Most of the cholesterol we make is synthesized by the liver. 22 Enzymes that metabolize toxic chemicals are also required to synthesize hormones and bile acids. 44 In my case, after many years with low stomach acid, I had no appetite for meat, had an allergy to eggs, and had a total serum cholesterol level that hovered around 100, resulting in a low cortisol level and rampant inflammation.

When I cannot digest fat and I fail to take carnitine, I can become very weak and tired. 14,l6 My cells arc probably deficient in energy or ATP and are lacking the essential, unsaturated fatty acids that help to keep cell membranes fluid. The fluidity of cell membranes is very important; it determines what can go in and come out of each cell. For example, plasma membrane fluidity increases cell receptor sensitivity to insulin. 11 Sufficiently fluid membranes are also necessary for the signaling of the immune system and to protect nerves from damage. 45 We need to assimilate polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega

6 fatty acids each day, because we cannot synthesize them, They are vital for the production and balance of the aforementioned oxygenating messengers, the eicosanoids, and are needed for proper cell division, kidney function, and brain development. 46

As one who has struggled with chronic infections, inflammation, and heart disease, I have learned to respect the healing power that an improved ratio of essential fatty acids provides. 47 Simply by increasing the intake of omega-3 oils, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil, and by restricting omega-6 oils, such as soy and corn oil, our diets become more like those of our ancestors. 48 When humans were hunting, fishing, and food gathering, they ate foods containing omega-6s and omega-3s in a ratio of about 2.5:1. 11,48 Researchers have found that an excess of omega-6 fats from cereals, processed foods, especially from vegetable oils and spreads, increases the risk of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and eczema, and also the possibility of neurological and degenerative diseases. Studies suggest an improved ratio of fatty acids benefits patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as osteoarthritis, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and some cancers (breast, prostate, and colon). 11,48,49,50 These conditions have been repeatedly linked with a low oxygen level and with low stomach acid. 3,10 All dietary fats provide energy; however, the essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are important oxygenating components of nerve cells and cell membranes, and they need to be not only consumed but also assimilated daily. 16,22

The long-chain, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, found most abundantly in fish oil and cod liver oil, and an omega-6 intermediate polyunsaturated fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), found in borage and black currant oil, are in the forms the body requires to produce anti-inflammatory prostaglandins (which are eicosanoids). 22 As you probably know, prostaglandins are potent, hormone-like chemicals that act locally in the regulation, oxygenation, and protection of most bodily tissues. 46 Ideally, we should be able to produce EPA and DHA from dietary alpha-linolenie acid, and GLA from linoleic acid. However, there must be sufficient levels of amino acids, heme iron, saturated fat, vitamin C, niacin (B3), pyroxidine (B6), zinc, and magnesium, as well as a healthy pH (acid/alkaline balance) for these enzyme dependant conversions to occur; therefore, they too are adversely affected by low stomach acid. 5,16,17,22

Enzymes convert omega

6 fatty acids approximately four times more slowly than they do omega-3 fatty acids, and both kinds of fatty acids compete for the same enzymes. 46,51 To minimize this problem and to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory compounds, such as cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor, scientists have shown that there needs to be a sufficient consumption of fish oil. In a 1998 study, KM Brown, et al. showed that there also needs to be an adequate intake of vitamin E to protect cell membranes and dietary fats from oxidation. 51 For example, if you consume one-and-a-half tablespoons of cod liver oil, you need to take 400 IU of vitamin F with it. 52 The best form of supplemental vitamin E is the natural d-alpha form that contains the mixed tocopherols and the tocotrienols. 53

What do you do when you cannot digest any of these essential nutrients and you have an inflammatory disorder? Patients can request – from a physician skilled in natural medicine – a Heidelberg capsule test (which shows the stomach's exact pH) or a Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis (which shows how well food is being digested) to find out whether they have hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid) or achlorhydria (an inability to produce any stomach acid at all). If they have either, they can, with their doctor's guidance, readjust their stomach's acidity and the accompanying poor pH throughout their intestine and tissues. 3,8 By testing certain reflex points, a good chiropractor could also help them to determine, and successfully treat, their stomach's acidity. 54 In addition, consider being tested for heavy metal toxicity, celiac disease, Helicobacter pylori, candida albicans, and parasites. 5,55

During an extremely stressful 550-mile pilgrimage upstream to their spawning ground in British Columbia, the sockeye salmon keep to the parts of the river where the water current is strongest. This allows the water to push life-giving oxygen over their gills. 56 Like the salmon, we need to find ways to improve our oxygen metabolism during what can be a stressful pilgrimage: recovering from long term low stomach acid. 57

In addition to the nutrients available in an easily assimilated or injectable form, the following supplements may be helpful: Betaine HCl with pepsin acidifies the stomach and is best taken under the supervision of a knowledgeable physician. Never take anti-inflammatory medication at the same time as HCl. 3 In fact, anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, prevent the production of prostaglandins and significantly impair the healing process. 58 Persistent use of anti-inflammatory medicine (or a severe prostaglandin deficiency) has been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney and liver damage, heart problems, and aseptic necrosis. 59,60 Because betaine HCl or hydrochloric acid can damage or destroy non-enteric-coated combined enzymes and probiotic formulas, it is most helpful to take these supplements with a glass of water about half an hour before meals. 1,8 Ten or more drops of herbal bitters can be diluted in a little water and sipped slowly 15 minutes before meals. 61 A combination of acetyl-l-carnitine (2 x 500 mg) and (R)-lipoic acid (2 x 100 mg) increases energy; sublingual NADH (2 x 5 mg) does the same. 7,62 SAMe (800 mg to 1 ,600 mg a day) helps the liver to detoxify. 16 When the digestion has been corrected and nutrient levels have been restored, an absorbent such as the Vitamin Research Company's EnteraKlenz™ helps to detoxify the gastrointestinal tract, reducing inflammation. 7 Coconut oil is highly effective against inflammation and is also rich in the antimicrobial fatty acid, lauric acid. 22 MCT oil, which is man-made, is recommended for people with lymphatic abnormalities, instead of other fats and oils, but is not for patients with liver disease. 22,40

Judy Kitchen
3637 Serra Road
Malibu, CA 90265
Fax/Phone: 310-456-6837

Prostaglandin and Essential Fatty

In order to reduce inflammation: a) restrict omega-6 fatty acids, e.g. regular sunflower and safflower oils and animal products; b) avoid trans-fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, e.g. corn, soy, cottonseed, and canola oil; and c) increase omega-3 fatty acids, e.g. flaxseed, pumpkin seed, salmon, and sardines.

Prostaglandin Chart is coming.

Acknowledgment: I would like to thank North Atlantic Books for giving permission to adapt page 132 of Healing with Whole Foods by Paul Pitchford, in order to provide the Prostaglandin Chart.

References ( NOTE: Author's been contacted to update links. 3/20/06 )
1. Gershon, Michael. The Second Brain. New York, NY: Harper and Collins; 1999.
2. Lipski, Elizabeth. Digestive Wellness. Connecticut: Keats Publishing; 1996, 2000.
3 Wright, Jonathan and Lane Lenard. Why Stomach Acid Is Good For You. New York: M, Evans and Company, Inc.; 2001.
4. Pizzorno, Joseph. Total Wellness. California: Prima Publishing, 1996.
5. Kitchen, J. Hypochlorhydria: a review, part I. TLDP. 2001:219.
6. Private communication.
7. Personal experience.
8. Kitchen, J. Alkalinizing diet for anemia. TLDP. 2004:255.
9. lllingworth, John A. Bioenergetics: oxidative phosphorylation. School of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, England. Available at: www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/Illingworth/oxphos.9/30/2003 .
10. Ali, Majid. Oxygen and Aging. New York: Aging Healthfully, Inc.; 2000.
11. Rosedale, R. Insulin and its metabolic effects. Presented at Designs for Health Institute's Boulderfest. August 1999.
12. Kitchen, J. Shingles. TLDP. May 2004:250.
13. King, M. Iron, heme and porphyrin metabolism. Indiana University School of Medicine. November 2004. Available at: http://web.mdstate.edu/theme/mwking/heme-porphyrin.html.
14. With variegate porphyria (an inherited disorder of heme metabolism) the toxic accumulation of protoporphyrins in bile increases the incidence of gall bladder disease.
Poh-Fitzpatriek, M. Variegate porphyria. Available at: http://www.emedicine.com/der/topic450.htm
When protoporphyrins bind with a metal, they can inhibit heme oxygcnase and block heme's conversion to bilirubin.
Kappas, A, A method for interdicting the development of severe jaundice in newborns by inhibiting the production of bilirubin. Pediatrics. January 2004;113(1);119-123.
15. Brown, Guy. The Energy of Life. New York: The Free Press; 2000.
16. Murray, Michael T. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Prima Publishing;1996.
17. King, M. Marchesini, S. Lipid metabolism. October 2003. Available at: http://www.med.unibs.it/

marchesi/lipsynth3.html .
18. Kräutler, B. The pigments of life. 7th Schrodinger-Lecture, Trinity College, Dublin, October 25, 2001.
19. Marks, G. Exposure to toxic agents: the heme biosynthetic pathway and hemoproteins as indicator. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 1985;18(2).
Heme Oxygenases (EC Available at: http://www.sacs.ucsf.edu/home/Ortiz/pubs-ho.htm .
20. King, M. Fatty acid oxidation. Indiana University School of Medicine,
October 2004. Available at http://webindstate.edu/them/mwking/fatty-acid-oxidation.htm .
21 Frye, R. Porphyria, Cutaneous, February 2002. Available at http://ww.medicine.com/ped/topic1871.htm .
Baggott, J. Fatty acid activation and transport into the mitochondria. 1997, 1998. Available at: http://www-medlib.med.utah.edu/NetBiochem/FattyAcids/8_4.html .
22. Enig, Mary O. Know Your Fats. Bethesda, Maryland: Bethesda Press; 2000.
23 Hanson JW, Dailey HA, Purification and characterization of chicken erythrocyte ferrochelatase. Biochemistry Journal. 1984 Sep; 5;222(3):695-700.
24. King, M. Fatty acid synthesis, Indiana University School of Medicine, December 2004. Available at: http://web.indstate.edu/theme/mwking/lipid-synthesis.htm l.
25. Harmening, Denise. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Third Edition. Philadelphia, PA: L.A. Davis Company; 1997.
26. Baggott, J. Overview of acetyl CoA metabolism. 1997, 1998. Available at: http://www-medlib.med.utah.edu/NetBiochem/FattyAcids/8_4html .
27. Higdon, J. Pantothenic acid. The Linus Pauling Institute. 2000-2004.
28. Cichoke, Anthony. The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy. New York: Avery Publishing;1999.
29.Beaumont, William. Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.; Facsimile of the original 1833 edition.
30. Plawecki, K. Food product design: nutrition notes, minerals: a balancing act, October 2001.
31. Boudinot, S. Drug pathways and chemical concepts-14. Absorption and the Gastrointestinal Tract. Available at: http://chemcases.com/pheno/pheno14.htm .
32. Kitchen, J. Optimum digestion & a vital diet necessary for treating porphyria, TLfDP. 2000; 204.
33. Ross, A. Nutrition and Healing, Health E-Tips. May 13, 2004. Available at: http://www.wrightnewsletter.com/etips .
34. Roth, Ronald. Iron Manganese DRI/RDA. Available at: http://www.acu-cell.com/femn.html .
35. Davis, W. Ask the doctor. Life Extension. December 2004.
36. Copper bioavailability and requirements. JAm J Clin Nutr. 1982;35(4):809-14
Life Extension. Abstracts, September 2000.
Wright, J. Grab and go. Nutrition and Healing. Health E-Tips. February 03, 2005.
37. Normal iron metabolism. Available at: http://www.medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL .
38. Kitchen, J. Dysfunction of iron utilization. TLDP. November 2003;244.
39. Absorption of minerals and metals. Available at: http://arbl.cymbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/
40. Liningcr, Schuyler W. Jr. Gaby, Alan, R. Austin, Steve, Brown, Donald, J. Wright, Jonathan V. Duncan, Alice, The Natural Pharmacy. 2" Edition, Prima Publishing;1999.
41 Kitchen, J. Why nutritional therapies fail in patients who need them the most. TLDP. April 2004;249.
42. King, M. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol. Indiana University School of Medicine, 1996. Available at: http://web.indstate.edu/theme/mwking/lipid-synthesis.html .
43. Guengcrich, P. Influence of nutrients and other dietary materials on cytochrome P-450 enzymes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. l995;6l (supplement) 6515-85.
44. Porter, Todd D. Cytochrome Reductase, University of Kentucky. Available at http://www.uky.edu/Pharmacy/ps/porter/CPR.htm .
45. Gordon, Garry F. Yasko, Amy. The Puzzle of Autism: Putting It All Together. Matrix Development Publishing, 2004.
46. Dunne, Lavon J. Nutrition Almanac. Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
47. Pitchford, Paul Healing with Whole Foods: Oriental Traditions ant/Modern Nutrition. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books; 1993.
48. Changing Diets and Lifestyles. Available at: http://www.omega-3info.com/diets.htm .
49. Seo T, Blaner WS. Deekelbaum RJ. Omega-3 fatty acids: molecular approaches to optimal biological outcomes. Curr Opin Lipido. 2005 February;16(1):11-8.
50. Hexcberg 5, Retterstol K. Hypertriglyceridemia-diagnostics, risk and treatment, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 November 4;124(2l):2746-9.
51. Canadian Asthma Prevention Institute. Prostaglandins, enzymes, and cells. Available at: http://asthmaworld.org/EFA3.htm .
52. Wright, J. Fish oil and 33 other natural secrets to tackle all your heart's risks. Nutrition & Healing. March 2003;10(3).
53. Jiang, Qing, Wong, Jeffrey, Fyrst, Saba, Julie D. Ames, Bruce N. y-tocopherol or combinations of vitamin E forms induce cell death in human prostate cancer cells by interrupting sphingolipid synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. December 21, 2004;1 01(5I): I7825-17830.
54. Functional Evaluation of Digestion. Berquist, Mark-Charles. Fax: (715) 392-5669.
55. Bone, K. I 1 things you can eat or drink to knock out the hidden factor behind chronic – even deadly -- disease. Nutrition & Healing. March 2005;12(2).
56. Busch, Robert H. Valley of the Grizzlies. New York: St. Martin's Press; 1998.
57. I recommend that you read the following very helpful reviews:
Alleger, I. Hands-on medicine produces miraculous cures. TLDP. January 2005;258.
Klotter, J. Breath control for stress. TLDP. February/March 2005;259/260.
58. Rudnick DA, Perlmutter DH, Muglia U, Prostaglandins arc required for CREB activation and cellular proliferation during liver regeneration, Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. July 10, 2001; 2(28).
59. Koronet, D. Anti-inflammatory medicine – risks and natural alternatives. Mt. Airy Messenger. Available at: .
60. Pain relief for headaches. Medical Information from The Cleveland Clinic. Available at: http://my.webmd.com/content/pages/19/103412?printing=true .
61. Bone, Kerry. The story of bitters. Nutrition & Healing. December 1998.
62. Wright, Karen. Free radical: the eminent, controversial, and endlessly inventive biochemist Bruce Ames thinks he has found a way to slow the aging process in the brain. May the force be with him. Discover. October 2002;23(10).

Subscriptions are available for Townsend Letter, the Examiner of Alternative Medicine magazine, which is published 10 times each year.

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Once you find the magazines you'd like to order, please use our convenient form. e-mail subscriptions@townsendletter.com. or call 360.385.6021 (PST).

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