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Ampin

Category: Blood Pressure

Description

Norvasc is used for treating high blood pressure and angina (chest pain).

Active Ingredient: amlodipine

Norvasc (Ampin) as known as: Abesyl, Abis, Abloom, Actapin, Adipin, Agen, Aggovask, Akridipin, Aldan, Aldosion, Almadin, Almidis, Almirin, Alopine, Alopres, Alozur, Amaday, Amcor, Amdipin, Amdixal, Amdocal, Amdopin, Amilip, Amilo, Amilopid, Amlarrow, Amlate, Amlibon, Amlid, Amlip, Amlipin, Amlist, Amlo, Amlobesyl, Amloblock, Amloc, Amlocar, Amlocard, Amloclair, Amlocor, Amlodac, Amlode, Amlodep, Amlodibene, Amlodigamma, Amlodil, Amlodilan, Amlodin, Amlodine, Amlodinova, Amlodipin, Amlodipina, Amlodipinbesilat, Amlodipino, Amlodipinum, Amlodis, Amlodowin, Amlogal, Amlohexal, Amlokard, Amlolich, Amlomal, Amlomark, Amlong, Amlonor, Amlopin, Amlopol, Amlopp, Amlopres, Amlor, Amloratio, Amloreg, Amlorus, Amlosin, Amlostad, Amlosun, Amlosyn, Amlotan, Amlotens, Amlotop, Amlovas, Amlovasc, Amlovask, Amlow, Amlozek, Amocal, Amodipin, Amonex, Amparo, Ampin, Amtas, Amtim, Amvasc, Amze, Anexa, Angiofilina, Angiovan gmp, Angipec, Anlodipin, Anlow, Antacal, Apitim, Apo-amlo, Apo-amlodipine, Arteriosan, Arterium, Asomex, Astudal, Atloma, Avistar, Balarm, Beglaryl, Calbloc, Calchek, Calpres, Calsivas, Calvasc, Camlodin, Caprez, Cardicol, Cardilopin, Cardionox, Cardiorex, Cardiovasc, Cardisan, Cardivas, Cardivask, Ciplavasc, Cordi cor, Cordil, Cordipina, Coroval, Cristacor, Dafiro, Dafor, Dilopin, Dilotex, Diplor, Divask, Dopin, Dronalden, Duactin, Edidipin, Emlip-5, Emlodin, Emlon, Esam, Eucoran, Evangio, Exforge, Gensia, Goritel, Harmidipin, Hasanlor, Hipertensal, Hipres, Ilduc, Imped, Intervask, Ipin, Istin, Kaprin, Klodip-5, Krudipin, Lama, Lavi-press, Locard, Lodepine, Lodimax, Lodipar, Lodipin, Lodipin-5, Lodipine, Lofral, Lopin, Lopiten, Lordivas, Lotense, Lovask, Lowrac, Lowvasc, Lykamilox, Makadip, Maxidipin, Mibral, Mitokor, Monodipin, Monopina, Monovas, Myodura, Myostin, Naxuril, Newdipine, Nexotensil, Nicord, Nipidol, Nolmoten, Noloten, Nolvac, Nor-lodipina, Nordex, Norfan, Norlopin, Normodin, Normodipine, Normopres, Normostad, Normoten, Norvadin, Norvalet, Norvas, Norvask, Novaten, Omelar cardio, Oralcam, Orcal, Orkal, Ozlodip, Pelmec, Perivasc, Perten, Pinam, Presdeten, Presilam, Presovasc, Primodil, Q-spin, Raserdipina, Recotens, Roxflan, Rustin, Sidopin, Sistopress, Stadovas 5, Stamlo, Suplar, Tenox, Tensigal, Tensivask, Tensocard, Terloc, Tervalon, Theravask, Toraass a, Vamlo, Vascam, Vasocal, Vasocard, Vasonorm, Vasopin, Vazkor, Vazotal, Vilpin, Xelcard, Zeppeliton, Zorem, Zundic

Journal of Stroke - Cerebrovascular Diseases

Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases

The Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases publishes original papers on basic and clinical science related to the fields of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. The Journal also features review articles, controversies, methods and technical notes, selected case reports and other original articles of special nature.

Its editorial mission is to focus on prevention and repair of cerebrovascular disease. Clinical papers emphasize medical and surgical aspects of stroke, clinical trials and design, epidemiology. stroke care delivery systems and outcomes, imaging sciences and rehabilitation of stroke. The Journal will be of special interest to specialists involved in caring for patients with cerebrovascular disease, including neurologists, neurosurgeons and cardiologists.

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We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.

The Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases publishes original papers on basic and clinical science related to the fields of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. The Journal also features review articles, controversies, methods and technical notes, selected case reports and other original articles of special nature.

Its editorial mission is to focus on prevention and repair of cerebrovascular disease. Clinical papers emphasize medical and surgical aspects of stroke, clinical trials and design, epidemiology. stroke care delivery systems and outcomes, imaging sciences and rehabilitation of stroke. The Journal will be of special interest to specialists involved in caring for patients with cerebrovascular disease, including neurologists, neurosurgeons and cardiologists.

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We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services .

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com

The Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases publishes original papers on basic and clinical science related to the fields of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. The Journal also features review articles, controversies, methods and technical notes, selected case reports and other original articles of special nature.

Its editorial mission is to focus on prevention and repair of cerebrovascular disease. Clinical papers emphasize medical and surgical aspects of stroke, clinical trials and design, epidemiology. stroke care delivery systems and outcomes, imaging sciences and rehabilitation of stroke. The Journal will be of special interest to specialists involved in caring for patients with cerebrovascular disease, including neurologists, neurosurgeons and cardiologists.

Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.

The Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases publishes original papers on basic and clinical science related to the fields of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. The Journal also features review articles, controversies, methods and technical notes, selected case reports and other original articles of special nature.

Its editorial mission is to focus on prevention and repair of cerebrovascular disease. Clinical papers emphasize medical and surgical aspects of stroke, clinical trials and design, epidemiology. stroke care delivery systems and outcomes, imaging sciences and rehabilitation of stroke. The Journal will be of special interest to specialists involved in caring for patients with cerebrovascular disease, including neurologists, neurosurgeons and cardiologists.

Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services .

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com

Other articles

Ampin diseases

Isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin Disease Interactions

There are 17 disease interactions with isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin:

Inh (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hepatotoxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Alcoholism

The use of isoniazid is contraindicated in patients with acute liver disease or a history of hepatic injury due to isoniazid. Caution is advised when using the drug in patients with chronic liver disease or a history of alcoholism. Isoniazid has been associated with severe and sometimes fatal hepatitis, which may occur even after many months of therapy. In a US Public Health Service Surveillance Study of nearly 14,000 isoniazid patients, the incidence of hepatitis was 1.25%, of which 4.6% was fatal. However, more recent studies have reported considerably lower rates when CDC guidelines for selection and monitoring of patients were followed. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence with increasing age, alcohol use, and female gender. As a precautionary measure, routine monitoring of serum transaminases (SGOT, SGPT) and bilirubin may be considered, although a transient and harmless increase in serum transaminase reportedly occurs in 10% to 20% of patients, usually in the first 3 months of therapy. Patients should be advised to promptly discontinue isoniazid therapy and seek medical attention if they experience signs or symptoms suggestive of liver damage such as fever, rash, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, dark urine, and jaundice. Reinstitution of the drug should occur only after symptoms and laboratory abnormalities resolve, with low and gradually increasing dosages.

References
  1. Maddrey WC "Drug-related acute and chronic hepatitis." Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1980): 213-24
  2. Yamamoto T, Suou T, Hirayama C "Elevated serum aminotransferase induced by isoniazid in relation to isoniazid acetylator phenotype." Hepatology 6 (1986): 295-8
  3. "Product Information. INH (isoniazid)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
View all 15 references Inh (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Isoniazid is primarily metabolized by the liver. Patients with liver disease may be at greater risk for adverse effects from isoniazid due to decreased drug clearance. Dosage reductions are recommended in these patients.

References
  1. "Product Information. INH (isoniazid)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  2. Acocella G, Bonollo L, Garimoldi M, et al "Kinetics of rifampicin and isoniazid administered alone and in combination to normal subjects and patients with liver disease." Gut 13 (1972): 47-53
  3. Reed MD, Blumer JL "Clinical pharmacology of antitubercular drugs." Pediatr Clin North Am 30 (1983): 177-93
View all 6 references Inh (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Peripheral Neuropathy

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Malnourished, Diabetes Mellitus, Alcoholism, Peripheral Neuropathy

Isoniazid commonly causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy, which results from the depletion of pyridoxine in the presence of the drug. The neuropathy is usually preceded by paresthesias of the feet and hands. Therapy with isoniazid should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting peripheral neuropathy or risk factors for developing the condition, such as malnutrition, diabetes and alcoholism. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) at a dosage of 10 to 50 mg/day may prevent or attenuate isoniazid-related peripheral neuropathy and is recommended for these patients.

References
  1. Dippenaar J, Jameson C, Dowse R "Side-effects of isoniazid." S Afr Med J 72 (1987): 89
  2. Siskind MS, Thienemann D, Kirlin L "Isoniazid-induced neurotoxicity in chronic dialysis patients: report of three cases and a review of the literature." Nephron 64 (1993): 303-6
  3. "Product Information. INH (isoniazid)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
View all 7 references Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Gout

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gout

The use of pyrazinamide is contraindicated in patients with acute gout. Pyrazinamide inhibits the renal excretion of uric acid, which may frequently result in precipitation or exacerbation of gout. Therapy with pyrazinamide should be administered cautiously in patients with hyperuricemia or a history of gout. Serum uric acid levels should be monitored regularly, and appropriate measures (e.g. administration of uricosuric agents) taken to prevent the development of gout. If gouty arthritis occurs, pyrazinamide should be discontinued.

References
  1. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
  2. Amodio MI, Bengualid V, Lowy FD "Development of acute gout secondary to pyrazinamide in a patient without a prior history of gout." DICP 24 (1990): 1115-6
Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hepatotoxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, Liver Disease

The use of pyrazinamide is contraindicated in patients with severe liver damage. Pyrazinamide may cause hepatocellular injury, particularly in patients with underlying liver disease and during coadministration with other hepatotoxic agents including other antituberculous drugs such as isoniazid and rifampin. Therapy with pyrazinamide should be administered cautiously and under strict medical supervision in patients with liver disease or a history of alcoholism. Serum transaminases (ALT, AST) and bilirubin should be measured at baseline and monitored closely during therapy. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the drug promptly and seek medical attention if signs and symptoms of hepatic injury develop, including fever, rash, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, dark urine, and jaundice. To lessen the risk of hepatotoxicity, the maximum dosage should not exceed 2 g/day when treatment is administered daily or 3 g/day when administered twice weekly.

References
  1. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
  2. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. "Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed." New York, NY: Churchill Livingston 1 (1995):
  3. Cohen CD, Sayed AR, Kirsch RE "Hepatic complications of antituberculosis therapy revisited." S Afr Med J 63 (1983): 960-3
View all 5 references Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Pyrazinamide is primarily metabolized by the liver. Patients with liver disease may be at greater risk for adverse effects from pyrazinamide due to decreased drug clearance. Dosage reductions are recommended in these patients if the drug is used.

References
  1. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
  2. Lacroix C, Tranvouez JL, Hoang T, Duwoos H, LaFont O "Pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and its metabolites in patients with hepatic cirrhotic insufficiency." Arzneimittelforschung 40 (1990): 76-9
  3. Ellard GA "Absorption, metabolism and excretion of pyrazinamide in man." Tubercle 50 (1969): 144-58
Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

The half-life of pyrazinamide may be prolonged in patients with renal impairment. In addition, the drug's metabolites, at least one of which is pharmacologically active, may accumulate. Therapy with pyrazinamide should be administered cautiously in patients with renal dysfunction. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.

References
  1. Stamatakis G, Montes C, Trouvin JH, et al "Pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic renal failure." Clin Nephrol 30 (1988): 230-4
  2. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
  3. Ellard GA "Absorption, metabolism and excretion of pyrazinamide in man." Tubercle 50 (1969): 144-58
View all 4 references Rifampin (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hematopoietic Disturbances

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Rifampin may infrequently cause hematopoietic abnormalities such as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, decreased hemoglobin, and acute hemolytic anemia. Hemolysis has been described as part of an immune-mediated reaction which generally occurs after gaps in therapy. Thrombocytopenia is observed most frequently in patients receiving high-dose intermittent therapy or after a lapse in therapy, but very rarely during daily administration. It is reversible if rifampin is discontinued as soon as purpura appears. Patients with preexisting bone marrow depression or blood dyscrasias should be monitored closely during rifampin therapy for further decreases in blood counts. Although rifampin-related hematologic effects are often transient, cerebral hemorrhage and fatalities have been reported with the continued administration of rifampin after the appearance of purpura.

References
  1. Lee M, Berger HW "Eosinophilia caused by rifampin." Chest 77 (1980): 579
  2. "Product Information. Rifadin (rifampin)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  3. Dutt AK, Moers D, Stead WW "Undesirable side effects of isoniazid and rifampin in largely twice-weekly short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis." Am Rev Respir Dis 128 (1983): 419-24
View all 15 references Rifampin (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hepatotoxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Alcoholism

The use of rifampin has been associated with hepatocellular injury and liver dysfunction. Hepatitis and jaundice resulting in death have occurred, mostly in patients with underlying liver disease and during coadministration with other hepatotoxic agents including other antituberculous drugs such as isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Therapy with rifampin should be administered cautiously and under strict medical supervision in patients with liver disease or a history of alcoholism. Serum transaminases (ALT, AST) and bilirubin should be measured at baseline and every 2 to 4 weeks during therapy, but keeping in mind that elevated levels may occur transiently in 10% to 15% of patients, usually during the early days of treatment. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the drug promptly and seek medical attention if signs and symptoms of hepatic injury develop, including fever, rash, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, dark urine, and jaundice.

References
  1. Dutt AK, Moers D, Stead WW "Short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis with mainly twice-weekly isoniazid and rifampin: community physicians' seven-year experience with mainly outpatients." Am J Med 77 (1984): 233-42
  2. Maddrey WC "Drug-related acute and chronic hepatitis." Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1980): 213-24
  3. Dutt AK, Moers D, Stead WW "Undesirable side effects of isoniazid and rifampin in largely twice-weekly short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis." Am Rev Respir Dis 128 (1983): 419-24
View all 10 references Rifampin (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Rifampin is primarily metabolized by the liver. Patients with liver disease may be at greater risk for adverse effects from rifampin due to decreased drug clearance. In addition, the accumulation of rifampin may result in hyperbilirubinemia because rifampin competes with bilirubin for uptake by hepatocytes. Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with liver disease. Withdrawal of rifampin therapy may be required if serum bilirubin is persistently high.

References
  1. Nitti V, Virgilio R, Patricolo MR, Iuliano A "Pharmacokinetic study of intravenous rifampicin." Chemotherapy 23 (1977): 1-6
  2. Acocella G "Clinical pharmacokinetics of rifampicin." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 108-27
  3. "Product Information. Rifadin (rifampin)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
View all 4 references Rifampin (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Porphyria

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

Rifampin may induce the activity of delta amino levulinic acid synthetase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of porphyrins. The use of rifampin has been associated with isolated cases of porphyria exacerbation. Therapy with rifampin should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of porphyria.

References
  1. "Product Information. Rifadin (rifampin)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
Antibiotics (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References
  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
View all 47 references Inh (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Isoniazid is substantially removed by hemodialysis and should be administered after dialysis.

References
  1. Gold CH, Buchanan N, Tringham V, et al "Isoniazid pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic renal failure." Clin Nephrol 6 (1976): 365-9
  2. "Product Information. INH (isoniazid)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Nydrazid (isoniazid)" Apothecon Inc, Princeton, NJ.
Inh (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Isoniazid is metabolized primarily by acetylation and dehydrazination in the liver. It is not significantly excreted by the kidney. Dosage adjustments in renal impairment are generally not necessary except in slow acetylators with a creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min. The rate of acetylation is genetically determined. Approximately 50% of blacks and caucasians are slow acetylators, and the majority of Eskimos and Asians are rapid acetylators.

References
  1. "Product Information. Nydrazid (isoniazid)" Apothecon Inc, Princeton, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. INH (isoniazid)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  3. Gold CH, Buchanan N, Tringham V, et al "Isoniazid pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic renal failure." Clin Nephrol 6 (1976): 365-9
View all 9 references Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Diabetes Mellitus

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus

The use of pyrazinamide may be associated with poor diabetic control. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored more closely during therapy with pyrazinamide, and their antidiabetic regimen adjusted accordingly.

References
  1. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
Pza (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Pyrazinamide is removed by hemodialysis and should be administered after dialysis.

References
  1. Woo J, Leung A, Chan K, Lai KN, Teoh R "Pyrazinamide and rifampicin regimens for patients on maintenance dialysis." Int J Artif Organs 11 (1988): 181-5
  2. "Product Information. Pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide)." VersaPharm Inc, Marietta, GA.
Rifampin (Includes Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampin) ↔ Enzyme Induction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperthyroidism, Hyperadrenocorticism, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Panhypopituitarism, Hyperparathyroidism, Adrenal Insufficiency

Rifampin has enzyme-inducing effects that can enhance the metabolism of many endogenous substrates, including adrenal hormones, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D, the latter of which may affect serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels. Patients with preexisting imbalances of these hormones should be monitored more closely during long-term therapy with rifampin. In patients whose hormonal condition is stabilized on treatment, adjustments may be necessary in their treatment regimen to compensate for these effects.

References
  1. "Product Information. Rifadin (rifampin)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
You should also know about.

isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin drug Interactions

There are 819 drug interactions with isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin

isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin alcohol/food Interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with isoniazid / pyrazinamide / rifampin

See also. Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.

Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.

Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.

Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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Ampin diseases

daughter has lyme x18 yrs. began treatment for bart with rifampin and made her very sick. 2 yrs later had elbow replacement that got infected and doc wanted to treat with rifampin. told him she had issues with rx previously but he gave it to her anyway. she got very sick right away and finally began to code. good thing she was already in hospital. ended up in ICU x2 weeks. very close call. BE CAREFUL WITH RIFAMPIN

Sage advice to stop taking a med while you are waiting to hear from your doc.

I haven't had that experience with Rifampin. When I took it last year, it did make me significantly dizzy. It definitely was doing something to address the Bartonella and/or lyme.

As a herx, I broke out in a Quarter-sized or larger solid red rash on my thigh, and very light but so-called typical bartonella rash (lines, sort of stretch mark looking) that was a little itchy.

Oddly enough, one rash passed within a matter of 1/2 hour the other one came and went for a few days, was barely visible really, and then disappeared altogether.

An adverse reaction like you had could be an intolerance(allergy).
However, shortness of breath is definitely indicated as one of the side-effects of the drug itself. I hope your doctor has better answers. Let us know how it goes with your Md on Monday.

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Rifampin - drug review: dosage, side effects, action, buy Rifampin

Rifampin Rifampin review


Rifampin is a medication that kills Tuberculosis-causing bacteria. It also helps prevent the patient from spreading the infection to other people. Rifampin is not administered alone. It is normally given together with three other drugs.

Rifampin is available as a capsule that should be taken orally. It can be taken in either 150mg or 300 mg doses, depending on the doctor’s instructions. In order to maximize Rifampin’s effects, it must be taken once a day for a period that can be as short as 3 months and as long as two years. Rifampin is given over an extended period of time in order to make sure that the bacteria is totally eradicated and the patient is no longer contagious. Rifampin works best when it is taken on an empty stomach so make sure you take it one or two hours before your next meal.

Rifampin can also be injected to the body. However, this can only be done by a medical professional.

Rifampin tends to affect the function of oral contraceptives so it is advisable that you opt for another form of birth control.

To prevent negative drug interactions, inform your doctor about any other medication that you are currently taking. Inform your doctor about taking medications for heart disease, for blood thinning, for hormone replacement and for diabetes. HIV or AIDS medication will also interact negatively with Rifampin. Barbiturates may also produce adverse effects. Also, inform your doctor about any vitamins or food supplement that you are currently taking.

Rifampin has a tendency to dramatically reduce the effect of anticoagulants. As a result, blood clots may occur. In order to prevent this, doctors sometimes raise to dosage of anticoagulants to three times the normal amount. This is done in order to counter Rifampin’s effects.

If you have a history of liver disease, the doctor may need to adjust your dosage in order to prevent further liver damage. In some cases, Rifampin is so potent that patients get a bit of jaundice. In very severe cases, the liver damage is so extensive, it leads to death.

In addition, if you get pregnant while taking this medication or if you are breastfeeding, contact your physician immediately. He will decide whether it is safe for you and your baby to continue the treatment.

When you start taking Rifampin, there will be a marked difference with the appearance of your body excretions. Your tears, saliva. sweat, stool and urine may turn into a red-orange color. However, this is normal and is not at all indicative of any harm from the Rifampin treatment.

The patient may also feel pain in the muscle and in the bones. Stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhea may also be experienced. Chills or heartburn can also happen.

It is also possible for the patient to have an allergic reaction to Rifampin. If the patient breaks out in hives and gets rashes all over the body, it might be the sign of an allergic reaction. Swelling of the face, legs and arms could also be a sign. Difficulty in breathing may be part of the symptoms.

Rifampin has the following structural formula:

• Molecular formula of rifampin is C43H58N4O12
• Chemical IUPAC Name is (7S,9E,11S,12S,13R,14S,15R,16S,17R,18S,26E)-2,15,17,29- tetrahydroxy-11-methoxy-3,7, 12,14,16,18,22-heptamethyl-26-<[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)amino]methylidene>-6,23,27- trioxo-8,30-dioxa-24- azatetracyclo[23.3.1.1^<4,7>.0^<5,28>]triaconta-1(28),2,4,9,19,21,25(29)- heptaen-13-yl acetate
• Molecular weight is 822.9402 g/mol
Rifampin available. 150mg tablets, 300mg tablets and 600mg tablets

Brand name(s): Archidyn, Rfamipicin, Rifa, Rifadin, Rifadine, Rifagen, Rifaldazin, Rifaldazine, Rifaldin, Rifamate, Rifampicin, Rifamycin, Rifaprodin, Rifater, Rifoldin, Rifoldine, Riforal, Rimactan, Rimactane, Rimactin, Rimazid, Rofact, Tubocin

Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease

Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease occurred in a child who had completed rifampin chemoprophylaxis for exposure to a sibling with meningococcemia. Susceptibility testing of 331 case isolates found only 1 other case of rifampin-resistant disease in Minnesota, USA, during 11 years of statewide surveillance. Point mutations in the RNA polymerase [beta] subunit (rpoB) gene were found in isolates from each rifampin-resistant case-patient.

Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for close contacts of persons with invasive meningococcal disease to prevent secondary cases. In the 1960s, rifampin replaced sulfonamides as the recommended agent for chemoprophylaxis of household members and other close contacts of persons with invasive meningococcal disease when sulfonamide-resistant meningococci became common (1). In recent years, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone have been established as acceptable alternatives to rifampin for prophylaxis of meningococcal disease. However, rifampin remains a popular choice due to its low cost, ease of administration, and well-established record among infants and children.

Pharyngeal colonization with rifampin-resistant meningococci following chemoprophylaxis with rifampin of persons exposed to meningococcal disease was documented soon after treatment was initiated (2) and has continued to be observed over time (3). However, although rifampin has been used routinely worldwide for more than 30 years, few cases of rifampin-resistant meningococcal isolates in cases of invasive disease have been reported (4-7), and reports of only 3 instances in the United States could be found (8-10).

Rifampin targets the [beta] subunit of DNA-directed RNA polymerase by inhibiting extension of the RNA strand. The [beta] subunit is encoded by the rpoB gene. Previous studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms of rifampin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis is associated with single point mutations of the rpoB gene that result in amino acid substitutions (11-13). The data presented in this study confirm the rapid development of rifampin resistance upon exposure of meningococci to rifampin as a result of point mutations in the rpoB gene.

Cases of invasive meningococcal disease in Minnesota residents are required to be reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Laboratories throughout the state routinely submit isolates from patients with this disease to the MDH Public Health Laboratory, where they are serogrouped by slide agglutination (Difco, Detroit, MI, USA). In 1995, the MDH began routinely testing antimicrobial susceptibilities on meningococcal isolates and retrospectively conducted susceptibility testing on all available meningococcal isolates that had been submitted since 1993.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by using broth microdilution. Panels contained cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2%-5% lysed horse blood (PML Microbiologicals, Wilsonville, OR, USA) and were incubated at 35[degrees]C in C[O.sub.2] for 20-24 h. An Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) was also used for isolates that demonstrated resistance to further quantify degree of resistance. MIC breakpoints have recently been established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards institute for N. meningitidis (14). An MIC [greater than or equal to] 2 [micro]g/mL is considered resistant to rifampin.

Molecular subtyping of the sibling isolates was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as described previously (15). The rpoB genes from rifampin-resistant and rifampin-sensitive isolates (Table 1) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by using primers described previously (13). DNA and peptide sequences were analyzed with BioNumerics (Applied Maths, Austin, TX, USA) and Vector NTI Suite (InforMax, North Bethesda, MD, USA).

The first known case of rifampin-resistant invasive meningococcal disease in Minnesota occurred in 1996. A 5-month-old infant had a clinical syndrome consistent with meningococcemia. He was hospitalized for 10 days, received antimicrobial drug therapy, and survived. By Etest, his serogroup B N. meningitidis isolate had a rifampin MIC [greater than or equal to] 32 [micro]g/mL. This was a sporadic case with no apparent links to any other previous or subsequent cases.

In 2002, fever, vomiting, and irritability developed in a 2-month-old infant, followed 12 hours later by labored breathing and a generalized rash. She was taken to a clinic where she experienced cardiac arrest and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. She was transferred to a nearby emergency room where she died [approximately equal to] 1 hour later. Meningococcemia was suspected and household members were given prescriptions for rifampin. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome was noted on autopsy, and N. meningitidis was isolated from a swab of brain tissue. Three days after the death of the case-patient and 1 day after completing a 2-day course of rifampin, a fever and lethargy developed in the case-patient's 6-year-old sister. Blood cultures were obtained and she was hospitalized, given antimicrobial drug treatment (ceftriaxone), and observed. No cerebrospinal fluid was collected. Blood cultures were subsequently positive for N. meningitidis. She responded to ceftriaxone and continued treatment as an outpatient after a short hospitalization. Household contacts, along with other close contacts of the 6-year-old girl, again received chemoprophylaxis. It was recommended that adults be treated with ciprofloxacin and children be treated with ceftriaxone because of concerns that 1 or both siblings could have had rifampin-resistant meningococcal infections. No additional related cases were identified over the following weeks.

Isolates from both siblings were identified as serogroup C. The PFGE patterns were indistinguishable and had, in fact, the most common PFGE pattern seen for that serogroup in Minnesota. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the isolate from the case-patient was susceptible to ceftriaxone, penicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin. The MIC for rifampin was 0.008 [micro]g/mL. The isolate from the 6-year-old patient was susceptible to the same drugs, except for rifampin, which had an MIC >1 [micro]g/mL by broth microdilution and an MIC >32 [micro]g/mL by Etest.

A comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the rpoB gene of both sibling isolates showed they were identical except for a single nucleotide change. This change resulted in a substitution of serine for phenylalanine at amino acid position 548. This substitution has previously been associated with rifampin resistance in N. meningitidis (12).

The PFGE subtype of the isolate from the rifampinresistant case in 1996 differed from that of the siblings' isolates. Sequencing of the rpoB gene from this isolate showed an amino acid substitution of histidine for tyrosine at position 552. This substitution has also been previously associated with rifampin resistance in JV. meningitidis (Table 1; MDH97-498) (11,13).

Susceptibility results on meningococcal isolates from 1993 to 2003 for other antimicrobial agents are shown in Table 2. Using the newly established breakpoints, we observed that 92% (303/331) of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 100% (205/205) were susceptible to ceftriaxone, 100% (331/331) were susceptible to meropenem, 100% (205/205) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 100% (331/331) were susceptible to chloramphenicol, and 48% (158/331) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Primary cases of rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease are rare. While more common, secondary cases with rifampin resistance can develop following chemoprophylaxis with rifampin. All N. meningitidis isolates tested at MDH were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Ceftriaxone must be given parenterally but is the recommended prophylactic agent for infected pregnant women. According to the 2003 American Academy of Pediatrics Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, ciprofloxacin may be used by persons >15 years of age. While few instances of ciprofloxacin resistance have been reported, its widespread use may result in greater resistance in N. meningitidis (as has occurred in related pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae) (16,17). Persons receiving chemoprophylaxis should be advised about the potential of meningococcal disease developing, even though they have taken antimicrobial agents as prescribed. If a close contact who has been treated with rifampin becomes ill with meningococcal disease, alternative antimicrobial agents should be used for prophylaxis until rifampin sensitivity of the secondary infection can be established. Although rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease is still rare after 30 years of using rifampin for chemoprophylaxis and ciprofloxacin resistance has rarely been observed, susceptibilities to chemoprophylactic agents should be monitored to ensure that recommendations are sufficiently effective to minimize the occurrence of secondary cases.

We thank the hospital infection control practitioners and local public health agencies of Minnesota for their cooperation in reporting cases; the microbiology laboratory personnel for submitting isolates to the Minnesota Department of Health; Richard Danila and Harry Hull for thoughtfully reviewing this manuscript; Nancy Rosenstein for guidance; and James Jorgenson for input on recommended breakpoints for N. meningitidis susceptibility.

This work was supported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program Cooperative Agreement U50/CCU511190-09.

(1.) Deal WB, Sanders E. Efficacy of rifampin in treatment of meningococcal carriers. N Engl J Med. 1969;281:641-5.

(2.) Weidmer CE, Dunkel TB, Pettyjohn FS, Smith CD, Leibovitz A. Effectiveness of rifampin in eradicating the meningococcal carrier state in a relatively closed population: emergence of resistant strains. J Infect Dis. 1971;124:172-8.

(3.) Jackson LA, Alexander ER, Debolt CA, Swenson PD, Boase J, McDowell MG, et al. Evaluation of the use of mass chemoprophylaxis during a school outbreak of enzyme type 5 serogroup B meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15:992-8.

(4.) Cooke RPD, Riordan T, Jones DM, Painter MJ. Secondary cases of meningococcal infection among close family and household contacts in England and Wales, 1984-7. BMJ. 1989;298:555-8.

(5.) Yagupsky P, Ashkenazi S, Block C. Rifampicin-resistant meningococci causing invasive disease and failure of chemoprophylaxis. Lancet. 1993;341:1152-3.

(6.) Almog R, Block C, Gdalevich M, Lev B, Wiener M, Ashkenazi S. First recorded outbreaks of meningococcal disease in the Israel Defence Force: three clusters due to serogroup C and the emergence of resistance to rifampicin. Infection. 1994;22:69-71.

(7.) Dawson SJ, Fey RE, McNulty CA. Meningococcal disease in siblings caused by rifampicin sensitive and rifampicin resistant strains. Commun Dis Public Health. 1999;2:215-6.

(8.) Cooper ER, Ellison RT, Smith GS, Blaser MJ, Reller LB, Paisley JW. Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease in a contact patient given prophylactic ritampin. J Pediatr. 1986;108:93-6.

(9.) Berkey P, Rolston K, Zukiwski A, Gooch G, Bodey GE Rifampin-resistant meningococcal infection in a patient given rifampin chemoprophylaxis. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:250-2.

(10.) Levy DI, del Rio C, Stephens DS. Meningococcemia in identical twins: changes in serum susceptibility after rifampin chemoprophylaxis. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:1064-8.

(11.) Carter PE, Abadi FJR, Yakubu DE, Pennington TH. Molecular characterization of rifampin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994;38:1256-61.

(12.) Nolte O. Rifampicin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis: evidence from a study of sibling strains, description of new mutations and notes on population genetics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;39:747-55.

(13.) Stefanelli P, Fazio C, La Rosa G, Marianelli C, Muscillo M, Mastrantonio P. Rifampicin-resistant meningococci causing invasive disease: detection of point mutations in the rpoB gene and molecular characterization of the strains. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001; 47:219-22.

(14.) National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 15th informational supplement. CLSI/NCCLS document M100-S15. Wayne (PA): CLSI; 2005.

(15.) Popovic T, Schmink S, Rosenstein NA, Ajello GW, Reeves MW, Plikaytis B, et al. Evaluation of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in epidemiological investigations of meningococcal disease outbreaks caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:75-85.

(16.) Schultz TR, Tapsall JW, White PA, Newton PJ. An invasive isolate of Neisseria meningitidis showing decreased susceptibility to quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1116.

(17.) Alcala B, Salcedo C, de la Fuente L, Arreaza L, Uria MJ, Abad R, et al. Neisseria meningitidis showing decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: first report in Spain. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:409.

Jean Rainbow, * Elizabeth Cebelinski, * Joanne Bartkus, * Anita Glennen, * Dave Boxrud, * and Ruth Lynfield *

* Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Ms. Rainbow is a surveillance officer for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program Active Bacterial Core Surveillance at the Minnesota Department of Health. Her research interests include the epidemiology of invasive bacterial diseases and surveillance for unexplained deaths that may have infectious causes.

Address for correspondence: Jean Rainbow, Minnesota Department of Health, 717 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA; fax: 612-676-5743; email: jcan.rainbow@health.state.mn.us

Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Norvasc (Ampin) Delivery

You can order delivery of a Norvasc (Ampin) to the Norway, Hong Kong, Sweden or any other country in the world. Residents of the USA can order Norvasc (Ampin) to any city, to any address, for example to Houston, Manassas, Los Angeles or Denver.