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Category: Blood Pressure


Vasotec is used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure, and other heart problems.

Active Ingredient: Enalapril

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Anapril Indications

Anapril is used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure, and other heart problems. It may be used alone or with other medicines. Anapril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It works by helping to relax blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure.

Anapril Instructions

Use Anapril as directed by your doctor.

  • Take Anapril by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation.
  • If you miss a dose of Anapril, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Anapril.

Anapril Storage

Store Anapril at room temperature below 86 degrees (30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Anapril out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Anapril More Info

Active Ingredient: Enalapril maleate.

Do NOT use Anapril if:
  • you are allergic to any ingredient in Anapril or similar medicines (eg, captopril, lisinopril)
  • you are pregnant
  • you are taking dextran sulfate or a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, amiloride).

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Anapril. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

  • if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
  • if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
  • if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
  • if you have or have ever had liver or kidney problems or kidney transplantation
  • if you are receiving dialysis
  • if you have bone marrow suppression, low blood counts, low blood sodium, high blood potassium, the blood disease porphyria, giant hives, lupus, scleroderma, or a collagen vascular disease
  • if you have narrowing or hardening of the arteries of the brain or heart, chest pain, or discomfort known as angina.

Some medicines may interact with Anapril. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

  • Diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide) because excessive decreases in blood pressure may occur, which may cause dizziness, especially upon standing, or fainting
  • Dextran sulfate because it may increase the risk of allergic reaction (eg, rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue) and lightheadedness upon standing
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, aspirin, indomethacin) because they may decrease Anapril's effectiveness and the risk of kidney damage may be increased
  • Oral diabetes medicine (eg, glyburide) because side effects, including a low blood sugar level (eg, dizziness, headache, hunger, shakiness or weakness, sweating), may be increased by Anapril
  • Lithium or thiopurines (eg, azathioprine) because the risk of serious side effects may be increased by Anapril
  • Certain gold-containing medicines (eg, sodium aurothiomalate) because flushing, nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure may occur
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, amiloride) or potassium supplements may cause high blood potassium levels (eg, abnormal skin sensations of the arms and legs, confusion, heaviness of the limbs, listlessness, slow or irregular heartbeat, stopping of the heart) when used with Anapril.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Anapril may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important Anapril Safety Information
  • Anapril may cause dizziness or lightheadedness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Anapril with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.
  • Check with your doctor before you use a salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.
  • If vomiting or diarrhea occurs, you will need to take care not to become dehydrated. Contact your doctor for instructions.
  • Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.
  • Anapril may not work as well in black patients. They may also be at greater risk of side effects. Contact your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse.
  • Anapril may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Anapril. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.
  • Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Anapril before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.
  • Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Anapril. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
  • Anapril should not be used in newborns; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
  • Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Anapril may cause birth defects or fetal death if you take it while you are pregnant. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor right away. Anapril is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Anapril, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; dizziness or lightheadedness when sitting up or standing; headache; nausea; persistent, dry cough; tiredness; vomiting.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain; hoarseness; infection (eg, fever, sore throat); irregular or slow heartbeat; unusual stomach pain; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Other articles

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Infectious Diseases

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

ISSN: 0934-9723 (Print) 1435-4373 (Online)


EJCMID is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to the publication of communications on infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.

The journal welcomes full articles presenting original research results, invited editorials, and reviews on the following topics:

  • General epidemiology and diagnostics of infectious agents
  • Clinical infectious diseases research
  • Genetics and phenotypes of host susceptibility towards infectious disease or colonization
  • Use of animal models to study bacterial infections and the imaging of such infections

Studies should primarily be performed from a mechanistic point of view with emphasis on the inter-relatedness of molecular features with clinical presentation of infections. Papers on the translational application of basic research findings will be prioritized.

Public Health Europe - European Commission - EU - European Commission

European Commission
Public health

SCHER final Opinion on potential risks to human health and the environment from the use of calcium cyanamide as fertiliser (22.04.2016) The European Commission and its Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) have concluded that harmful effects for humans and for the environment could not be excluded when calcium cyanamide is used at the current rates of application.

New leaflet on Scientific Committees SCHEER and SCCS (term 2016-2021) (21.04.2016) Read the leaflet on the new Scientific Committees SCHEER and SCCS (term 2016-2021)

Conference: "Towards better prevention and management of chronic diseases", 21 April, Brussels (20.04.2016) A conference taking place in Brussels tomorrow aims to set out an EU approach for better prevention and management of chronic diseases to complement national policies in the 28 Member States.

Final Opinion on estimates of the amount of toy materials ingested by children (15.04.2016) The SCHER was asked to review available data on the ingestion of three types of toy material by children, and evaluate whether the ingestion amounts are still appropriate or whether they should be changed.

Health-EU Newsletter: "Towards better prevention and management of diabetes - The Joint Action CHRODIS" (14.04.2016) Editorial by Marina Maggini (National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy) and Jelka Zaletel (National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenia)

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the Picornaviridae family. The most common strains causing HFMD are Coxsackie A virus and Enterovirus 71 (EV-71). [ 1 ]

HFMD usually affects infants and children, and is quite common. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months. The usual incubation period is 3–7 days.

It is uncommon in adults, but those with immune deficiencies are very susceptible. HFMD is not to be confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which is a disease affecting sheep, cattle, and swine, and which is unrelated to HFMD (but also caused by a member of the Picornaviridae family).

Contents Signs and symptoms

Rash on the hands.

Rash on the feet

Symptoms of HFMD include: [ 2 ]

The common incubation period (the time between infection and onset of symptoms) is from three to seven days.

Early symptoms are likely to be fever often followed by a sore throat. Loss of appetite and general malaise may also occur. Between one and two days after the onset of fever, painful sores (lesions ) may appear in the mouth and/or throat. A rash may become evident on the hands, feet, mouth, tongue, inside of the cheeks, and occasionally the buttocks (but generally, the rash on the buttocks will be caused by the diarrhea .)


There is no specific treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease. Individual symptoms, such as fever and pain from the sores, may be eased with the use of analgesics. HFMD is a viral disease that has to run its course; many doctors do not issue medicine for this illness. Infection in older children, adolescents, and adults is typically mild and lasts approximately 1 week, occasionally longer. Fever reducers and luke-warm baths can help bring temperature down.

Only a very small minority of sufferers require hospital admission, mainly as a result of uncommon neurological complications (encephalitis. meningitis. or acute flaccid paralysis) or pulmonary edema /pulmonary hemorrhage .

  • Complications from the virus infections that cause HFMD are not common, but if they do occur, medical care should be sought.
  • Viral or aseptic meningitis can rarely occur with HFMD. Viral meningitis causes fever, headache, stiff neck, or back pain. The condition is usually mild and clears without treatment; however, some patients may need to be hospitalized for a short time.
  • Other more serious diseases, such as encephalitis (swelling of the brain), a polio-like paralysis, result even more rarely. Encephalitis can be fatal.
  • There have been reports of fingernail and toenail loss occurring mostly in children within 4 weeks of their having hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). At this time, it is not known whether the reported nail loss is or is not a result of the infection. However, in the reports reviewed, the nail loss has been temporary and nail growth resumed without medical treatment.
Outbreaks 1997 1998
  • In 1998, there was an outbreak in Taiwan. affecting mainly children. [ 5 ] There were 405 severe complications, and 78 children died. [ 6 ] The total number of cases in that epidemic is estimated to have been 1.5 million. [ 6 ]
  • In 2006, an outbreak in Kuching. Sarawak (according to the New Straits Times . March 14). [ 4 ]
  • In 2006, after an outbreak of Chikungunya in southern and some western parts of India, cases of HFMD were reported. [ 7 ]
  • The largest outbreak of HFMD in India occurred in 2007 in the eastern part of the country in West Bengal. Authors found 38 cases of HFMD in and around Kolkata. [ 8 ]
  • An outbreak in China, beginning in March in Fuyang. Anhui, led to 25,000 infections, and 42 deaths, by May 13. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Similar outbreaks were reported in Singapore (more than 2,600 cases as of April 20, 2008), [ 1 ] Vietnam (2,300 cases, 11 deaths), [ 16 ] Mongolia (1,600 cases), [ 17 ] and Brunei (1053 cases from June–August 2008) [ 18 ]
  • 17 children died in an outbreak during March and April 2009 in China's eastern Shandong Province, and 18 children died in the neighboring Henan Province. [ 19 ] Out of 115,000 reported cases in China from January to April, 773 were severe and 50 were fatal. [ 20 ]
  • In Indonesia. where the disease is often called Singaporean influenza or flu Singapura. [ 21 ] the disease was reported in the Jakarta area, starting with eight young children. [ 22 ] By late April, health agencies in Jakarta were warning community health centers and advocating preventive steps, including the use of thermal scanners in airports and avoiding travel to Singapore. [ 23 ]
  • In China, an outbreak occurred in southern China's Guangxi Autonomous Region as well as Guangdong, Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces. Until March 70,756 children were infected and 40 died from the disease.
  • In Vietnam, by 04.09 the disease was reported to have claimed 98 lives with 3/4 were children under 3 years old. Although there was no official declaration of an outbreak, over 42,000 cases have been reported. Over 10,000 new cases were recorded in the second half of August alone.
References External links Look at other dictionaries:

hand, foot and mouth disease — n a usu. mild contagious disease esp. of young children that is caused by an enterovirus (species Human enterovirus A, esp. serotype Human coxsackievirus A16) and is characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth, on the hands and feet, and… … Medical dictionary

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease — A viral syndrome with a rash on the hands and feet and in the mouth. The internal rash (the enanthem) consists of blisters and little ulcers that may involve not only the lining of the mouth but also the gums, palate, and tongue. The external… … Medical dictionary

hand, foot and mouth disease — noun Date: 1966 a usually mild contagious disease especially of young children that is caused by an enterovirus (species Human enterovirus A, especially serotype Human coxsackievirus A16) and is characterized by vesicular lesions chiefly in the… … New Collegiate Dictionary

hand, foot, and mouth disease — a self limiting disease, mainly affecting young children, caused by Coxsackie virus A16. A feeling of mild illness is accompanied by mouth ulcers and blisters on the hands and feet … Medical dictionary

hand, foot, and mouth disease — a self limiting disease, mainly affecting young children, caused by Coxsackie virus A16. A feeling of mild illness is accompanied by mouth ulcers and blisters on the hands and feet … The new mediacal dictionary

Foot-and-mouth disease — Infobox Disease Name = Foot and mouth disease Caption = DiseasesDB = 31707 ICD10 = ICD10|B|08|8|b|00 ICD9 = ICD9|078.4 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = eMedicineTopic = MeshID = D005536 Taxobox color = violet name = Foot and mouth… … Wikipedia

Hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome — A clinical pattern consisting of a rash on the hands and feet and in the mouth due to a viral infection. The internal rash (the enanthem) consists of blisters and little ulcers that may involve not only the lining of the mouth but also the gums,… … Medical dictionary

Foot-and-mouth disease — A highly infectious virus that can infect people but affects them most by infecting livestock cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. The virus is in the same family of viruses as those causing the common cold. The virus is spread by many routes by… … Medical dictionary

Disease, hand-foot-and-mouth — A viral syndrome with a rash on the hands and feet and in the mouth. The internal rash (the enanthem) consists of blisters and little ulcers that may involve not only the lining of the mouth but also the gums, palate, and tongue. The external… … Medical dictionary

Legionnaires Disease - humans, body, used, water, plants, form, animals, system, air

Legionnaires' disease

Legionnaires' disease is an acute respiratory infection caused by a common bacteria that results in a serious case of pneumonia. It first became a well-known disease in 1976 when a serious outbreak occurred among a large number of people attending an American Legion convention. Researchers eventually discovered that the bacteria can be easily found in nature wherever there is warm and moist stagnant water, and that it is transmitted by breathing it in.

A mysterious outbreak

During July 21 to 24, 1976, over 4,000 members of the American Legion met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to attend their fifty-eighth annual convention and to celebrate the nation's two hundredth birthday. When the meetings were over, the attendees and their families returned home, but not all was right. On July 27, only three days after the convention, one of the legionnaires who had been in Philadelphia died from a pneumonia-like illness. On July 30, a physician in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, realized that the three patients he was treating for a similar condition had all attended the convention in Philadelphia. That same day, a nurse in the nearby Chambersburg Hospital noted a similar condition in three patients who had gone to the same convention. However, it was not until August 2 that state officials were able to put together the illness with its victims' whereabouts and to realize that there was some undeniable connection between this serious febrile (pronounced FEH-brile) or feverish illness and the legionnaires' convention. By that date, eighteen legionnaires had already died. Federal officials at the Center for Disease Control (CDC) were notified and became immediately involved in what was now a mysterious and spreading outbreak.

Words to Know

Antibody: A protein produced by certain cells of the body as an immune (disease-fighting) response to a specific foreign antigen, or any substance that the body considers foreign, such as a bacterial cell.

Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, plants, and animals that play a key role in the decay of organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Some are agents of disease.

Pneumonia: Any of several diseases caused by bacteria or viruses in which the lungs become inflamed.

"Philly Killer"

By this time the media realized that it had a major story on its hands, and from then on health officials had to work under the close watch of radio, television, and newspaper reporters. Still, no one, including the CDC, was able to pinpoint the immediate cause of this disease. Since it was now directly connected to the Philadelphia legionnaires' convention, the media referred to it as the "Philly Killer," "Legion Malady," "Legion Fever," "Legion Disease," and finally the name that took hold, "Legionnaires' disease." As this name became used regularly, some members of the American Legion thought it was bad for the organization since it might suggest that they were somehow responsible for the disease. Other members thought the opposite and considered it a sort of tribute or honor to those who had already died. Despite their opinions, the name for the disease stuck, and it is still called that today by non-scientists.

Probably the main reason for the name sticking was that researchers could not identify the organism causing this disease and therefore had nothing to name it. Technically, the CDC simply called it "Respiratory Infection-Pennsylvania." For several months as they studied the disease, this name persisted until an April 1977 CDC report made reference to "Legionnaires' disease." From then on, even after the bacterium that caused the disease was identified and named, the press and even some in the medical community would refer to it by its popular name.

Discovery by CDC

It was not until nearly six months after the first outbreak that the cause of this disease was identified positively by the CDC. On January 18, 1977, the CDC announced that their investigators had isolated the cause of Legionnaires' disease. Using a piece of lung tissue taken from one of its dead victims, researchers finally were able to demonstrate that a bacterium they would name Legionella pneumophila (pronounced leejuh-NELL-uh new-mo-FEE-lee-uh) was the culprit. By then however, a total of 221 people had contracted the disease and 34 of them had died. Isolating the actual bacterium enabled the CDC not only to learn how it had spread and how to fight it, but it showed researchers that this was a complicated organism responsible for many past unexplained outbreaks.

Course of disease

The Legionella bacterium was an unusual and complicated germ because it was found to cause two diseases, one very serious known as Legionnaires' disease and another milder form called Pontiac Fever. Although Pontiac Fever is caught by 95 percent of the people exposed to it, most of them simply experience flulike symptoms that pass in two to five days. Legionnaires' disease is much harder to catch, with only two to five percent of those exposed actually contracting it. But once contracted, usually by at-risk individuals who are more susceptible, it will not go away without medication and it kills between five and fifteen percent of the people it infects.

Source of infection

CDC researchers named the species of bacteria Legionella pneumophila because the second word means "lung-loving" in Latin. This bacteria is actually very common in the natural world and only causes trouble when it gets into people's respiratory systems. It finds our lungs to be an especially comfortable place because they have conditions the bacteria prefer—they are warm and moist. Legionella are found to exist naturally in stagnant water, and in the Philadelphia case, the CDC traced the outbreak source to the hotel's air conditioning system whose condenser was vented very close to its air intake system. This meant that the large air conditioning system, which had not been cleaned for some time, had the common Legionella germ growing in it, which people then inhaled after the organism had gotten into the air intake pipes.

Attacks the susceptible

The fact that this is the only way that people can contract the disease was discovered by the CDC. Unlike many diseases, you cannot "catch" this disease from another person. The Legionella germ must penetrate deep into the lungs. Further, the cilia (pronounced SIL-lee-uh) in most people's lungs usually capture and expel the bacteria. However, for those who are somehow at risk—like smokers, alcoholics, older people with chronic lung problems, or someone with a weak immune system—these short hairlike projections called cilia do not work the way they should. The Legionella can then get in and infect a person. Another unusual

Legionalla pneomophila. (Reproduced by permission of

Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.

thing about this disease is that the infecting bacteria invade the body's white blood cells and multiply inside them. These are the very cells that the body uses to fight such invaders. Normally, these attack white cells called phagocytes (pronounced FA-go-sites) surround and engulf or swallow up a bacterial invader. Although the phagocytes do manage to engulf the Legionella . they are unable to digest it and soon the attacker becomes the attacked. In fact, the Legionella becomes a parasite and actually begins multiplying inside the phagocyte, who now becomes its host. After doubling its numbers every two hours, the Legionella eventually overloads its host, which bursts and spreads even more invading cells throughout the body. The CDC discovered that the antibiotic erythromycin (pronounced eh-RI-throw-MY-sin) is effective. However, it works not by killing the bacteria but rather by stopping it from multiplying in the cells, therefore giving the body a good chance to combat it on its own.

A new "old" disease

Once the real cause of the disease was known and well understood, researchers realized that this was not some new bacterium that had suddenly emerged but one that had been around all the time. It was simply one that science had never identified. With hindsight, they found that an estimated 8,000 to 18,000 people get some form of Legionnaires' disease every year in the United States. Further, they found that the disease occurs worldwide. For example, it is so common in Australia that roughly one-third of the population has antibodies for it in their blood (meaning that they have been exposed to it at some point in their lives and their bodies have developed a way to combat it).

Since Legionella has been found in cooling towers and evaporative condensers of large air conditioning systems, as well as in spas and showers, all of which have temperature conditions that allow it to thrive, it is important to keep these systems clean and well-maintained. Legionella is easily killed by heating water to high temperatures. It dies off quickly if it dries out and it is also killed by simple exposure to the ultraviolet radiation of the Sun. There is no evidence that people can be infected by air conditioners in their cars or by window units in their homes.

Legionnaires' disease is a major bacterial disease that had existed without being detected until 1976. What made it suddenly known to science was the fact that so many people in the same place got sick all at once, attracting a lot of media attention and suggesting that something had infected them. What they had in common was the fact that they all had spent some time in the same convention hall. Remarkably, the CDC eventually found that these people were the victims of a fairly common, natural bacteria that has been invading humans and other hosts for centuries but of which no one had any knowledge.

Anapril Side Effects

Anapril Side Effects

Anapril Side Effect Report#7963710-5
Throat Irritation

This is a report of a 88-year-old male patient (weight: NA) from United States. suffering from the following health symptoms/conditions: NA, who was treated with Anapril (dosage: NA, start time:

Sep 01, 2011), combined with: NA. and developed a serious reaction and side effect(s): Throat Irritation after the beginning of treatment. This case can indicate the possible existence of increased vulnerability to Anapril treatment in male patients, resulting in Throat Irritation side effect.

Anapril Side Effect Report#7945310-6

This report suggests a potential Anapril Headache side effect(s) that can have serious consequences. A 54-year-old female patient (weight: NA) from United States was diagnosed with the following symptoms/conditions: NA and used Anapril (dosage: NA) starting NS. After starting Anapril the patient began experiencing various side effects, including: Headache Additional drugs used concurrently:
  • Spironolactone
  • Anastrozole
  • Aspirin
  • Amlodipine
  • Seroquel
  • Wellbutrin Sr (100mg Twice Per Day)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Lorazepam
Although Anapril demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant cases, troublesome symptoms, such as Headache. may still occur.

Anapril Side Effect Report#7294303-3
Myalgia. Muscular Weakness. Dysgeusia. Oral Discomfort. Gingival Disorder. Urine Analysis Abnormal. Gallbladder Pain. Gingival Pain. Fatigue

This Myalgia problem was reported by a consumer or non-health professional from United States. A 73-year-old female patient (weight: NA) was diagnosed with the following symptoms/conditions: NA. On

Jan 01, 2009 this consumer started treatment with Anapril (dosage: NA). The following drugs were being taken at the same time:
  • Zetia
  • Aspirin
  • Zetia
  • Metoprolol
  • Zetia
When using Anapril. the patient experienced the following unwanted symptoms/side effects: Myalgia. Muscular Weakness. Dysgeusia. Oral Discomfort. Gingival Disorder. Urine Analysis Abnormal. Gallbladder Pain. Gingival Pain. Fatigue Although all drugs are carefully tested before they are licensed for use, they carry side effect risks. Some side effects, such as Myalgia. may become evident only after a product is in use by the general population.
Track Your Side Effects

Note Your Observations

It is really important to keep track of your health symptoms, right from the time you start a new medicine. You can do it any way you prefer: in a notebook, in a computer file or using our online tool. You should also note down any other medicines you are taking at the same time, because there could be an interaction between these medicines.

Why Your Notes are Important

Your notes could be helpful in several ways:

  • You can use them to remind you of details that may alert your health care professional(s) to a problem
  • You will have a record to refer to in the future, in case you are ever prescribed the same medicine again

    You can use the following log form to write down important information, like the date and time you experienced a side effect and your symptoms, how strong the symptoms were, and any other medicines you were using.

    Medicine Name and Dosage:

    Other Medicine(s) or Treatment(s)

    Scale: 1 = very mild to 10 = very bad

    Side effects reports are analyzed to discover potential health product safety signals. Some important reactions may take an extremely long time to develop or occur infrequently. Continued monitoring of adverse reactions is thus essential to maintain a comprehensive safety and effectiveness profile of health products.

    You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

    Anapril reports list potential signals of serious risks and new safety information that were identified using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).
    FAERS is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication errors reports submitted to FDA by healthcare professionals (such as physicians, pharmacists, nurses and others), consumers (such as patients, family members, layers and others) and manufacturers.

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  • OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health

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    Potential applications of pathogen genomics
    Scientific and Technical Review, Vol. 35 (1)

    Author(s). Pablo Murcia, Sándor Belák, Massimo Palmarini, eds; 2016

    The first issue of Volume 35 of the Scientific and Technical Review provides a collection of in-depth articles on potential applications of pathogen genomics. The increasing power of high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics and computational biology have revolutionised most aspects of biomedical and veterinary sciences. Such new technologies and tools have also had a big impact on the diagnosis, control and management of animal diseases. Expected in May.

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    The future of pastoralism
    Scientific and Technical Review, Vol. 35 (2)

    Author(s). Jakob Zinsstag, Esther Schelling, Bassirou Bonfoh, eds; 2016

    This issue of the OIE Review discusses human and animal health services and the added value of improved collaboration between the two under a ‘One Health’ approach. It provides a vision for the sustainable use of pastoral ecosystems, providing innovative ideas for livelihoods, economic development, sustained ecosystem services, animal health management and social and institutional development. Expected in September.

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    Author(s). OIE; Ed. 2015

    The purpose of surveillance is to provide timely and relevant information to allow early warning and inform policy makers for rapid response to reduce the spread and mitigate the impact of disease.
    This practical handbook about surveillance is intended to be used mainly by Veterinary Services or other Competent Authorities, their staff and experts as a tool for strengthening the design, implementation and evaluation of surveillance systems for diseases of relevance for terrestrial animals in their country.

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    Author(s). OIE; Vol. I & II, Ed.2015

    The value of the Terrestrial Code is twofold: firstly, the sanitary measures recommended are the result of consensus among the Veterinary Authorities of OIE Members, and secondly, it constitutes a reference for terrestrial animals within the WTO SPS Agreement as an international standard for animal health and zoonoses, as well as a key standard for the prevention and control of animal diseases.

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    Author(s). OIE; Ed.2015

    The aim of the Aquatic Code is to contribute to improving the health and welfare of aquatic animals (amphibians, crustaceans, fish and molluscs) worldwide and to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in aquatic animals and their products. This is achieved through the detailing of health measures in the Aquatic Code. The Competent Authorities of importing and exporting countries should use the OIE standards to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for aquatic animals or humans, while avoiding unjustified trade barriers.

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    Author(s). OIE ; 7th Ed. 2015

    The purpose of the 7th Edition of the Aquatic Manual is to provide a uniform approach to the detection of the diseases listed in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code. so that the requirements for health certification in connection with trade in aquatic animals and aquatic animal products can be met. It includes bibliographical references and a list of the OIE Reference Laboratories for amphibian, crustacean, fish and mollusc diseases. Expected in 2016.

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    New developments in major vector-borne diseases
    Part II: Important diseases for veterinarians
    Scientific and Technical Review, Vol. 34 (2)

    Author(s). S. Zientara, D. Verwoerd & P-P. Pastoret ; Ed. 2015

    The second volume of this Review principally looks at viral diseases, but also considers bacterial diseases and, finally, parasitic diseases. The description of each disease has been updated in accordance with the most recent scientific research, focusing on epidemiology and control. Particular emphasis is placed on emerging diseases (such as infection with the Schmallenberg virus) and diseases that have a zoonotic component (such as West Nile fever). Diseases that have experienced a recent geographic expansion (bluetongue, fever due to the Chikungunya virus) are also discussed. In total, twenty-nine diseases are covered.

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    New developments in major vector-borne diseases
    Part I: An overview
    Scientific and Technical Review, Vol. 34 (1)

    Author(s). S. Zientara, D. Verwoerd & P-P. Pastoret ; Ed. 2015

    The first volume of this Review focuses on the most important arthropod vectors (insects and ticks) and describes their taxonomy, biology, competence and development. It begins by defining ‘vector’, ‘vector-borne disease’ and ‘emerging disease’ and provides explanations that are in line with the OIE understanding of these terms. The zoonotic risks of infections transmitted by arthropod vectors are also discussed, as is the genetic resistance of certain vertebrate hosts to infection. In addition, this volume considers the influence of climatic and anthropogenic changes on the distribution of vectors and the infections they transmit. The last part of this volume focuses on surveillance and control methods for these infections.

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