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Category: Anti Fungal


Nizoral is used for treating fungal infections.

Active Ingredient: ketoconazole

Nizoral (Micosin) as known as: Adenosan, Akorazol, Altis, Amfazol, Antanazol, Aquarius, Arcolan, Arcolane, Asquam, Beatoconazole, Biogel, Botaderm, C-86 crema, Candiderm, Candoral, Capel, Cetohexal, Cetonax, Cetonil, Cezolin, Chemicon, Clarazole, Conazol, Daktagold, Daktarin, Dancel, Danruf shampoo, Dantazol, Derm-keta, Dermaral, Dexazol, Dezor, Diazon, Dikoven, Docketoral, Ebersept, Eumicel, Extina, Faction, Fangan, Fazol, Fexazol, Fitonal, Flidaphen, Formyco, Freetop, Funazole, Fundan, Funet, Fungarest, Fungasol, Fungazol, Fungicide, Funginoc, Fungipan, Fungium, Fungoral, Fungores, Grenfung, Ilgem, Ilggem, Interzol, Keduo, Kefungin, Kenazol, Kenazole, Ketazol, Keto plus, Keto-cure, Ketobifan, Ketocon, Ketoconazol, Ketoconazolo, Ketoconazolum, Ketodar, Ketoderm, Ketofun, Ketofungol, Ketogel, Ketoisdin, Ketokonazol, Ketolef, Ketomed, Ketomicol, Ketonazol, Ketonova, Ketopamin, Ketopine, Ketoral, Ketoskin, Ketoson, Ketospor, Ketostin, Ketovid, Ketowest, Ketozal, Ketozol, Ketozole, Ketrozol, Ketzole, Kezol, Kezole, Kezoral, Konaderm, Konaturil, Konazol, Krefin, Kuric, Kuriderm, Larry, Libroman, Liondox, Livarole, Lizovag, Medezol, Micoral, Micosin, Micoticum, Muzoral, Mycoderm, Mycofebrin, Mycoral, Mycoseb, Mycosoral, Mycozid, Nastil, Neo-egmol, Nicozone, Ninazol, Nitrazen, Nizale, Nizcrème, Nizshampoo, Noell, Nofung, Norclear, Nyoxep, Onofin-k, Orifungal, Oronazol, Oxonazol, Panfungol, Pelikair, Perative, Philazone, Phytoral, Pristine, Pristinex, Profungal, Quadion, Rapamic, Remecon, Sebizole, Sioconazol, Socosep, Solinfec, Soridermal, Sostatin, Sporex, Sporum, Stada k, Tedol, Termizol, Terzolin, Thicazol, Tiniazol, Tinuvin, Tiracaspa, Triatop, Tructum, Wizol, Xolegel, Yucomy, Zoloral, Zoxinat

Mycosin - Serum with lowered pH

Description: Mycosin - Serum with lowered pH

Mycosin - treating serum

  • Certified natural organic recipe of serum supports the natural regenerative ability of skin cells and increases the immunity of the skin against yeasts and molds. Serum softens the skin and quickly soothes unpleasant concomitants of skin fungi such as itching and burning of the skin.
  • Pure hemp oil, sage, arnica, citricidalem and alcohol for special skin care with symptoms of fungal infections

Mycosin - treating serum from pure hemp oil, sage, arnica, citricidalem and alcohol for special skin care with symptoms of fungal infections. The effective substance and the acidic pH of the serum support the natural skin cell regeneration ability and increase the immunity of the skin against yeasts and molds. After applying the serum rapidly leads to soothe and soften the skin and limitations of unpleasant side effects of fungal infections. For long-term use of serum the overall condition and immunity skin care, there is a significant reduction of mold and fungal infections of the skin

Application: Shake well and gently rub the affected area. Can be added a few drops of serum treating cream or milk. Do not use serum for the treatment of eye area and mucous membranes. Not suitable for children under 3 years!

Ingredients: Alcohol Denat. Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil, Arnica Montana Flower Extract, Glycerin, Eugenia Caryophyllus Flower Oil, Aqua, Citrus Grandis Seed Extract, Sodium Caproyl / Lauroyl Lactyl Lactate, Triethyl Citrate, Menthol, Salvia Officinalis Leaf Oil, Salicylic Acid, Lactic Acid, Eugenol, D-Limonene, Geraniol, Linalool, Benzyl Salicylat.

Other articles

Micosin diseases

Oculus Innovative Sciences is a biopharmaceutical company with a proprietary Microcyn® Technology platform intended to help prevent and treat infections in wounds and infectious diseases. We are focused on the development, manufacturing and marketing of various technology applications formulated with Microcyn®. microcyn, microsyn, microsin, oculus, cidalcyn, disinfectant, wound care, vetericyn, wound spray, medical, dental, veterinary, veterinary supplies, innovative sciences.

Dermatology. 4.58 %
Launches. 4.58 %
Oculus. 3.82 %
Wound. 3.05 %
HydroGel. 3.05 %
into. 2.29 %
Reports. 1.53 %
Flash. 1.53 %
Record. 1.53 %
Dressing. 1.53 %
XuSorb™. 1.53 %
veterinary. 1.53 %
Foam. 1.53 %
wound. 1.53 %
Cover. 1.53 %
Waterproof. 1.53 %
Second. 1.53 %
Revenue. 1.53 %
Itch. 1.53 %
Technology. 1.53 %
Pain. 1.53 %
Healthcare. 1.53 %
Market. 1.53 %
Innovative. 1.53 %
Sciences. 1.53 %
Quarter. 1.53 %
Relief. 1.53 %
Fiscal-Year. 1.53 %
Exceeding. 1.53 %
Guidance. 1.53 %
Mexico. 1.53 %
Microcyn-Based. 1.53 %
content. 0.76 %
Adobe. 0.76 %
requires. 0.76 %
border. 0.76 %
Spray. 0.76 %
Onset. 0.76 %
Vetericyn. 0.76 %
Therapeutics. 0.76 %
Partnership. 0.76 %
Commercial. 0.76 %
Get. 0.76 %
Enters. 0.76 %
Player. 0.76 %
Microcyn. 0.76 %
diseases. 0.76 %
infectious. 0.76 %
wounds. 0.76 %
focused. 0.76 %
development. 0.76 %
various. 0.76 %
marketing. 0.76 %
manufacturing. 0.76 %
infections. 0.76 %
treat. 0.76 %
proprietary. 0.76 %
company. 0.76 %
biopharmaceutical. 0.76 %
platform. 0.76 %
intended. 0.76 %
prevent. 0.76 %
help. 0.76 %
technology. 0.76 %
applications. 0.76 %
dental. 0.76 %
medical. 0.76 %
spray. 0.76 %
supplies. 0.76 %
innovative. 0.76 %
Dermacyn. 0.76 %
Global. 0.76 %
sciences. 0.76 %
vetericyn. 0.76 %
care. 0.76 %
microsyn. 0.76 %
microcyn. 0.76 %
formulated. 0.76 %
microsin. 0.76 %
oculus. 0.76 %
disinfectant. 0.76 %
cidalcyn. 0.76 %
Care. 0.76 %

Dermatology HydroGel. 2.99 %
Quarter Fiscal-Year. 1.49 %
Second Quarter. 1.49 %
Fiscal-Year Exceeding. 1.49 %
Guidance Oculus. 1.49 %
Oculus Launches. 1.49 %
Record Revenue. 1.49 %
Exceeding Guidance. 1.49 %
Reports Record. 1.49 %
XuSorb™ Foam. 1.49 %
Launches XuSorb™. 1.49 %
Oculus Innovative. 1.49 %
Foam Waterproof. 1.49 %
Waterproof Cover. 1.49 %
Wound Dressing. 1.49 %
Cover Wound. 1.49 %
Launches Microcyn-Based. 1.49 %
Revenue Second. 1.49 %
Innovative Sciences. 1.49 %
into U. 1.49 %
Healthcare Market. 1.49 %
Dermatology Healthcare. 1.49 %
U S. 1.49 %
S Dermatology. 1.49 %
Itch into. 1.49 %
Microcyn-Based Dermatology. 1.49 %
Mexico Launches. 1.49 %
HydroGel Mexico. 1.49 %
Launches Dermatology. 1.49 %
HydroGel Relief. 1.49 %
Pain Itch. 1.49 %
Relief Pain. 1.49 %
Get Flash. 0.75 %
Flash Launches. 0.75 %
content requires. 0.75 %
Dressing Reports. 0.75 %
border content. 0.75 %
requires Adobe. 0.75 %
Adobe Flash. 0.75 %
Flash Player. 0.75 %
Player Get. 0.75 %
Oculus Enters. 0.75 %
Onset Therapeutics. 0.75 %
Therapeutics Reports. 0.75 %
Spray border. 0.75 %
Partnership Onset. 0.75 %
Commercial Partnership. 0.75 %
Dressing Oculus. 0.75 %
Enters into. 0.75 %
into Commercial. 0.75 %
Market Launches. 0.75 %
Vetericyn Wound. 0.75 %
development manufacturing. 0.75 %
manufacturing marketing. 0.75 %
focused development. 0.75 %
diseases focused. 0.75 %
infectious diseases. 0.75 %
marketing various. 0.75 %
various technology. 0.75 %
microcyn microsyn. 0.75 %
formulated microcyn. 0.75 %
applications formulated. 0.75 %
technology applications. 0.75 %
wounds infectious. 0.75 %
infections wounds. 0.75 %
proprietary Technology. 0.75 %
company proprietary. 0.75 %
biopharmaceutical company. 0.75 %
Sciences biopharmaceutical. 0.75 %
Technology platform. 0.75 %
platform intended. 0.75 %
treat infections. 0.75 %
prevent treat. 0.75 %
help prevent. 0.75 %
intended help. 0.75 %
microsyn microsin. 0.75 %
microsin oculus. 0.75 %
Sciences Global. 0.75 %
sciences Oculus. 0.75 %
innovative sciences. 0.75 %
supplies innovative. 0.75 %
Global Microcyn. 0.75 %
Microcyn Technology. 0.75 %
Care Vetericyn. 0.75 %
Wound Care. 0.75 %
Dermacyn Wound. 0.75 %
Technology Dermacyn. 0.75 %
veterinary supplies. 0.75 %
veterinary veterinary. 0.75 %
wound care. 0.75 %
disinfectant wound. 0.75 %
cidalcyn disinfectant. 0.75 %
oculus cidalcyn. 0.75 %
care vetericyn. 0.75 %
vetericyn wound. 0.75 %
dental veterinary. 0.75 %
medical dental. 0.75 %
spray medical. 0.75 %
wound spray. 0.75 %
Wound Spray. 0.75 %

Exceeding Guidance Oculus. 1.5 %
Fiscal-Year Exceeding Guidance. 1.5 %
Quarter Fiscal-Year Exceeding. 1.5 %
Guidance Oculus Launches. 1.5 %
Oculus Launches Microcyn-Based. 1.5 %
Microcyn-Based Dermatology HydroGel. 1.5 %
Launches Microcyn-Based Dermatology. 1.5 %
Revenue Second Quarter. 1.5 %
Record Revenue Second. 1.5 %
XuSorb™ Foam Waterproof. 1.5 %
Launches XuSorb™ Foam. 1.5 %
Oculus Innovative Sciences. 1.5 %
Foam Waterproof Cover. 1.5 %
Waterproof Cover Wound. 1.5 %
Reports Record Revenue. 1.5 %
Cover Wound Dressing. 1.5 %
Dermatology HydroGel Mexico. 1.5 %
Second Quarter Fiscal-Year. 1.5 %
into U S. 1.5 %
Itch into U. 1.5 %
U S Dermatology. 1.5 %
Dermatology Healthcare Market. 1.5 %
S Dermatology Healthcare. 1.5 %
HydroGel Mexico Launches. 1.5 %
Pain Itch into. 1.5 %
Mexico Launches Dermatology. 1.5 %
Launches Dermatology HydroGel. 1.5 %
Dermatology HydroGel Relief. 1.5 %
Relief Pain Itch. 1.5 %
HydroGel Relief Pain. 1.5 %
Player Get Flash. 0.75 %
Get Flash Launches. 0.75 %
Wound Dressing Reports. 0.75 %
Flash Launches XuSorb™. 0.75 %
border content requires. 0.75 %
Market Launches XuSorb™. 0.75 %
Dressing Reports Record. 0.75 %
content requires Adobe. 0.75 %
requires Adobe Flash. 0.75 %
Adobe Flash Player. 0.75 %
Flash Player Get. 0.75 %
Enters into Commercial. 0.75 %
Partnership Onset Therapeutics. 0.75 %
Onset Therapeutics Reports. 0.75 %
Therapeutics Reports Record. 0.75 %
Spray border content. 0.75 %
Commercial Partnership Onset. 0.75 %
into Commercial Partnership. 0.75 %
Wound Dressing Oculus. 0.75 %
Dressing Oculus Enters. 0.75 %
Oculus Enters into. 0.75 %
Healthcare Market Launches. 0.75 %
Wound Spray border. 0.75 %
development manufacturing marketing. 0.75 %
manufacturing marketing various. 0.75 %
focused development manufacturing. 0.75 %
diseases focused development. 0.75 %
infectious diseases focused. 0.75 %
marketing various technology. 0.75 %
various technology applications. 0.75 %
microcyn microsyn microsin. 0.75 %
formulated microcyn microsyn. 0.75 %
applications formulated microcyn. 0.75 %
technology applications formulated. 0.75 %
wounds infectious diseases. 0.75 %
infections wounds infectious. 0.75 %
company proprietary Technology. 0.75 %
proprietary Technology platform. 0.75 %
biopharmaceutical company proprietary. 0.75 %
Sciences biopharmaceutical company. 0.75 %
Innovative Sciences biopharmaceutical. 0.75 %
Technology platform intended. 0.75 %
platform intended help. 0.75 %
treat infections wounds. 0.75 %
prevent treat infections. 0.75 %
help prevent treat. 0.75 %
intended help prevent. 0.75 %
microsyn microsin oculus. 0.75 %
microsin oculus cidalcyn. 0.75 %
Innovative Sciences Global. 0.75 %
Sciences Global Microcyn. 0.75 %
sciences Oculus Innovative. 0.75 %
innovative sciences Oculus. 0.75 %
supplies innovative sciences. 0.75 %
Global Microcyn Technology. 0.75 %
Microcyn Technology Dermacyn. 0.75 %
Care Vetericyn Wound. 0.75 %
Wound Care Vetericyn. 0.75 %
Dermacyn Wound Care. 0.75 %
Technology Dermacyn Wound. 0.75 %
veterinary supplies innovative. 0.75 %
veterinary veterinary supplies. 0.75 %
wound care vetericyn. 0.75 %
disinfectant wound care. 0.75 %
cidalcyn disinfectant wound. 0.75 %
oculus cidalcyn disinfectant. 0.75 %
care vetericyn wound. 0.75 %
vetericyn wound spray. 0.75 %
dental veterinary veterinary. 0.75 %
medical dental veterinary. 0.75 %
spray medical dental. 0.75 %
wound spray medical. 0.75 %
Vetericyn Wound Spray. 0.75 %

McjA - Microcin J25 precursor - Escherichia coli - mcjA gene - protein

Microcin J25 Select a section on the left to see content.

Peptide antibiotic that functions through inhibition of the bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP). May inhibit transcription by binding in RNAP secondary channel and blocking nucleotide substrates access to the catalytic center. Exhibits potent bacteriocidal activity against a range of Enterobacteriaceae, including several pathogenic E.coli, Salmonella and Shigella strains. Also acts on the cytoplasmic membrane of Salmonella newport, producing alteration of membrane permeability and disruption of the subsequent gradient dissipation, which inhibits several processes essential for cell viability, such as oxygen consumption. Induces bacterial filamentation in susceptible cells in a non-SOS-dependent way, but this phenotype may result from impaired transcription of genes coding for cell division proteins. 3 Publications

Protein family/group databases

9.A.52.1.1. the microcin j25 (microsin j25) family.

Plasmid pTUC100 0 Publication

Molecule processing


Isoglutamyl glycine isopeptide (Gly-Glu)

At the onset of stationary growth phase.

Protein-protein interaction databases Secondary structure

3D structure databases

Buy Micosin (ketoconazole): $ - Anti Fungal - EWR pharmacy

Nizoral is used for treating fungal infections. Nizoral is an azole antifungal. It kills delicate fungi by interfering with the forming of the fungal cell membrane.

Make use of Nizoral as directed by your physician!

  • Take Nizoral orally with or without meals.
  • Do not really take an antacid within one hour before or 2 hours once you take Nizoral.
  • If you are also taking an anticholinergic (eg, hyoscyamine), an H2 antagonist (eg, famotidine), or a proton pump inhibitor (eg, omeprazole), take Nizoral at least 2 hours prior to the H2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor, or anticholinergic.
  • To get rid of your infection totally, take Nizoral for the entire treatment. Keep acquiring it even though you feel better in just a few days.
  • Nizoral works best if its taken simultaneously every day.
  • If you miss a dosage of Nizoral, take it as quickly as possible. If its almost time for the next dose, miss the missed dosage and get back to your regular dosing timetable. Usually do not take 2 dosages at once.

Talk to your medical provider any questions you might have about how to make use of Nizoral.

Shop Nizoral between 59 and 77 degrees F (15 and 25 degrees C). Store from heat, wetness, and light. Usually do not store in the toilet. Keep Nizoral from the reach of kids and from pets.

Active Component: Ketoconazole.

Do NOT use Nizoral if:

  • you are allergic to any ingredient in Nizoral
  • you have a fungal infection in the mind membranes (fungal meningitis)
  • you are taking an aldosterone blocker (eg, eplerenone), astemizole, cisapride, conivaptan, dofetilide, an ergot alkaloid (eg, ergotamine), erythromycin, midazolam, nevirapine, pimozide, a quinazoline (eg, alfuzosin), quinidine, rifabutin, rifampin, terfenadine, triazolam, or a 5-HT receptor agonist (eg, eletriptan).

Contact your physician or doctor right away if these connect with you.

Some medical ailments may connect to Nizoral. Tell your physician or pharmacist should you have any medical conditions, particularly if the following connect with you:

  • if you are pregnant, likely to get pregnant, or are breast-feeding
  • if you are taking any prescription or non-prescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
  • if you possess allergies to medicines, foods, or other chemicals
  • if you are allergic to other azole antifungals (eg, itraconazole)
  • if you possess low gastric acid (eg, hypochlorhydria)
  • if you have a brief history of liver disease, regular alcohol use, alcohol abuse or dependence, or blood complications (eg, prophyria).

Some medicines may connect to Nizoral. Tell your medical provider if you are acquiring any other medications, especially the following:

  • Many prescription and non-prescription medicines (eg, useful for infections, HIV, seizures, anxiety, sleep, heartburn, diabetes, raised chlesterol, heart problems, high blood circulation pressure, allergies, irregular heartbeat, pain, blood thinning, asthma, migraines, disposition or mental problems, cancer, prostate problems, disease fighting capability suppression, erection dysfunction, urinary problems, or contraception [birth control]), multivitamin products, and herbal or health supplements may connect to Nizoral, increasing the chance of critical side effects
  • Nevirapine, rifabutin, or rifampin because they could decrease Nizorals efficiency
  • Astemizole, cisapride, dofetilide, erythromycin, pimozide,quinidine, or terfenadine as the threat of severe heart results may be increased
  • Midazolam or triazolam because their activities and the chance of their unwanted effects could be increased by Nizoral, leading to increased threat of sedation and breathing complications
  • Aldosterone blockers (eg, eplerenone), conivaptan, ergot alkaloids (eg, ergotamine), quinazolines (eg, alfuzosin) or 5-HT receptor agonists (eg, eletriptan) as the risk of their unwanted effects could be increased by Nizoral.

This might not be a complete set of all interactions that could occur. Ask your medical provider if Nizoral may connect to other medications that you take. Consult with your health treatment provider before you begin, stop, or transformation the dosage of any medication.

Essential safety information:
  • Nizoral could cause dizziness or drowsiness. These results may be worse invest the it with alcoholic beverages or certain medicines. Make use of Nizoral with caution. Usually do not get or perform other feasible unsafe duties until you understand how you respond to it.
  • Rarely, Nizoral could cause a severe allergic attack immediately after you take the first dose. Symptoms can include problems breathing; tightness in the upper body; swelling of the eyelids, encounter, or lips; or rash or hives. Should this happen, seek medical care simultaneously.
  • Use of alcoholic beverages with Nizoral provides rarely caused symptoms such as for example flushing, rash, inflammation of the hands and foot, nausea, and headaches. Talk to your doctor before alcohol consumption while acquiring Nizoral.
  • Carry out NOT take a lot more than the suggested dosage or use for much longer than prescribed without examining together with your doctor.
  • Nizoral only functions against fungi; it generally does not deal with viral infections (eg, the normal cold) or bacterial attacks.
  • End up being sure to make use of Nizoral for the full program of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The infection could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the illness harder to treat in the future.
  • Diabetes individuals - Nizoral may increase the risk of low blood sugar from your diabetes medicine. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.
  • Hormonal birth control (eg, contraceptive pills) may not are well when you are using Nizoral. To avoid pregnancy, use a supplementary form of contraceptive (eg, condoms).
  • Lab testing, including liver function testing, may be performed when you make use of Nizoral. These tests enable you to monitor your trouble or check for unwanted effects. Be sure to maintain all doctor and laboratory appointments.
  • Nizoral should be used in combination with extreme care in children; protection and effectiveness in kids havent been confirmed.
  • Being pregnant and breast-feeding: In the event that you become pregnant, get in touch with your doctor. You will have to discuss the huge benefits and dangers of using Nizoral when you are pregnant. Nizoral is situated in breast milk. Usually do not breastfeed when using Nizoral.

Unhealling wound for two weeks - Wound Care Forum

unhealling wound for two weeks

I have a small wound in my outer thigh from two weeks (it is not bleeding, looks like half way healed, but this condition keeps from two weeks and it is not getting better).
I am not sure how I got it, but I think it is from Metal key I keep in my pocket.
I have used Antiseptic creams like SONADERM-GM, Beclamethasone Dipropionate with Neomycin Sulphate cream. But no good results found.

- I am 32 Yeayrs Male
- I have had checked My Random Blood Glucose level from a Glucometer (we have one because my mother has Diabetes),
But it was ok, value was 85 mg/dl (Thought OK as it was less tahn 120 mg/dl)
- I have been taking Nolvadex 20 mg per day from about two weeks (for Testostorone increase after a steroid cycle)

Did you find this post helpful?

You marked this post as helpful! I changed my mind

replied June 26th, 2013

Unfortunately, the use of steroids (corticosteroids such as Prednisone) can cause problems with wound healing.

The biggest thing that you need to do is to keep the wound clean. All you need to do is wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water in the shower (no baths, you do not want to soak the wound). If you would like, you can apply a little hydrogen peroxide.

You have to be careful with antibiotic ointments, in that they have to be washed off daily and the wound cleaned. They should not be relied upon to "heal" the wound. Also, do not just keep applying more and more, without washing it off daily. These ointments can trap bacteria underneath them. So, again, they can be used, but the daily (or twice daily) cleaning of the wound is most important.

The wound should then be covered with a light "dust cover", using a small dry gauze. Do not use an occlusive dressing (these trap sweat and moisture under them, slowing down the healing).

Try to not "manipulate" the wound any more than is absolutely necessary (don't pick at the wound). Let it heal.

Be sure to eat a good diet, with extra protein. You need the protein to provide the essential building blocks for tissue repair.

Did you find this post helpful?

You marked this post as helpful! I changed my mind

replied July 5th, 2013

There is a product named Microsyn (also Puracyn) that will heal your wound. It works just like you immune system and is not an antibiotic so you cannot become immune to it. Using hydrogen peroxide initially to clean the wound is fine but H20 will destroy good skin cells and use later should be discouraged. You can read about Microsyn if you run a simple search. I use this product myself several times a week and I am not a stock holder. the stuff works and works very fast and painless. It will kill HIV, MRSA all bacteria and virus'.

Good luck and I hope this helps.

PPT - Phage Therapy PowerPoint presentation

Phage Therapy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Phage Therapy
Dr. Ira Presser
Bacteriophage lambda life cycle (a
temperate phage)
. '.
Disadvantages of Antibiotics
  • Emergence of multiple resistant strains
  • Induction of secondary infections due to changes
    in normal flora
  • Legislation against prophylactic use in animals

Alternatives to Antibiotics
  • Antimicrobial peptides (e.g. maigainins,
    defensins drosocin)
  • Probiotics (Nisin, bacteriosins microsins)
  • Vaccination
  • Phage therapy

Phage morphology
History of phage therapy
  • Hankin (1896) reported that waters of Ganges had
    filterable anti-cholera activity which was
    destroyed by heating
  • DHerelle (1917) isolated filterable
    anti-Shigella microbe that could lyse Shigella in

  • Next 50 years results were inconclusive This can
    be attributed to
  • 1. The failure to select high virulent phages
  • 2. The use of phages to combat a mixed
  • 3. Emergence of resistant strains of bacteria-
    use multiple phage strains
  • 4. Failure to neutralize gastric pH prior to
  • 5. Liberation of endotoxins

  • Most current work was developed in Tbsilli,
  • They have developed strains that have inhibited
    gt70 of the specific pathogenic strains tested.
    (Staph, Pseudomonas, E. coil, Proteus.
  • Work in Britain developed a coli phage that
    although was not specific for K99 fimbriae could
    significantly stop fluid loss reduce bacterial
    count several orders of magnitude.

  • Phages can protect guinea pigs against infection
    with Pseudomonas. 100 phages can protect against
    challenge with 106 bacteria (5x LD50)

Advantages of Phage Therapy
  • They are both self-replicating and self-limiting.
  • Repeated administration unlikely, as long as
    target bacteria present, phage will reproduce
  • Renders herd immunity
  • More specifically targeted than antibiotics.
  • Unlike antibiotics in which concentration
    decreases after inoculation, the phage
    concentration increases
  • Does not upset normal flora that can lead to
    secondary infections
  • Can be administered prophylactically to prevent
    bacterial disease
  • Use to control Salmonella contamination either
    before slaughter or on carcasses

  • .
    . '.
  • .
  • .
  • E-coli.

Electron micrograph of phage courtesythe
Australian National University
  1. Wagenaar, et. al. Phage therapy reduces
    Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers.
    Vet. Microbiol. 109275 (2005).
  2. Goode, et. al. Reduction in Experimental
    Salmonella Campylobacter Contamination of
    Chicken Skin by Application of lytic
    Bacteriophages, Applied Enviorn. Micro. 695036

References Cont
  • 3. Higgins et. al. Use of specific bacteriophages
    to reduce Salmonella in poultry products.
  • 4. Fiorentin et.al. Oral treatment with
    bacteriophages reduces the concentration of S.
    Enteridis PT4 in caecal contents of broilers.
    Avian Pathol. 34259 (2005)
  • 5. Barrow, Use of lytic bacteriophage for control
    of E.coli Septicemia Meningitis in Chickens
    Calves. Clin. Diagnostic Lab. Immunol. 5294

References cont
  • 6. OFlynn et.al. Evaluation of a Cocktail of 3
    Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of E. coli O157H7.
    Applied Enviorn. Microb. 703417 (2004).
  • 7. Huff, et.al. Therapeutic efficacy of
    bacteriophage Baytril individually in
    combination to treat colibacillosis. Poultry
    Science 831944 (2004).
  • 8. Huff, et. al. Alternatives to antibiotics
    utilization of bacteriophages to treat
    colibacillosis prevent food borne pathogens.
    Poultry Science 84659 (2004).

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SAARDS: Arthritis Foundation


There are many kinds of medication that people take when they have arthritis. Some are easily obtained across the counter from your local pharmacy, and others have to be prescribed by your doctor. These include the anti-inflammatory drugs and stronger medications to control arthritis.

These stronger medications are often called slow acting anti-rheumatic drugs (SAARDs), disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or "second line" drugs.

This page is intended to be a general guide to the SAARDs commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, they are also used to treat other forms of arthritis, for example psoriatic arthritis.

Each SAARD may be given on its own, but if it does not control your arthritis, a second one may be added. Using more than one SAARD together is called combination therapy. Your doctor may also prescribe corticosteroids (Prednisone, Prednisolone, Depo-Medrol, Kenacort) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

The slow acting anti-rheumatic drugs include:

SAARDs are used when the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs ) such as Naprosyn (Naproxen), Voltaren (Diclofenac), or Feldene (Piroxicam), are not controlling the arthritis. NSAIDs are often use with SAARDs.

As the name SAARD implies, the benefits are not felt straight away. It may be 6-10 weeks, sometimes a little longer before you may notice any benefit from these slow-acting medications. There is often a reduction in swelling, stiffness and pain together with a decrease in tiredness. Some of the blood tests that measure inflammation also improve.

It is important to remember that each person is different and each of us responds to medications in different ways.

Talk to your doctor if you are planning to have a baby, as most second line medications will need to be stopped before you become pregnant. SAARDs may be started again once you have finished breast-feeding.

SAARDs tend to have a greater effect on arthritis than NSAIDs and there are some side effects which are associated with taking this type of medication. Careful monitoring of the dose, together with regular routine blood and urine testing will enable any possible problems to be picked up very quickly and appropriate action taken.

The following is a list of side effects which are sometimes seen in slow acting medications.

Nausea and/or diarrhoea:
This is usually related to the dose and reducing the dose will often ease these symptoms.
  • Rashes:
    These may come and go while you are taking SAARDS. If they continue, the medication is stopped.
  • Mouth ulcers, sore or bleeding gums:
    These may occur with some of the medications and must be reported to your doctor at once.
  • Changes in the blood cells:
    a) White blood cells: These cells are important for fighting infection and may be reduced while taking any SAARD.
    b) Platelets: These are necessary for blood clotting and may also be reduced.
  • Changes in the liver:
    Some functions of the liver may be affected whilst taking some SAARDS.
  • Changes in the kidney:
    The kidneys can sometimes allow protein and small amounts of blood to leak into the urine during treatment.

    When the medication is started blood tests (full blood count, liver and kidney function) and urine testing for protein and blood may be performed weekly or less frequently depending on what SAARD you are taking.

    Your doctor, (either your GP or specialist) will organise the tests for you. Blood and urine tests are performed either at the surgery or at a nearby collection centre. Results are sent to your doctor.


    Commonly you will be given a booklet which contains information on the dosage of medication, and details of each blood and urine sample tested. In this way it is easy for your doctor to see the information he needs to know, Any changes in the tests will also show if your doctor needs to take any action. It is important that you keep this booklet with you and take it each time you visit your doctor.

    Please remember - the benefits that can be gained from taking slow acting anti-rheumatic drugs outweigh the possible side effects. Simple precautions on a regular basis, as mentioned, will prevent side effects from becoming a problem.

    Following is information on each particular SAARD

    This may be given by injection or as tablets.

    Given by injection.
  • Injections are always given by your doctor or a nurse.
  • A small dose is given first and slowly increased over a number of weeks to make sure you do not have a reaction to the gold.
  • Injections are usually given weekly for some months, depending on how your arthritis responds, and also whether you develop any of the side effects mentioned previously.
  • Taken as a tablet.
  • Dosage is usually 1 - 3 tablets per day.
  • Dosage may be altered from time to time depending on any side effects and how well your arthritis responds.

    Skin rashes and /or general itchiness.
  • Sore gums or mouth ulcers.
  • Diarrhoea or loose bowel motions - this is more common when taking oral gold.
  • Reduction of white blood cells and platelet numbers.
  • Changes in the kidney which may result in protein or blood in the urine.
  • Changes in the liver.

    Blood and urine tests should be carried out before each injection in early stages of treatment. These will be organised by your doctor.
  • Mention to your doctor any unusual feelings or symptoms.
  • Take your gold record booklet with you each time you see your doctor.
  • Gold tablets are best taken with food.
  • Taken as a table
  • The dosage depends on your response to treatment.
  • At first, dosage is usually 500 mg a day (one tablet)
  • The dosage is increased slowly over a number of weeks until the full dose is reached (often 4-6 tablets daily).
  • The dosage may be changed from time to time depending on how your arthritis responds, and if you have any side effects.

    Nausea and indigestion.
  • Dizziness and headache.
  • Reduction of white blood cells and platelet numbers in your blood. This is a rare side effect.
  • Slight changes in the liver.
  • May stain contact lenses yellow, particularly soft lenses.
  • Urine may have an orange colour.
  • May reduce the sperm count in men and could cause temporary infertility. This effect only occurs while taking sulphasalazine. The sperm count returns to normal once the medication is stopped.
  • There is no effect on fertility in women.

    Routine blood tests will be performed. Your doctor will indicate how often he/she wants you to have your blood tested.
  • Tell your doctor of any symptoms you may have. A change of dosage of sulphasalazine may ease the symptom
  • Always take your medication after meals and use the enteric coated EN brand.
  • Taken as a tablet.
  • Dosage is usually once or twice daily with starting dose between 125 - 250 mg daily.
  • Dosage is increased gradually until the full dose is reached. This is usually between 500-1000mg per day.
  • Dosage may be changed by your doctor depending on how your arthritis responds, or whether you have any side effects.
  • D-Penicillamine is not an antibiotic and an allergy to penicillin should not prevent you from taking it.

    Nausea and indigestion.
  • Changes in taste - this usually disappears after a few weeks.
  • Reduction of white blood cells and platelet numbers.
  • Changes in the kidneys. This may result in protein in the urine.

    Routine blood and urine tests which will be arranged by your doctor.
  • It is important to take D-Penicillamine on an empty stomach as food interferes with its absorption into the body. Take the tablets 1/2 hour before a meal, or at least two hours following a meal.
  • Take your D-Penicillamine record booklet each time you visit your doctor.
  • Antacids and iron tablets can slow the absorption of D-Penicillamine. Take these medications at different times of the day to D-Penicillamine.
  • Taken as a tablet
  • This medication is taken once a week with a usual starting dose of 2.5-7.5 mg. It is usually taken on the same day each week, with the dose slowly increased
  • The dosage may be changed by your doctor, depending on how well your arthritis responds and whether you have side effects
  • It is best taken with food to avoid stomach upsets.

    Mouth ulcers or sore gums.
  • Nausea - this usually only lasts 24 hours following medication.
  • Reduction in white blood cells and platelet numbers in the blood.
  • Changes in the liver.

    Only take the medication weekly (never daily).
  • Routine regular blood tests, as arranged by your doctor.
  • It is very important to limit your intake of alcohol while taking Methotrexate. Your doctor will advise you what is considered an acceptable amount.
  • It is very important to avoid pregnancy while taking methotrexate.
  • Taken as a tablet.
  • The tablets are usually in doses of 25 or 50mg.
  • The dosage may be increased slowly over a few weeks until the full dose is reached - usually between 100-150 mg per day.
  • The dosage may be changed from time to time depending on how well your arthritis has responded, and if you are experiencing any side effects.

    Mouth ulcers or sore gums
  • A reduction of white blood cells or platelets.
  • Changes in the liver.

    Routine blood tests as arranged by your doctor
  • Take your medication after meals to avoid stomach upsets.
  • Taken as a tablet.
  • The dosage is usually taken once daily (based on your weight).
  • A higher dose may be used at first. 400 -600mg daily.
  • Regular dosage is usually between 200-400mg daily.

    Skin rashes, particularly on the areas exposed to the sun.
  • May affect the eyes. This is unlikely at the dosages used today.
  • Stomach effects such as nausea, cramps, diarrhoea.

    Regular eye check, usually every six months. Your doctor will refer you to an eye specialist.
  • Use 15+ blockout on the skin, and long sleeved clothing when exposed to the sun.
  • Use a hat and good quality sun glasses.
  • Plaquenil is best taken with meals.
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