Viramune (Nevirapine) is used in the treatment of infection with the HIV virus (the virus that causes AIDS).
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Viramune (Nevirapine) is used in the treatment of infection with the HIV virus (the virus that causes AIDS).
Active Ingredient: Nevirapine
Viramune (Niverin) as known as: Filide, Flaminev, Nerapin, Nevimune, Nevipan, Nevir, Nevirapin, Nevirapina, Névirapine, Nevirapinum, Nevirapinum anhydricum, Nevirapox, Nivepin, Niverin, Protease, Ritvir, Virainhi
From the Alice in Wonderland syndrome that might have inspired Lewis Carroll, to the disease that may have sent an English King mad, we take a look at some of these obscure illnesses.
According to the Morgellons Research Foundation. crawling, biting and stinging sensations and the emergence of strange blue, black or red fibers from the skin characterize a disease that nearly 14,000 people suffer from, according to the Foundation.
This is often accompanied by exhaustion, short-term memory loss, joint pain and changes in vision. The condition was named Morgellons in 2002 by a mother who believed her two-year-old son was suffering from the disease. The name comes from a 17th century skin condition found in France, in which children died after the emergence of 'dark hair.'
However, there is much debate over whether the condition actually exists.
In March 2008, the Journal of Dermatologic Therapy reported that most doctors believe it to be form of delusion, in which sufferers falsely believe they are infected with parasites. Consequently, the fibers in the skin are thought to be textile-based, picked up by oozing scabs resulting from more common conditions such as eczema or scabies.
The U.S. based Center For Disease Control and Prevention recently announced it would investigate the disease after an increased number of inquiries from the public.
Progeria is congenital, meaning a defect or damage to a fetus. Sufferers of this fatal illness have a striking appearance resembling premature ageing, but die at an average age of 13.
Profound growth delays begin at between nine and 24 months, leading to abnormal facial developments such as a disproportionately small face, bulging, prominent eyes and an underdeveloped jaw. By the age of two, hair from the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes is lost.
The U.S. National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD)says sufferers eventually lose the layer of fat beneath the skin and, in time, elasticity is lost in artery walls, leading to fatality via heart attack or stroke in 90 percent of sufferers.
Known to have ever affected only 30 people, water allergy or "aquagenic urticaria" is extremely rare, but its existence has been confirmed by the Medical Review Board. Sufferers appear to be allergic to water. It usually occurs late in life and often as a consequence of a hormonal imbalance brought about by giving birth.
A case emerged in the UK in April this year, leaving a 21-year-old mother unable to drink water or get caught in the rain because her skin develops a painful burning rash. She can shower for a maximum of 10 seconds per week and can drink only Diet Coke. It is not strictly an allergy but a hypersensitivity to the ions found in non-distilled water.
Foreign accent syndrome
Sufferers of foreign accent syndrome inexplicably find themselves talking in an unrecognizable dialect. Only 60 cases have ever been recorded.
Doctors initially dismissed it as a psychiatric problem, but in 2002, scientists at Oxford University, England, observed that sufferers shared the same brain abnormalities, which led to changes in speech pitch, lengthening of vowel sounds and other irregularities.
According to the Journal of Neurolinguistics, sufferers don't necessarily have to have been exposed to the accent they adopt: their new voice is not, strictly speaking, a foreign accent, but the changes in speech often bear a striking resemblance to other world accents.
The first case concerned a Norwegian woman in 1941, who developed a strong German accent and was ostracized from her community.
Laughing Death, more commonly known as Kuru, was exclusive to the tribal Fore people of New Guinea. The disease, which was characterized by sudden bursts of maniacal laughter, hit the headlines in the 1950s and drew in doctors from around the world.
U.S. and Australian physicians observed men and women with shaking limbs, which subsided with rest, but a month to three months later sufferers would begin to sway and stumble, lose the ability to stand, become cross-eyed and lose the power of coherent speech before eventually dying.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke reported that tests on the deceased showed death had been caused by the emergence of holes in the brain, known as "swiss-cheesing."
Eventually the U.S. physician Carleton Gajdusek worked out that the infection was being passed on through the village custom of eating family members after death. When cannibalism was eliminated, the epidemic came to an end. In 1976, Gajdusek was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP)
In 1938, when American Harry Eastlack was five-years-old, he broke his leg. The fracture didn't set properly, his hip and knee stiffened up and, bizarrely, bone growths developed on the muscles of his thigh. By his mid 20s, the vertebrae of his back had begun to fuse together. When he died aged 39 in 1973, he was able to move only his lips.
He suffered from fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare disease affecting some 1 in 2 million people, in which the body's tendons and ligaments undergo a strange metamorphosis, essentially a transformation into bone.
The condition is congenital and characterized by a malformation of the big toe that is present at birth. Eastlack donated his skeleton to research of the disease, and it is on display at the Mutter Museum in Philadelphia. The International FOP Association continues to research this extremely rare condition.
Alice in Wonderland syndrome
According to the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine, sufferers of Alice in Wonderland syndrome perceive objects as being far smaller than they are. The condition, also known as micropsia or Lillliput sight, can also affect the sense of hearing, touch and perceptions of one's own body image. Learn more about rare disorders »
The syndrome is associated with migraine headaches and named after Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, in which Alice goes through many bizarre experiences similar to those which might be experienced by a micropsia sufferer. The fact that Carroll suffered from migraines is well documented, and some speculate that his suffering may have prompted many passages in the work.
Purple urine and feces make porphyria infamous, as does the fact that the "mad" 18th century English King George III may have suffered from it. Porphyria leads to complications in the production of 'heme,' a protein vital to red blood cells, and affects the skin and nervous system. Attacks lead to abdominal pain, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting and constipation.Don't Miss
NORD lists other symptoms including increasing sensitivity to the sun, itching and swelling. Increased hair growth on the forehead may also occur.
Toxins resulting from the failed heme production can affect the coloring of other areas, especially after exposure to sunlight. Sometimes the teeth and fingernails can adopt a reddish appearance. It is these toxins that lead to the dark urine and feces.
Mary Queen of Scots, Vincent Van Gogh, and King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon may have suffered from this disease.
The magpie, Latin name pica. will eat anything, and so will sufferers of pica syndrome. Almost always pregnant women or children, sufferers develop an appetite for non-nutritive substances, such as paint, clay, plaster or dirt, or alternatively items that are more commonly considered to be food ingredients, such as raw rice, flour or salt.
It can only be considered pica if the appetite persists for over a month and the sufferer is of an age where eating these objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. Medical researchers have tenuously linked pica with a mineral deficiency, but according to the National Organization for Rare Disorders, experts have yet to nail down a real, firm cause or cure for this strange disorder.
Moebius is extremely rare, genetic and characterized by complete facial paralysis. Sufferers cannot close their eyes, look from side to side, or form facial expressions. Limb abnormalities such as clubbed feet and missing fingers are often also present.
According to the Moebius Syndrome Foundation, most cases are isolated, with no notable family history, and sufferers go on to lead long and healthy lives.
Family members often learn to recognize body language, posture and vocal tone as communicators of emotion, and sometimes claim they forget the person has facial paralysis altogether.
a) Supply words and word combinations having close meaning to the following:
preventive, to rise, about five months, to radiate to, to involve, acute, to result in, to determine, lesion, entire
Supply words of the opposite meaning:
to elevate, to recover, to diminish, approximately, dry, empty, sharp, base, to doubt the diagnosis
Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense of the Indefinite group. Translate the sentences:
1. Products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion (to be absorbed) from the gastrointestinal tract by the liver in which they (to undergo) furthur chemical processes. 2. The liver (to destroy) toxic substances which usually (to be formed) in the intestinal tract as well as some poisons which (to enter) the body from without. 3. Jaundice (to be known) to be the disease which (to be due to) the presence of a large amount of bilirubin in the blood and tissues.
Choose the appropriate form of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences:
1. The patient was known. stool retention accompanied by nausea a month before his present admission to the hospital. (a) to have; b) to have had;
to be having) 2. Sensitivity to antibiotics was reported. not only in this patient but in all the other members of the family as well since their early age. ( a) to be present; b) to have been present) 3. Prophylactic vaccination was found. since no cases of hepatitis were diagnosed after its administration. (a) to be effective; b) to have been effective) 4. Skin irritation was revealed. after each parenteral administration of this preparation. (a) to occur; b) to have occurred; c) to be occurring)
Make up sentences of your own using each of the given words first as a subject, and then as an attribute:
heart, blood, lymph, serum, nerve
1. Read-TextD.2. Entitle it.3.Say why probing with radio-pill is used:
It is common knowledge how difficult it is to examine the gastrointestinal tract. Long rubber tubes are used and the process of probing is known to cause
the patient much discomfort. It gives only limited possibilities for the examination of the stomach and none at all for the intestine. Usual physiological methods are often ineffective for studying many important processes in the human intestine.
The patient swallows this radio-pill which passes along the gastrointestinal tract sending information on pressure, temperature, gastric secretion, the lever of acidity, etc. thus helping the physician to reveal all the pathologic changes.
-ize: general, local, sterile, character;
-en: thick, wide, deep, strength
1. When the urinalysis was ready the physician received all the findings he had insisted on. 2. The surgeon considered the appendix had to be removed immediately because its rupture might cause peritonitis. 3. Almost everything the physician had determined by physical methods of examination was confirmed by laboratory findings. 4. In all the patients except the one the cardiologist has not yet examined the diagnosis of cardiac insufficiency was made.
1. The abdominal pain. by nausea and vomiting of 20 hours’ duration, the patient was hospitalized for an emergency surgery. ( a) accompanied; b) being accompanied; c) having accompanied; d) having been accompanied) 2. There. permanent dryness in the mouth, nausea, and constipation, the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis may be suggested. (a) being; b) been; c) having been) 3. The severity of jaundice. a considerably elevated amount of bilirubin was found in the blood on the following analysis. ( a) increasing; b) being
Jaundice is a symptom common to many disturbances and diseases of the liver, such as obstruction of the bile ducts, cancer, etc. In jaundice the skin and the sclerae take on a yellowish colour which may vary in its intensity. Even the serum of the blood is bile coloured. Jaundice is frequently accompanied by severe itching. The pulse is usually slow, and there is a tendency to haemorrhage. In advanced cases nervous symptoms may develop. Jaundice being caused by obstruction, the bile cannot pass to the intestines and the stools are of a white colour. The urine is deeply coloured. In toxic jaundice the stools may be of normal colour or deeply bile coloured.
Infectious jaundice in adults has been found to be due to a virus. It is characterized by fever, vomiting, jaundice and haemorrhage from the nose, intestines, etc. Jaundice is not a rare complication in case of severe intoxication.
Translate the words with the same root:
strong, strength, strengthen, strongly; continue, continuous, discontinue, discontinuous, discontinuation; digest, digestive, digestion, indigestion; sense,
sensitive, sensitivity, senseless, hypersensitivity; thick, thickly, thickness, thicken, thickened; local, locate, localize, localized, localization, location, locality; wide, widely, width, widen, widened
Finish the following definitions and answer the questions:
What is: a) pigmentation; b) rash; c) diabetes; d) stasis; e) biopsy?
1. Read Text F. 2. Translate the second paragraph; a) name the findings of the physical examination; b) state the abnormalities revealed by laboratory analyses. 3. Summarize the essence of each paragraph in a sentence so as to make the plan of the case history:
Text F. Hepatic damage due to Chemotherapy
A 50-year old woman had been known to have diabetes for 20 years. Her condition had been controlled by diet and administration of 100 units of insulin preparation daily. In an effort to improve the intensity of her control she had been given in addition 1 gr of chlorpropamide 1 per day.
About three weeks later she noted general malaise, weakness and loss of appetite, followed in a few days by the discovery of dark urine, light stools and rash on her trunk. With the passage of an additional week by which time she had taken a total of 27 gr of chlorpropamide, she noted jaundice. There was no pain, fever, nausea, or vomiting. Her past history did not reveal liver or bile duct diseases. She was hospitalized on October 10 for further studies.
The findings of the physical examination showed the presence of jaundice and diffuse rash on the chest and abdomen. The liver was enlarged and there was tenderness on palpation.
The blood analysis revealed serum bilirubin to be at the level of 8.9 mg%, the hemoglobin level was 11.6 gr% and the white blood cell count 7,600 per cubic millimetre. Platelets averaged to 490,000 per cubic millimetre. Urinalysis revealed the presence of bile.
The biopsy of the liver performed on October 16 showed normal liver structure. There was mild pigmentation of Kupffer cells 2 and slight capillary bile stasis. Some inflammatory reaction in the portal tracts was noted, but no inflammatory or degenerative changes were observed in the hepatic cells.
The patient was discontinued chemotherapy with chlorpropamide and her diabetes was controlled by a diet containing 150 gr of carbohydrates, 75 gr of proteins and 80 gr of fats and the administration of 80 units of insulin preparation daily.
Her symptoms having been relieved after a month’s treatment, the patient was discharged on November 14. She complained of neither jaundice nor any other symptoms when she was seen for a follow-up examination three months later.
HOME ASSIGNMENTS Revision
1. Jaundice is known to be present in the diseases of liver as well as in the diseases of intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ducts. 2. The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma are known to be epigastric pains, loss of weight, nausea and vomiting of blood. 3. Too hot food is supposed to contribute to the development of gastritis.
1. The amount of phosphorus being small in food, children may develop general health impairment. 2. The patient developed severe haemorrhage, it
being caused by the perforating duodenal ulcer. 3. The patient having developed hepatitis, severe jaundice was clearly marked.
gastric ulcer; 2. serum transfusion; 3. continuous haemorrhage; 4. carcinoma; 5. anaemia; 6. intermittent fever; 7. prophylactic vaccination; 8. profuse external bleeding; 9. chemotherapy; 10. chronic gastritis; 11. dryness in the mouth; 12. acute cholecystitis; 13. parenteral injections; 14. severe nausea
Chronic gastritis: separate; to be associated with; liver disease; the impairment; catarrhal condition; to cause; inadequate food; a bad diet regimen
The incidence of gastric cancer: common; women; highest incidence; age; malignant course; young persons; the duration of the disease
Acute appendicitis: sharp pain; epigastrium; to become generalized; breathing in; to be accompanied by; retention of stools; temperature; blood analysis
Acute cholecystitis: inflammatory disease; bile duct; frequent; gallbladder; to occur; to be associated with; the forms of cholecystitis; to involve; the liver; purulent, gangrenous; catarrhal
Text A. Peritonitis
Peritonitis is known to be general or localized, acute or chronic, primary or secondary.
Acute general purulent peritonitis is believed to be due to perforation of one of the hollow abdominal organs. The most frequent causes are perforating appendicitis, inflammatory conditions of the female sex organs and perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers.
The main symptoms of this condition are vomiting, pain and tenderness in the abdomen, it being considerably enlarged due to the presence of fluid there. The temperature is known to be moderately elevated, the pulse rate being considerably changed. The blood analysis usually reveals leucocytosis.
This condition is extremely dangerous to the patient’s life, an emergency surgery being performed to save the patient. During the operation the primary focus of peritonitis is to be removed, the danger for the patient being eliminated.
Emergency operative treatment is known to be followed by a course of antibiotic treatment, which greatly contributes to the recovery.
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS Revision
Replace each part of the Complex Subject given in bold type by the corresponding word or word combination given below:
Thefemale patientwas knownto complain of skin irritation.
the nurse; the physician; the surgeon; the male patient
to suffer from continuous bleeding; to perform an emergency surgery; to give blood and serum transfusion; to reveal digestion disturbances
Finish the sentences:
1. Acute cholecystitis is known. (a) to be characterized by pain radiating to the breastbone and lumbar area; 6) to be accompanied by profuse external bleeding) 2. Irregular diet as well as an emotional overstrain have been found. (a) to result in the disturbances of peripheral blood circulation; 6) to contribute to the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers) 3. Clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma prove. (a) to vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs; 6) to be associated with the lesions of the central nervous system)
1. Translate the sentences. 2. Find the subject in the main clause and the word acting as a subject in the Absolute Participle Construction:
1. Digestion disturbances having been present for a long period of time, the patient was prescribed a strict diet not containing any fat. 2. The patient suffering from a continuous bleeding, severe anaemia developed. 3. There being no characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis, the patient was allowed to vary his diet. 4. Tumour cells being spread with the blood flow, metastases may appear in various organs.
Supply extended answer to the following questions:
Who of Soviet scientists proved the existence of association between a lesion of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the development of ulcer? 2. What do you know about the corticovisceral theory of ulcers? 3. Give the characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis. 4. What factors contribute to the development of gastric cancer? 5. What is the development of acute appendicitis accompanied by? 6. What did the prominent Russian scientist S. Botkin prove? 7. What pathologic changes does hepatitis produce in the huma n body? 8. What three forms of cholecystitis are there? 9. What treatment is indicated in purulent and gangrenous forms of cholecystitis? 10. What diseases may be accompanied by jaundice?
Say what diseases are spoken about in the following statements:
This disease is treated surgically. The operation is performed not under general but under local anaesthesia. The operation must be performed immediately to prevent the development of peritonitis.
Ibis disease is most commonly observed in nervous persons. Such factors as mental and emotional overstrain contribute considerably to its development. The incidence of this disease is higher in men than in women. This disease is characterized by a chronic cyclic course.
When the physician examines the patient with this disease he reveals severe tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen and in the umbilical area. The physician also notes slight jaundice of sclerae. The patient complains of dryness in the mouth, vomiting, nausea and constipation.
1. Read Text B. 2. Say what the doctor must pay particular attention to while examining a patient whose condition is suggestive of liver or bile duct disease:
Text B. Symptoms of Diseases of the Liver and Bile Ducts
When the physician is taking the patient’s medical history he must pay attention to the patient’s working and living conditions, the diet which the patient follows, the history of past diseases, particularly of those of the alimentary tract, and the condition of the nervous and endocrine systems, because a hepatic disease is often directly associated with these factors.
For example, overeating, particularly of fatty foods, alcoholism may sometimes suggest the diagnosis of the fatty degeneration of the liver. A persistent lesion of the liver may be observed after Botkin’s disease and in chronic infections. Involvement of the liver and bile ducts is often found after gastrointestinal diseases, gastritis being one of them.
The patient’s complaints of loss of weight, pain in the right hypochondrium and abdominal enlargement may contribute to the proper diagnosis of the diseases of the liver and bile ducts. Among the characteristic symptoms of a hepatic disease are a yellowish colour of the skin, sclerae and of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, dilatation of the veins in the umbilical area, tenderness in the left and right hypochondrium.
Palpation and percussion of the liver and spleen may supply important evidence for a diagnosis. The size of the liver may be enlarged or contracted, it may be soft or firm, its surface may be nodular, the lower border may be sharp
all these findings enable the physician not to doubt an adequate diagnosis.
If there is common bile duct obstruction jaundice usually develops. 2. The surgeon wanted to know if ail the surgical instruments necessary for the operation had already been adequately sterilized. 3. Persons who have been in contact with the sick may be infected with hepatitis if prophylactic vaccination against it is not carried out.
a) If he is at the Institute -tomorrow he will see my brother.
6) If he were at the Institute tomorrow he would see my brother.
1. If biopsy had revealed cancer cells in the lung, the patient would have been operated on. 2. If the temperature is extremely high viruses will not survive.
The gastric juice would contain much mucus if the examined patient had carcinoma. 4. The patient would not have developed severe anaemia, if he had not suffered profuse external bleeding because of a bad injury.
1. Had obstruction not been controlled, the patient would have undergone an emergency surgery. 2. Could the nurse carry out this procedure herself, she would not ask the doctor to help her. 3. Were I in your place, I should discontinue penicillin treatment. 4. Had the pain not radiated to the substemal area, the diagnosis of angina pectoris would have been excluded.
If he had not been ill he would have been at the Institute yesterday.
It is important that he take this book.
I wish he be well again as soon as possible.
r) She looks as if(as though) she were ill.
He repeated his experiments many times so that he might get the exact data.
1, It is necessary that the group of blood be determined before the transfusion is given to the patient. 2. The physician suggested that the electrocardiogram should be repeated. 3. He looked as if he were very tired. 4. It is not very likely that hemoglobin level should increase in the course of the disease. 5. It is better to operate on immediately lest the appendix should rupture.
The doctor insisted that chemotherapy be discontinued. 7.1 wish the findings of the laboratory analyses be better.
immunity [i’mju:niti], invasion [in’veijn], natural [‘naetjral], absolute [‘aebsalu:t], antidote [‘aentidout], specific [spi’sifik], neutralize [‘nju:tralaiz], vital [‘vaitl]
sub-: cutaneous, cortical, febrile, serous, sternal, mucous; in-: sufficient, direct, active, adequate, digestion, complete
Text A. Immunity
Infectious diseases are known to be caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body. Infection may result from direct contact with patients or from indirect one.
But the human organism is known to have a specific capacity of resistance against infection, which is called immunity, it being natural and artificial. Under various conditions it may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute. A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against its subsequent infection.
In the course of their growth in the body many pathogenic microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins, they causing the characteristic symptoms of a particular disease. To meet the infection the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount of this antidote to neutralize the toxins before the vital organs are injured recovery occurs. If the human body had not this capacity we should suffer from all infectious diseases.
If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men an artificial immunity can be produced which results from the formation of antitoxin.
The cellular elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against the infection. The presence of any infection usually produces leucocytosis and bacteria in the tissues are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread of bacteria destroying them.
If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protective mechanisms of the body. Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease, but to establish an active artificial immunity.
Translate the following sentences:
The patient’s sclerae were yellow as if he had jaundice. 3. The patient must be given vaccination lest he should become infected. 4. Chronic gastritis would not be so dangerous to life if the patient were not so young. 5. It is likely that the symptoms should recur since the process of inflammation has not been controlled yet. 6. It is necessary that the patient be administered a strict diet to control gastric pains.
Pick out the appropriate phrase fo end the sentences:
Finish the sentences using Complex Object:
Pick out the sentences corresponding fo Text A:
a) Artificial immunity results from prophylactic vaccination, b) Artificial immunity is due to the formation of specific antitoxins. 2. a) Immunity may vary depending on various conditions, b) Immunity may be present only in certain persons. 3. a) Toxins produce the characteristic symptoms of a particular infectious disease, b) Some microorganisms, like mucobacterium tuberculosis, produce little or no toxin during growth.
1. Read Text B. 2. Determine the meaning of the words in bold type from the context. 3. Say about what Pasteur spoke in his lecture. 4. What conclusion have you come to having read the text?
If all the works carried out by the great French researcher Pasteur were divided into three groups they would form three great discoveries.
The first one might be formulated thus: “Each fermentation is produced by the development of a particular microbe.”
The second one might be given this formula: “Each infectious disease is produced by the development of a particular microbe within the human organism.”
The third one might be the following: “The microbe of an infectious disease, under certain conditions, is attenuated 1 in its pathogenic activity; from a microbe it becomes a vaccine.”
In 1878 while delivering his lecture on the theory of microbes at the Academy of Sciences in Paris Pasteur said that if he were a surgeon, who knew of the dangers produced by microbes existing on the surface of every object, particularly in hospitals, not only should he use clean instruments, but after washing his hands with the greatest care, he would employ only those bandages and charpie 2 which had been heated to a temperature of 130° or 150°C.
If he employed the water he would heat it to a temperature of 110° or 120°C, since observation had shown the clearest water to contain still greater number of microbes.
Had those principles of asepsis, on which Pasteur insisted, not been strictly followed in medicine thousands and thousands of human lives would have been lost because of sepsis.
Pasteur first formulated the idea that bacteria are responsible for the diseases of fermented liquids; the corollary of this was a demand for pure yeast.
About this time Hansen, who had long been engaged in researches on the biology of the fungi of fermentation, demonstrated that yeast free from bacteria could nevertheless occasion diseases in beer.
It was not recognized that many of the diseases of fermented liquids are occasioned by foreign yeasts; moreover, this process, as was shown later by Hansen, favours the development of foreign yeasts at the expense of the good yeast.
Having found that some of the commonest diseases of beer, such as yeast turbidity and the objectionable changes in flavour, were caused not by bacteria but by certain species of yeast, and, further, that different species of good brewery yeast would produce beers of different character, Hansen argued that the pitching yeast should consist only of a single species - namely, that best suited to the brewery in question.
Specifically, a virus or bug passed to a pig is considered a huge threat in the medical community, because pigs can pass their diseases onto humans.
There were no signs of famine or diseases that oft struck Landis, no fights in the streets for a higher position in the warlord-king's court or among his chosen men, no brawls over who would mate with a woman of age.
We don't owe millions, or have lovers, or rare diseases. or tons of life insurance, or work for the CIA, or do drugs or any of that.
The mineral waters of Mount Clemens are beneficial to patients suffering from rheumatism, blood diseases and nervous disorders.
A frame naturally slight had been further attenuated by rigorous habits of temperance, and thus rendered proof against the diseases of the tropics.
Medical science further owes to him the classification of new growths on a natural histological basis, the elucidation of leucaemia, glioma and lardaceous tumours, and detailed investigations into many diseases - tuberculosis, pyaemia, diphtheria, leprosy, typhus, &c. Among the books he published on pathological and medical subjects may be mentioned Vorlesungen fiber Pathologic, the first volume of which was the Cellular-pathologic (1858), and the remaining three Die Krankhaften Geschwiilste (1863-67); Handbuch der speziellen Pathologic and Therapie (3 vols. 1854-62), in collaboration with other German surgeons; Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medizin (1856); Vier Reden fiber Leben and Kranksein (1862); Untersuchungen fiber die Entwicklung des Schlidelgrundes (1857); Lehre von den Trichinen (1865); Ueber den Hunger-typhus (1868); and Gesammelte Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der afentlichen Medizin and der Seuchenlehre (1879).
In the tenth book of the Republic we find the curious argument that the soul does not perish like the body, because its characteristic evil, sin or wickedness does not kill it as the diseases of the body wear out the bodily life.
The remainder of his life was mainly spent in endeavouring to secure the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, and in 1886 this object was attained.
As a whole, the Malays are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and hereditary diseases are rare among them.
At Belcoo, near Enniskillen, there is a famous well called Daragh Phadric, held in repute by the peasantry for its cure of paralytic and other diseases ; and 4 m.
Knit goods are manufactured, but the importance of the place is due to its sulphur springs, the waters of which are used for the treatment of skin diseases. gout, rheumatism, etc. and to the tonic air and fine scenery.
The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases. the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.
The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.
The indoor institutions are the more important in regard to endowment, and consist of hospitals for the infirm (a number of these are situated at the seaside); of hospitals for chronic and incurable diseases ; of orphan asylums; of poorhouses and shelters for beggars; of infant asylums or institutes for the first education of children under six years of age; of lunatic asylums; of homes for the deaf and dumb; and of institutes for the blind.
Indicated the particular planet they were under led to their use in diseases and for constitutions supposed to be under the same planet.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases. must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c. but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
These enenlies are as a rule so conspicuous that we do not look on their depredations as diseases. though the gradual deterioration of hay under the exhausting effects of root-parasites like Rhinanthus, and the onslaught of Cuscuta when unduly abundant, should teach us how unimportant to the definition the question of size may be.
The annual losses due to epidemic plant diseases attain proportions not easily estimated.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c. from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
Diseases am] SymptomsThe symptoms of plant diseases are, as already said, apt to be very general in their nature, and are sometimes so vaguely defined that little can be learned from them as to the causes at work.
By far the greater number of spot-diseases are due to Fungi, as indicated by the numerous leaf-diseases described, but such is by no means always the case.
It is somewhat artificial to classify these diseases according to the color of the spots, and often impossible, because the color may differ according to the age of the part attacked and the stage of injury attained; many Fungi, for instance, induce yellow spots which become red, brown or black as they get older, and so on.
In greenhouses where the suns rays are concentrated on particular spotsand a certain class of obscure diseases. such as silver-leaf in plums, foxy leaves in various plants, may also be placed here.
Exudations and Rotting.The outward symptoms of many diseases consist in excessive discharges of moisture, often accompanied by bursting of over-turgid cells, and eventually by putrefactive changes.
Bacteriosis.Many of the plant diseases involving rot have been ascribed to the action of bacteria, and in some casese.g.
NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
No sharp line can be drawn between these diseases and some of the preceding, inasmuch as it often depends on the external conditions whether necrosis is a dry-rot, in the sense I employ the term here, or a wet-rot, when it would come under the preceding category.
General attacks of leaf-diseases invariably lead to starvation and necrosis of twigs, and similarly with the ravages of caterpillars and other insects.
Causes of Disease, &c. Pfeffer, Physiology of Plants (Oxford, 1900); Sorauer, Treatise on the Physiology of Plants (1895); Bailey, The Principles of Agriculture (1898); Lafar, Technical Mycology (1898); Hartig, Diseases of Trees (I 894); Marshall Ward, Proc. Roy.
394; and Timber and some of its Diseases (London, 1889).
See FUNGI and BACTERIA; also Marshall Ward, Diseases of Plants (Romance of Science Series), S.P.C.K.; Massee, Text-Book of Plant Diseases (1899); Tubeuf, Diseases of Plants (London, 1897).
Wounds, &c.Marshall Ward, Timber and some of its Diseases. p. 210; Hartig, Diseases of Trees (London, 1894).
Endemic diseases are unknown and epidemics are rare.
This Strophanthus is not remarkable for its rubber - which is mere bird lime - but for the powerful poison of its seeds, often used for poisoning arrows, but of late much in use as a drug for treating diseases of the heart.
Until the advent of the modern synthetic products buchu was valued in diseases of the urinary tract, but its use is now practically obsolete.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
We know that diseases were attributed by the Israelites to malignant demons which they, like the Arabs, identified with serpents.
(See Parasitic Diseases and Mosquitoes.) The successive steps by which the present position has been reached form an interesting chapter in the history of scientific progress.
With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases. and little need be said about them here.
- Celli, Malaria; Christy, Mosquitoes and Malaria; Manson, Tropical Diseases ; Allbutt's System of Medicine; Ross, "Malaria," Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, 3rd ed.; The Practitioner, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); Lancet (Sept.
That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c. from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).
There are undrained, swampy districts in Campeche, in the vicinity of the Terminos Lagoon, where malarial diseases are prevalent, and the same conditions prevail along the coast where mangrove swamps are found.
There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
The diseases or sicknesses of beer and wine had from time immemorial baffled all attempts at cure.
Just as each kind of fermentation possesses a definite organized ferment, so many diseases are dependent on the presence of a distinct microbe; and just as the gardener can pick out and grow a given plant or vegetable, so the bacteriologist can (in most cases) eliminate the adventitious and grow the special organism - in other words, can obtain a pure cultivation which has the power of bringing about the special disease.
It is no less than a cure for the dread disease of hydrophobia in man and of rabies in animals; and the interest of the achievement is not only that he successfully combated one of the most mysterious and most fell diseases to which man is subject, but also that this was accomplished in spite of the fact that the special microbe causing the disease had not been isolated.
Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.
The charitable institutions include Moorhead's hospital (1753) for reduced householders; the Dumfriesshire and Galloway royal infirmary, dating from 1778, but now housed in a fine edifice in the northern Italian style; the Crichton royal institution for the insane, founded by Dr James Crichton of Friars Carse, and supplemented in 1848 by the Southern Counties asylum; the new infirmary, a handsome building; the contagious diseases hospital, the industrial home for orphan and destitute girls and a nurses' home.
The prevailing diseases are cholera, fever, small-pox, ophthalmia, dysentery and those of the skin among the lower classes.
The pear is subject to several diseases caused by fungi.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D. treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases. and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
His remarks on horses, cattle, &c. are not less interesting; and there is a very good account of the diseases of each species, and some just observations on the advantage of mixing different kinds on the same pasture.
Severe as were the losses in flocks and herds from these imported diseases. they were eclipsed by the ravages of the mysterious potato blight, which, first appearing in 1845, pervaded the whole of Europe, and in Ireland especially proved the precursor of famine and pestilence.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 provided for the compulsory slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing.
Up to 1896 store cattle were admitted into the United Kingdom for the purpose of being fattened, but under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year animals imported since then have to be slaughtered at the place of landing.
By the Diseases of Animals Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict.
How about people with incurable diseases. Would they pool medical and demographic information in the hopes a cure could be found?
After the infectious diseases come the non-infectious ones such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
Since it is theoretically and biologically possible for infectious diseases to end, then the goal clearly includes the end of those.
It would include ending all non-infectious diseases as well.
Of all the celebrated accomplishments of science, I think none is more significant than the end of certain diseases. especially the scourge of polio.
And if it is possible to eliminate two, then it must be possible to eliminate more, for it is not that we eliminated two of the easiest diseases. but two pretty tricky ones.
Well, the diseases that human beings focus on are the ones considered most unbearable.
Widespread diseases that affect children, celebrities, and people we know will simply attract more public attention and funding.
Second: When they successfully fought these diseases. Salk and Jenner didn't have anything like the technology and knowledge that are available today, even to an undergraduate.
Jenner didn't even know about germ theory, that diseases are caused by pathogens, yet he made a vaccine that worked!
Third: It is always the case that diseases are eliminated first in the healthy, well-developed, rich countries, then gradually around the world.
Our battles with diseases go as far back into history as we can see.
With skin cancer, like all diseases. over time some people get better and some people get worse, and often we really don't know why.
Diseases are frequently diagnosed with broad terms based on a set of symptoms.
Additionally, we have deciphered the genome of diseases. from SARS to influenza.
And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Stakman had determined that immunity to these diseases. or at least resistance, could be bred into crops.
Thousands of people research diseases because they individually want to cure them.
Our voyaging is only great-circle sailing, and the doctors prescribe for diseases of the skin merely.
Doctors came to see her singly and in consultation, talked much in French, German, and Latin, blamed one another, and prescribed a great variety of medicines for all the diseases known to them, but the simple idea never occurred to any of them that they could not know the disease Natasha was suffering from, as no disease suffered by a live man can be known, for every living person has his own peculiarities and always has his own peculiar, personal, novel, complicated disease, unknown to medicine--not a disease of the lungs, liver, skin, heart, nerves, and so on mentioned in medical books, but a disease consisting of one of the innumerable combinations of the maladies of those organs.
He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases. and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.
Its use in febrile diseases. at one time extensive, is now obsolete.
Clearly, we must also regard the various genetic ailments as being diseases as well, even though we know they, too, have no pathogenic component.
How do we know these weren't the easiest diseases to eliminate?