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Category: Antibiotics


Bactrim is used to treat ear infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, traveler\'s diarrhea, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

Active Ingredient: sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim

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Aetna was the first insurer to follow United in pledging to stop using the Ingenix database. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Another study published recently in Psychological Science suggests that higher emotional intelligence leads to better decisions.

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Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic.

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  • We would also like to conduct more extensive, normative studies, in the population at large," says Dr. For example, if your total cholesterol number is 200 and your good cholesterol is 50, your total cholesterol ratio is 4:1.
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Other articles

EUROPA - Animal Health - Welfare - Animal Diseases - Foot and Mouth Disease


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, usually non-fatal viral disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals, but may also affect certain other species. It is widely distributed throughout the world. Animals recovered from the disease may remain carriers of the infectious virus for an extended period of time. FMD is not dangerous to humans, but has a great potential for causing severe economic losses in susceptible animals.

Causative agent. FMD is caused by a non-enveloped Aphtovirus of the family Picornaviridae, existing in seven distinct serotypes of FMD virus, namely, O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1, most of them with many more subtypes. Infection or vaccination with one serotype, or in some cases even a different sub-type of the same serotype, does not confer immunity against another.

Transmission. the virus is spread easily by animated and non-animated vectors, notably the incubating or clinically affected animal or its products, but may also spread airborne over substantial distances.

FMD, characterised by a vesicular condition of the feet, buccal mucosa and, in females, the mammary glands, cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases.

Laboratory diagnosis. including isolation of the virus, detection of viral antigen or nucleic acid or of specific humoral antibody, of any suspected FMD case is therefore a matter of urgency.

Vaccination with the use of conventional vaccines protects from disease, but does not prevent infection and consequently a carrier state. The Community adopted therefore in 1990 a policy prohibiting the prophylactic vaccination against FMD.

Prevention. however, in order to further reduce the risk of incursion of the virus from endemic areas, the Community at the same time strengthened the controls at external borders and engaged considerable financial resources to assist third countries in its neighbourhood to control and eradicate the disease.

It is an OIE listed disease. according to the OIE Classification of Diseases of major importance. This means it is a transmissible disease that has the potential for very serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders, that is of serious socio-economic or public health consequence and that has major implication for the international trade in animals and animal products.

For more details, click on the OIE technical card on FMD.

Control measures

Union control measures are laid down in Council Directive 2003/85/EC of 29 September 2003 repealing the former Directive 85/511/EEC. The Directive provides for measures to control and eradicate the disease with the aim to regain the disease and infection free status of the affected territory. The control measures are based on stamping-out of infected and in-contact herds, and on regional restrictions on the movement of susceptible animals and their products. Provisions are made for the use of emergency vaccination. To this end the Union maintains one of the world's biggest antigen banks for express formulation of vaccines.

Member States are obliged to have contingency plans in operation and national reference laboratories must collaborate with the EU Reference Laboratory.


Further information can be found on the website of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations.

The 2001 Epidemic Information on other FMD outbreaks

The foot and mouth disease outbreak in the UK in 2007

The foot and mouth disease in Bulgaria in 2011

Notification and Health Situation

Foot-and-mouth disease is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the Community. Click on ADNS for a description of the notification system and the latest health situation table.

Sedentary Lifestyle (Sitting Disease): How to Get Active

Do You Have Sitting Disease?

WebMD Feature Archive

Too much time sitting down may spell bad news for your health. Here are 8 ways to get out of your seat.

Chances are you're reading this article while perched in a chair. And, if you're like most computer users, you've been there for a while.

Consider how much you sit in a day: driving during your morning commute to an 8-hour-a-day desk job, and then unwinding on the couch in front of the television all evening. What’s more, do you depend on email, cell phone apps, direct-deposit paychecks, and online shopping to accomplish tasks that 10 or 20 years ago would have required you to get up and run errands?

If so, then you may have "sitting disease,” a catchy phrase for a sedentary lifestyle that might be putting your health at risk.

“If you take a brisk, 15-minute walk in the afternoon, you'll be far more productive in your last 2 hours.” -- Fabio Comana

The Price of Sitting Too Much

A growing body of research shows that long periods of physical inactivity raise your risk of developing heart disease. diabetes. cancer. and obesity. In January 2010. British experts linked prolonged periods of sitting to a greater likelihood of disease. And that same month, Australian researchers reported that each hour spent watching TV is linked to an 18% increase in the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease -- perhaps because that time is spent sitting down.

You're Meant to Move

"Human beings evolved as a walking entity, exploring the world on our feet," says James Levine, MD, author of Move a Little, Lose a Lot.

"The strangest thing in the world is that people spend all day scrunched in a chair. It's a form of physical entrapment," says Levine, who strolled on a treadmill in his office at a 1-mile-per-hour pace while being interviewed for this article.

Levine's advice: Fight sitting disease by taking steps to become more physically active.

Get Up and Go

Here are 8 ways to help you sneak in some on-your-feet time in an otherwise deskbound day.

1. Get NEAT. NEAT stands for non-exercise activity thermogenesis, and includes stretching. turning, and bending. Levine recommends that you aim for 10 minutes of NEAT each hour "'I can't afford the gym' is no longer a barrier," Levine says.

Sitting Disease

Office-Ergo Sitting Disease

Ten Things You Should Know About Sitting

OK the title is a little sensationalistic, but the findings and implications are severe.

Work has changed and many computer-users now sit for as much as 15 hours per day!

  • For most of human history we were hunters and gatherers. Hunter-gatherers often walked or ran 6 to 12 miles (10 – 20 K’s) per day.
  • Several thousand years ago man began farming, raised crops and kept animals. Early farming was hard manual labor and burned many calories per day.
  • In the late 18th century the industrial revolution began and machines replaced many manual tasks. Mechanical assistance greatly reduced the amount of physical activity in our daily lives.
  • Very recently computers became more common in work environments. It is estimated that half of all jobs in western society are computer-based. Working on a computer all day is very sedentary activity and is associated with the factors that make up sitting disease.

Sitting disease or more accurately, metabolic syndrome, is a condition where the Lipoprotein Lipase enzymes in the blood vessels essentially go to sleep after 60 – 90 minutes of inactivity.

These enzymes are responsible for metabolizing fats and sugars in the blood stream. Physical movement is thought to stimulate enzyme activity and improve cholesterol & regulate blood sugar. Lack of movement and low enzyme activity contribute to weight gain, diabetes and a reduction in HDL- the good cholesterol.

The Bad News: Running and regular exercise improves health and fitness, but even an hour per day is not enough to off-set the negative effects of 15 hours of sitting each day.

The Good News: Standing, walking, fidgeting, and contracting/relaxing the muscles every hour or more seems to reactivate the sleeping Lipoprotein Lipase enzymes. This stimulates your metabolism.

The Implications: Long periods of sitting or other sedentary activity is not good for your health. This can lead to early death. Regular activity, especially regular non-exercise physical activity such as standing, walking, raking, shoveling snow, gardening, cleaning, etc. has protective benefits.

  • If you can stand, don’t sit.
  • If you can walk, don’t stand.
  • If you can do something manually, don’t use a machine.

Read the research summaries:

Sitting May Increase Risk Of Disease. University of Missouri-Columbia (2007, November 20). From ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2007/11/071119130734.htm

More Breaks from Sitting is Good e-Science News.com reports on a new study from the European Heart Journal. 1-minute breaks from sitting are good for your waist and heart.

Ten Things You Should Know About Sitting

  1. Most of us sit too much. The average person sits more than 8 hours per day. Many office workers sit as much as 15 hours per day. Think about all the sitting in your typical day; sit at breakfast, sit on your way to work, sit at work, sit on your way home from work, sit for dinner, and then sit to watch TV or surf the internet.
  2. Sitting puts your metabolism to sleep. 60 – 90 minutes of inactivity (like sitting) is enough to shut down the enzymes responsible for producing HDL- the “good” cholesterol, and for regulating blood sugar. Chronic inactivity is now thought to contribute to our diabetes epidemic.
  3. Sitting is harder on your back than standing. Sitting tenses the hamstrings and causes a flattening of normal curve in the low back. This distortion of the spine increases the internal strain of the back. Sitting upright or sitting in a forward bent position is particularly hard on the back. (see the Trunk and Back Pain link above for more on this subject)
  4. Sitting with an open hip angle of greater than 90⁰ reduces back tension. Sitting in a reclined posture, thighs-declined, or even slouched back against the back cushion can reduce tension in the spine. This reduces the hamstring tension and shifts some of the upper body weight onto the back cushion.
  5. Sitting provides more stability and control for detailed work as opposed to many types of stand up work. Sitting is easier on the Musculo-skeletal system (except as noted above in number 3).
  6. An hour of daily exercise won’t counteract the negative health effects of sitting. Running, biking and other types of exercise are great for improving fitness, but they don’t counteract the negative health effects of prolonged sitting. Exercisers who sit most of the day are known as active couch potatoes .
  7. You need to stand and move each hour or more to maintain health. Sitting puts your metabolism to sleep. Movement like standing, walking, and other leg-muscle activity stimulates your metabolism and restarts your body.
  8. Adjust your chair for comfort, support, and movement. You chair should fit you and your physique, and it should allow for a variety of postures and movement. Adjust the back rest cushion up/ down to fit the curve of your low back, adjust the seat height for a comfortable leg support, and set the backrest to allow supported relining and movement back and forth. While seated you should fidget, squirm, contract/relax your muscles, and flex/extend your legs. Remember movement is good, sitting still for long periods is bad.
  9. Your best posture is your next posture. There is no single best ergonomic posture. Most experts recommend a variety of positions and postures including these four reference postures; upright supported, reclined seated, thighs declined, standing.
  10. Don’t sit if you can stand, don’t stand if you can walk. Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin both knew that standing for work was a good thing. Both of these great Americans had stand up workstations.
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List of diseases (O)

List of diseases (O)

List of diseases (O)

A list of disease s in the English wikipedia.

* O Doherty syndrome
* O Donnell Pappas syndrome
* Obesity
* Obesophobia
* Obsessive-compulsive disorder
* Obstructive asymmetric septal hypertrophy
* Obstructive sleep apnea

* Occipital horn syndrome
* Occlusive Infantile ateriopathy
* Occult spinal dysraphism
* Occupational asthma
* Occupational asthma - Chemicals
* Occupational asthma - Metals
* Occupational asthma - Plants
* Occupational asthma - Wood dust
* Occupational asthma - Drugs
* Ochoa syndrome
* Ochronosis, hereditary
* Ochronosis
* Ockelbo disease

* Ocular Albinism
* Ocular coloboma-imperforate anus
* Ocular convergence spasm
* Ocular Histoplasmosis
* Ocular melanoma
* Ocular motility disorders
* Ocular toxoplasmosis

* Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum
* Oculo cerebral dysplasia
* Oculo cerebro acral syndrome
* Oculo cerebro osseous syndrome
* Oculo dento digital dysplasia
* Oculo digital syndrome
* Oculo facio cardio dental syndrome
* Oculo skeletal renal syndrome
* Oculo tricho anal syndrome
* Oculo tricho dysplasia

* Oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome
* Oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia
* Oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome Cross type
* Oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome type Preus
* Oculocerebral syndrome with hypopigmentation
* Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome
* Oculocerebrorenal syndrome
* Oculocutaneous albinism immunodeficiency
* Oculocutaneous albinism type 1
* Oculocutaneous albinism type 2
* Oculocutaneous albinism type 3
* Oculocutaneous albinism, tyrosinase negative
* Oculocutaneous albinism, tyrosinase positive
* Oculocutaneous tyrosinemia
* Oculodental syndrome Rutherfurd syndrome
* Oculodentodigital dysplasia dominant
* Oculodentodigital syndrome
* Oculo-dento-digital syndrome
* Oculodentoosseous dysplasia dominant
* Oculodentoosseous dysplasia recessive
* Oculodigitoesophagoduodenal syndrome
* Oculo-gastrointestinal muscular dystrophy

* Oculomaxillofacial dysostosis
* Oculomaxillofacial dysplasia with oblique facial clefts
* Oculomelic amyoplasia
* Oculopalatoskeletal syndrome
* Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
* Oculorenocerebellar syndrome

* Odonto onycho dysplasia with alopecia
* Odontoma
* Odontomicronychial dysplasia
* Odontoonychodermal dysplasia
* Odontophobia
* Odontotrichomelic hypohidrotic dysplasia
* Odynophobia
* OFD syndrome type 8
* OFD syndrome type Figuera
* Ogilvie's syndrome
* Ohaha syndrome
* Ohdo Madokoro Sonoda syndrome
* Oikophobia
* Okamuto Satomura syndrome

* Olfactophobia
* Oligodactyly
* Oligodactyly tetramelia postaxial
* Oligomeganephronic renal hypoplasia
* Oligomeganephrony
* Oligophernia
* Oliver McFarlane syndrome
* Oliver syndrome
* Olivopontocerebellar atrophy deafness
* Olivopontocerebellar atrophy type 1
* Olivopontocerebellar atrophy type 2
* Olivopontocerebellar atrophy type 3
* Olivopontocerebellar atrophy
* Ollier disease
* Olmsted syndrome

* Ombrophobia
* Omenn syndrome
* Omodysplasia type 1
* Omphalocele cleft palate syndrome lethal
* Omphalocele exstrophy imperforate anus
* Omphalomesenteric cyst
* Omsk hemorrhagic fever
* Onat syndrome
* Onchocerciasis
* Oncocytoma
* Ondine's curse
* Oneirophobia
* Onychonychia hypoplastic distal phalanges
* Onychotrichodysplasia and neutropenia

* Ophthalmic icthyosis
* Ophthalmo acromelic syndrome
* Ophthalmomandibulomelic dysplasia
* Ophthalmophobia
* Ophthalmoplegia ataxia hypoacusis
* Ophthalmoplegia mental retardation lingua scrotalis
* Ophthalmoplegia myalgia tubular aggregates
* Opitz Mollica Sorge syndrome
* Opitz Reynolds Fitzgerald syndrome
* Opitz syndrome
* Opportunistic infection s
* Oppositional defiant disorder
* Opsismodysplasia

* Opthalmoplegia progressive external scoliosis
* Optic atrophy opthalmoplegia ptosis deafness myopia
* Optic atrophy polyneuropathy deafness
* Optic atrophy, autosomal dominant
* Optic atrophy, idiopathic, autosomal recessive
* Optic atrophy
* Optic disc drusen
* Optic nerve coloboma with renal disease
* Optic nerve disorder
* Optic nerve hypoplasia, familial bilateral
* Optic neuritis
* Optic pathway glioma
* Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy dementia

* Oral facial digital syndrome type 3
* Oral facial digital syndrome type 4
* Oral facial digital syndrome
* Oral facial dyskinesia
* Oral leukoplakia
* Oral lichen planus
* Oral lichenoid lesions
* Oral squamous cell carcinoma
* Oral submucous fibrosis
* Oral-facial cleft
* Oral-facial-digital syndrome, type IV
* Oral-facial-digital syndrome
* Oral-pharyngeal disorders
* Organic brain syndrome
* Organic mood syndrome
* Organic personality syndrome
* Ornithine aminotransferase deficiency
* Ornithine carbamoyl phosphate deficiency
* Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, hyperammonemia due to
* Ornithinemia
* Ornithosis

* Oro acral syndrome
* Orofaciodigital syndrome Gabrielli type
* Orofaciodigital syndrome Shashi type
* Orofaciodigital syndrome Thurston type
* Orofaciodigital syndrome type 2
* Orofaciodigital syndrome type1
* Orotic aciduria hereditary
* Orotic aciduria purines-pyrimidines
* Orotidylic decarboxylase deficiency
* Orstavik Lindemann Solberg syndrome
* Orthostatic intolerance

* Osebold Remondini syndrome
* Osgood-Schlatter disease
* Oslam syndrome
* Osmed Syndrome
* Ossicular Malformations, familial

* Osteoarthritis
* Osteoarthropathy of fingers familial
* Osteochondritis deformans juvenile
* Osteochondritis dissecans
* Osteochondritis
* Osteochondrodysplasia thrombocytopenia hydrocephalus
* Osteochondroma
* Osteocraniostenosis
* Osteodysplasia familial Anderson type
* Osteodysplastic dwarfism Corsello type
* Osteoectasia familial
* Osteogenesis Imperfecta
* Osteogenesis imperfecta congenita microcephaly and cataracts
* Osteogenesis imperfecta congenital joint contractures
* Osteogenesis imperfecta retinopathy
* Osteogenic sarcoma
* Osteoglophonic dwarfism
* Osteolysis hereditary multicentric
* Osteolysis syndrome recessive
* Osteomalacia
* osteomyelitis

* Osteonecrosis
* Osteopathia condensans disseminata with osteopoikilosis
* Osteopathia striata cranial sclerosis
* Osteopathia striata pigmentary dermopathy white forelock
* Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant type 1
* Osteopetrosis lethal
* Osteopetrosis renal tubular acidosis
* Osteopetrosis, (generic term)
* Osteopetrosis, malignant
* Osteopetrosis, mild autosomal recessive form
* Osteopoikilosis
* Osteoporosis macrocephaly mental retardation blindness
* Osteoporosis oculocutaneous hypopigmentation syndrome
* Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome
* osteoporosis
* Osteosarcoma limb anomalies erythroid macrocytosis
* Osteosclerose type Stanescu
* Osteosclerosis abnormalities of nervous system and meninges
* Osteosclerosis autosomal dominant Worth type
* Osteosclerosis

* Ostertag type amyloidosis

* Ota Appaura syndrome
* Ota Kawamura Ito syndrome
* Oto palato digital syndrome type I and II
* Otodental dysplasia
* Otofaciocervical syndrome
* Otoonychoperoneal syndrome
* Oto-Palatal-digital syndrome
* Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2
* Otosclerosis, familial
* otosclerosis
* Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia
* Ouvrier Billson syndrome
* Ovarian cancer
* Ovarian carcinosarcoma
* Ovarian dwarfism as part of Turner Syndrome
* Ovarian dwarfism
* Ovarian insufficiency due to FSH resistance
* ovarian remnant syndrome
* Overfolded helix
* Overgrowth radial ray defect arthrogryposis
* Overgrowth syndrome type Fryer
* Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis
* Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI)
* Oxalosis

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List of neurological disorders — This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer s disease), symptoms (e.g. back pain), signs (e.g. aphasia) and syndromes (e.g. Aicardi syndrome). Contents: Top · 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P … Wikipedia

List of hospitals in Egypt — This is a list of hospitals in Egypt. Cairo * Hassabo International Hospital * El Borg Hospital * Alexandria Psychiatric centre * Agooza * Ain Shams Specialized Hospital * Ain Shams University hospital (El Demerdash) * Al Salam * As Salam… … Wikipedia

List of psychology topics — This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. It is also to see the gaps in Wikipedia s coverage of the… … Wikipedia

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Omsat Drug Information, Indications - Other Medicaments on

Omsat Drug Information Omsat forms, composition and dosages: Indications, usages and classification codes:
  • J01EE01 - Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim

There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim):

Pharmacological action

Synthetic antimicrobial drug with broad spectrum bactericidal action. sulfamethoxazole has a bacteriostatic action, which is associated with inhibition of recycling process of PABA and a violation dihydrofolic acid's synthesis in bacterial cells. Trimethoprim inhibits the enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of folic acid converting dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. Thus it is blocked two successive stages of the biosynthesis of purines and therefore nucleic acids that are essential for growth and reproduction of bacteria. High concentrations created in the tissues of the lung, kidney, prostate, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, bones.
Co-trimoxazole is active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (including strains of penicillinase producing), Streptococcus spp. (including Streptococcus pneumoniae), Corynebacterium diphtheriae; gram-negative bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. Salmonella spp. Proteus spp. Enterobacter spp. Klebsiella spp. Yersinia spp. Vibrio cholerae, Haemophilus influenzae; anaerobic asporogenous bacteria - Bacteroides spp. Co-trimoxazole is active also against Chlamydia spp.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Treponema spp. Mycoplasma spp. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also viruses and fungi are resistant to co-trimoxazole.


After oral administration sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Meal slows their absorption. Widely distributed in tissues and body fluids. The binding of trimethoprim to plasma proteins is 50%, sulfamethoxazole - 66%. T1/2 of trimethoprim is 8.6-17 hours, sulfamethoxazole - 9-11 hours. Trimethoprim is excreted in the urine in unchanged form (50%) and as metabolites. Sulfamethoxazole also excreted in the urine, mainly unchanged.

Why is Omsat prescribed?

Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by sensitive to co-trimoxazole microorganisms: respiratory tract infections (including acute and chronic bronchitis, empyema, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, pneumonia, tonsillitis, pharyngitis); urinary tract infections (including gonococcal urethritis), cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis; gastrointestinal infections (including enteritis, typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, cholecystitis, cholangitis); infections of skin and soft tissue (including pyoderma, furunculosis, wound infection), septicemia, brucellosis.

Dosage and administration

Individual. Doses are given on the basis of sulfamethoxazole. For oral administration for adults and children older than 12 years the average dose is 0.4-2 g every 12 hours (2 times / day), course of treatment - 5-14 days. Orally for children aged 2-5 months - 100 mg 2 times / day; 1-2 years - 100 mg 2 times / day; 3-6 years - 200 mg 2 times / day; 6-12 years at 200-400 mg 2 times / day.
Parenterally administered only in the absence of the possibility of oral administration. IM for adults and children over 12 years - 800 mg every 12 hours; for children aged 6-12 years - 30 mg / kg / day, interval between each dose - 12 hours.
If necessary prescribed IV as drops at 0.8-1.6 g every 12 hours (2 times / day) within 5 days. For children aged 6-12 years are prescribed at 15 mg / kg every 12 hours. Average duration of injection - 30-60 minutes but no more than 1.5 hours. The course of treatment is average 5 days, then if necessary go to oral administration. The maximum oral daily dose for adults is 3.6 g.

Omsat side effects

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, pseudomembranous colitis, cholestatic hepatitis.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell's syndrome.
Hemopoietic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anemia.
Urinary system: crystalluria, hematuria, interstitial nephritis.
Local reactions: phlebitis (when IV injected).
Other: purpura, impaired thyroid function.


Expressed disorders of liver and kidney function, blood diseases, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pregnancy, lactation (breastfeeding), hypersensitivity to sulfonamides and trimethoprim.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim cross the placenta and excreted in breast milk. They can cause the development of kernicterus and hemolytic anemia in the fetus and newborn. In addition increases the risk of fatty liver in pregnant women. Therefore the use of co-trimoxazole in pregnancy is contraindicated. If necessary using of co-trimoxazole during lactation breastfeeding should be discontinued.

Special instructions

With careful use of co-trimoxazole in patients with a possible deficiency of folic acid, in allergic reactions in anamnesis, bronchial asthma, disorders of liver, kidney, thyroid gland. When long treatment should be systematically study the peripheral blood, the functional state of liver and kidney.
Elderly patients are recommended the appointment of additional folic acid. During co-trimoxazole treatment should be ensured adequate water pressure (to avoid the development of crystalluria).
If the kidney function disorders the dose should be reduced and the intervals between doses increased.
The risk of adverse reactions is increased in elderly patients and patients with AIDS.
When parenteral administration in patients with renal insufficiency should determine the concentration of sulfamethoxazole in blood plasma every 2-3 days before the regular IM injection. In concentration of 150 ug / ml the treatment should be discontinued until the concentration drops to 120 mcg / ml.

Omsat drug interactions

With the simultaneous application of co-trimoxazole effect of anticoagulants of indirect action is greatly enhanced due to slow inactivation of the latter, as well as their release from binding with plasma proteins.
In an application with some sulfonylureas may increase hypoglycemic effect which is associated with an increased concentration of free fraction of co-trimoxazole.
The simultaneous use of co-trimoxazole and methotrexate may increase the toxicity of the latter (in particular to the appearance of pancytopenia) due to its release from binding to plasma proteins.
Influenced butadion, indomethacin, naproxen, salicylates and other NSAIDs may increase the action co-trimoxazole with the development of undesirable effects, since there release of active substances from binding with blood proteins and increase their concentration.
Simultaneous treatment with diuretics and co-trimoxazole increases the risk of thrombocytopenia caused by the latter especially in elderly patients.
In the case of co-administration chloridine with co-trimoxazole antimicrobial effect is enhanced because chloridine inhibits the formation of tetrahydrofolic acid required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. In turn sulfonamides inhibit the formation of dihydrofolic acid, a precursor of tetrahydrofolic acid. This combination is widely used in the treatment of toxoplasmosis.
Absorption of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at their joint reception with cholestyramine decreases the formation of insoluble complexes, which leads to a decrease in their concentration in the blood.

Omsat in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weakness, abdominal pain, headache, drowsiness, hematuria and crystalluria.
Treatment: gastric lavage, fluid management, correction of electrolyte imbalance. If necessary - hemodialysis.
For chronic overdosage is characterized bone marrow suppression (pancytopenia). Treatment and prevention: the appointment of folic acid (5-15 mg daily).


Be sure to consult your doctor before taking any medication!

The sitting disease is real - Canadian Living

The sitting disease is real

For most Canadians, the average day is a blurred haze of work, commuting and relaxing at home. And most of that time is spent comfortably seated. Unfortunately, there are deadly health consequences associated with our fondness of sitting. Researchers have found our cosy respite brings diabetes, heart disease and early death – all due to an illness experts call sitting disease.

Sitting disease? Seriously?
Sure, have a laugh. Get the giggles out of your system. Sitting disease, as it's known, might sound wacky (or made up to snatch newspaper headlines), but it's a real concern. This relatively new health phenomenon has made its way into the spotlight and is here to stay. The term "sitting disease" is used by the scientific community to corral the host of life-threatening health woes that are proliferating in our society because of our penchant for a sedentary lifestyle. We've all heard the stories of bum-numbingly long flights on which air travellers were plagued with deep-vein thrombosis (a serious circulatory condition in which blood clots develop due to lack of movement in the legs), but sitting disease is something much more common and sinister. And we're all at risk – even if we don't know it.

According to Dr. Mark Tremblay, the director of Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research at the CHEO Research Institute in Ottawa, Canadian adults spend three-quarters of their waking hours each day sitting or reclining.

Think your kids have escaped the sitting trap? Think again. On average, Canadian children spend two-thirds of their daytime hours being sedentary. While their static lifestyles haven't quite caught up with those of their parents, these kids are on the path to becoming couch potatoes, and they're already falling victim to diabetes . heart problems and obesity. This fall, with students heading back to classrooms where they'll be seated for almost six hours a day, parents, teachers and education administrators should be making this problem a top priority.

Dr. Emma Wilmot, a clinical research fellow from England's University of Leicester. combed through 18 studies that looked at almost 800,000 participants. What she found was a frightening connection between a sedentary lifestyle and serious health outcomes. In fact, compared to people who sit minimally during the day, longtime sitters have a 112 percent increased risk of developing diabetes and a 147 percent increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke, coupled with a 90 percent chance of dying from such an event. In addition, longtime sitters have a 49 percent increased risk of dying prematurely.

Yes, sitting is deadly – especially when done for prolonged periods. The illnesses that sitting disease can unleash don't discriminate; they strike people without regard for age, sex, culture or income bracket. And, most surprisingly, gym aficionados aren't necessarily safe either.

Why sound the alarm now?

People have been sitting since the dawn of time, so if the recent hype over it has left you baffled, you're not alone. To better understand, turn back the clock a few years to when many researchers, physiologists and health experts were looking for an explanation for the worldwide obesity epidemic. Waistlines of the young and old were expanding at a frightful pace. By comparing the lifestyles of previous generations to our own, researchers made an eye-opening discovery: The rise of technology had altered our lives for the better – but also for the worse. "In the past, most people didn't sit at work," says Tremblay. "A hundred years ago, they may have had agricultural-based lifestyles, worked as tradespeople or did other tasks that involved standing and moving. Today, we drive when we would have walked or biked. We sit in front of a screen when we would have shovelled, nailed or carried. And all of our discretionary time is in front of a computer or television screen."

Think about it: In the era of your great-grandparents, most people toiled on their feet, not in an office, and moved regularly all day long. Sitting glued to a chair for nine, 10 or even 15 hours a day was unheard of. "The problem with today's society is that we're obsessed with labour-saving devices, anything that makes life easier," says Joseph Henson, a PhD student at the University of Leicester's Department of Cardiovascular Sciences. "As a result, people aren't moving as much and obesity levels have increased." Technology has made our day-to-day lives less physically demanding. We're moving less, sitting more and thereby making ourselves vulnerable to disease.

And here's the inside story

Hour upon hour spent planted on your tush means your body's tissues, organs and metabolism aren't engaged. The longer you sit, the less efficient your body's systems become. Eventually, they start to stumble. "The metabolism of fats and glucose gets disrupted, and you're not burning many calories," says Tremblay. "Your heart, lungs and muscles go into hibernation mode and they atrophy. Over time, they decay." Your leg muscles, which are the largest muscle mass in your body, aren't stimulated while sitting, "so you're effectively shutting down large parts of your active tissue," says Peter Katzmarzyk, an epidemiology professor and associate executive director for Population Science at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Prolonged sitting turns an efficient body into a sluggish mass of unhealthy organs.

But if sitting slows internal processes to a crawl, how does disease gain a foothold? Katzmarzyk says studies linking excessive sitting with negative health consequences commenced only a few years ago, so researchers are still trying to work out how inactivity causes disease. In that time, however, a clearer picture has developed of the toll that sitting takes on the body, and the way it corrupts normal processes. For example, when a healthy person eats a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream to help the muscles absorb glucose from the food. Routine physical exertion, such as standing or walking, aids in this absorption process and prompts the muscles to burn glucose and refill their stores.

If you're sitting around for most of the day, metabolic activity stalls. Insulin isn't used effectively and, instead of being absorbed by your body, glucose builds up in your blood. Cholesterol levels increase as well. "We think that these metabolic changes are what's linked to the increased risk of disease over the long term," says Katzmarzyk. Eventually, you'll become a candidate for insulin resistance (also known as metabolic syndrome), type 2 diabetes and other frightening problems including heart attacks or strokes. "Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart disease," says Wilmot. "If you have factors that put you at risk for diabetes, they also increase your risk for cardiovascular disease. It's all related."

Inflammation, obesity and, particularly, increased weight gain around your middle are other possible consequences. Deep-vein thrombosis, once solely the scourge of long-distance jet-setters, is now plaguing people on the ground as well. While these blood clots aren't life-threatening when they're located in the legs, if they start travelling up toward the lungs, they can cause life-threatening pulmonary embolisms. And if the metabolic symptoms and diseases haven't scared you out of your chair yet, you should also know that a sedentary lifestyle creates poor posture, curvature of the spine and painful protruding discs in the neck and back. Sitting is anything but pretty.

Is Regular exercise enough?
Surprisingly, meeting Canada's physical activity guidelines doesn't appear to erase the health risks associated with prolonged sitting. Henson's studies have found that the amount of time people spend sitting each day has a bigger impact on their health than the amount of exercise they get each day. "Sitting has such a detrimental effect on health," says Henson. "Even if you reach the exercise recommendations for good health, if you spend the rest of your time sitting down, it effectively undoes the good work you've done with exercise. We found that the longer people spent sitting, the worse their blood sugar and cholesterol levels became, regardless of how much exercise they did. The amount of time sitting had the strongest impact on these variables, not the amount of exercise."

Despite all of these findings, Henson stresses that you shouldn't abandon your daily workouts; they're still a key component in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Katzmarzyk agrees. While exercise might not reduce the risks of sitting disease, "there's clear evidence that it's important [for good health]," he says. And fortunately, it's during those nonsitting hours that you can make positive changes to your health and lower your risk for sitting disease.

No-brainer ways to lower your risks
Reducing your risk for sitting disease is pretty easy. There is no gym membership or expensive workout gear required. The answer is to "look for opportunities to reduce and frequently break up your sitting time," says David Dunstan, head of the physical activity laboratory at the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Melbourne, Australia. "Stand up, sit less, move more, more often," he says. People who interrupt long sitting spells have better health than those who remain seated for prolonged periods of time. It may sound uncomplicated, but the answer really is that simple, regardless of whether you're a bus driver, waitress, student or executive assistant. "The same guidelines that you follow on the airplane – fidget, move, stand, go to the bathroom more often – should be applied across your life," adds Mark Tremblay, from the CHEO Research Institute in Ottawa. "The more variety, the better. Don't stand for too long; don't sit for too long. Sitting, standing and walking in various combinations for various lengths of time keeps your skeleton, muscles and organs healthy."

You may not have known that standing up every time you answer a phone call is good for you, but that simple movement can help combat sitting disease. You can also stand up and walk around during meetings at work or take a stroll to pick up documents from a printer located farther from your desk. Incorporating these kinds of basic movements into your day can drastically reduce your risk. "The more you move, the better your health will be," says Henson. "It's quite simple. The more people get up, the slimmer they become," he says. So take a shower instead of a bath. Purchase standing-room tickets for your next concert or sporting event. Play pool or darts while hanging out at your favourite bar. Walk around stores instead of shopping online. Drink more water so you have to walk to the bathroom more often. Do your dishes by hand. When watching TV, stand up or do squats or lunges during commercials . Instead of taking your family to a movie, try bowling, mini-golf or indoor rock climbing. Walk your kids to school. Get the whole family involved in making beds, housecleaning and yard work. Every bit of movement helps.

Of course, it's only natural to wonder: How long can I sit without consequence anyway? Save yourself the trouble and don't go looking for guidelines. Sitting disease is a relatively new area of study, and science has yet to discover how much sitting is too much. For now, the experts suggest that you be more mindful of extended sedentary periods and proactively increase your movements. "It's like sun exposure," says Katzmarzyk. "We don't have guidelines that say we should only go out in the sun for 10 minutes a day. We say that you should limit your sun exposure and wear sunscreen . It can't be prescribed down to the minute. That's where we are in this field." In other words, move as if your life depended on it.

Want more information? Find out if sitting for too long is really killing you . Here are four exercises you can do at work to keep yourself moving throughout the day.

This story was originally titled "Rise up" in the September 2013 issue.

Bactrim (Omsat) Delivery

Residents of the USA can order Bactrim (Omsat) to any city, to any address, for example to St Louis, Richmond, Houston or Ft Lauderdale. You can order delivery of a Bactrim (Omsat) to the United States, Italy, Norway or any other country in the world.