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Fecal calprotectin and elastase 1 determinations in patients with pancreatic diseases: a possible link between pancreatic insufficiency and intestinal

First online: 25 September 2007

Fecal calprotectin and elastase 1 determinations in patients with pancreatic diseases: a possible link between pancreatic insufficiency and intestinal inflammation
  • Raffaele Pezzilli Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Alessandra Barassi Affiliated with Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Milan
  • . Antonio M. Morselli-Labate Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Lorenzo Fantini Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Paola Tomassetti Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Davide Campana Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Riccardo Casadei Affiliated with Department of Emergency, General and Transplant Surgery, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
  • . Sergio Finazzi Affiliated with Central Laboratory, Legnano Hospital
  • . Gianvico Melzi d'Eril Affiliated with Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Milan
  • and 1 more
    • . Roberto Corinaldesi Affiliated with Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna
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Abstract Background

Fecal calprotectin determination has been demonstrated to be useful in diagnosing various inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; however, data available for patients with pancreatic diseases are scarce. Our aim was to assess fecal calprotectin in order to evaluate the presence of intestinal inflammation in patients with pancreatic disease.


Eligible patients with suspected pancreatic illness were enrolled, and in all of them fecal calprotectin and elastase-1, as well as serum amylase and lipase activities, were assayed using commercially available kits.


A total of 90 subjects (47 men, 43 women, mean age 58.6 ± 14.9 years) were enrolled: 20 (22.2%) had chronic pancreatitis; 15 (16.7%) had pancreatic cancer; six (6.7%) had chronic nonpathological pancreatic hyperenzymemia; 16 (17.8%) had nonpancreatic diseases; and 23 (25.6%) had no detectable diseases. Diarrhea was present in 19 patients (21.1%). In univariate analyses, the presence of diarrhea and low fecal elastase-1 concentrations were significantly associated (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively) with abnormally high fecal calprotectin concentration, and the multivariate analysis demonstrated that low fecal elastase-1 concentration was the only variable independently associated with a high fecal calprotectin concentration.


Pancreatic insufficiency may cause intestinal inflammation, probably because of a modification of the intestinal ecology.

Key words

calcium-binding proteins leukocyte L1 antigen complex pancreatitis chronic pancreatitis alcoholic pancreatitis pancreatic neoplasms

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İngilizce-Rusça çeviri: Disease


3. CJD with shorter incubation, nvCJD

4. Korsakoff psychosis or Korsakoff disease; Neurological disorder marked by severe amnesia despite clear perception and full consciousness, resulting from chronic alcoholism, head injury, brain illness, or thiamin deficiency. Persons with the syndrome typically cannot remember events in the recent or even immediate past; some retain memories only a few seconds. Longer periods; up to 20 years; may also be forgotten. Confabulation (recounting detailed, convincing "memories" of events that never happened) sometimes coexists with the syndrome, which may be transient or chronic.

5. Lou Gehrig disease; Degenerative nervous-system disorder causing muscle wasting and paralysis. The disease usually occurs after age 40, more often in men. Most victims die within two to five years from respiratory muscle atrophy. ALS affects motor neurons; the muscles they control become weak and atrophied, with debility usually beginning in the hands and creeping slowly up to the shoulders. The lower limbs become weak and spastic. Variants include progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy. In 1993 the defective gene that accounts for 5–10% of cases was discovered; it produces an ineffective version of an enzyme that neutralizes free radicals, which destroy motor neurons.

6. also called the bends or caisson disease; Harmful effects of rapid change from a higher-to a lower-pressure environment. Small amounts of the gases in air are dissolved in body tissues. When pilots of unpressurized aircraft go to high altitudes or when divers breathing compressed air return to the surface, external pressure on the body decreases and the gases come out of solution. Rising slowly allows the gases to enter the bloodstream and be taken to the lungs and exhaled; with a quicker ascent, the gases (mostly nitrogen) form bubbles in the tissues. In the nervous system, they can cause paralysis, convulsions, motor and sensory problems and psychological changes; in the joints, severe pain and restricted mobility (the bends); in the respiratory system, coughing and difficulty breathing. Severe cases include shock. Recompression in a hyperbaric chamber followed by gradual decompression cannot always reverse tissue damage.

7. brown lung disease

45. hyaline membrane disease; Common complication in newborns, especially after premature birth. Symptoms include very laboured breathing, bluish skin tinge and low blood oxygen levels. Insufficient surfactant in the pulmonary alveoli raises surface tension, hampering lung expansion. The alveoli collapse and a "glassy" (hyaline) membrane develops in the alveolar ducts. Once the leading cause of death in premature infants, the syndrome is now usually treated for a few days with a mechanical ventilator, with no aftereffects. An adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can follow lung injury.

46. a harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be understood in order to recognize the hallmarks of disease. Nevertheless, a sharp demarcation between disease and health is not always apparent. The study of disease is called pathology. It involves the determination of the cause (etiology) of the disease, the understanding of the mechanisms of its development (pathogenesis), the structural changes associated with the disease process (morphological changes) and the functional consequences of these changes. Correctly identifying the cause of a disease is necessary to identifying the proper course of treatment. Humans, animals and plants are all susceptible to diseases of some sort. However, that which disrupts the normal functioning of one type of organism may have no effect on the other types. an impairment of the normal state of an organism that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. A brief discussion of disease follows. The subject is treated in a variety of articles. For a general discussion of human, animal and plant diseases, see disease. For a discussion of diseases categorized according to their cause or transmission, see infection; nutritional disease; occupational disease. For a discussion of diseases associated with particular stages of human development, see childhood disease and disorder; growth; development. For a discussion of malignancy, which may affect any organ or tissue in the body, see cancer. For a discussion of disease-causing organisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, see bacteria; virus. For a discussion of bodily defenses against disease, see immune system. For a discussion of the diagnosis and treatment of disease, see diagnosis; therapeutics; drug; medicine, history of. For a discussion of diseases affecting particular organs, tissues or processes, see blood disease; cardiovascular disease; digestive system disease; endocrine system, human; renal system disease; skin disease; metabolic disease; muscle disease; nervous system disease; reproductive system disease; respiratory disease; eye disease and ear disease; connective tissue disease. For a discussion of neuroses and psychoses, see mental disorder. For a discussion of alcoholism and other drug addictions, see alcohol consumption. Disease most commonly is caused by the invasion of an organism by one or more outside agents. Typically the infectious organisms are microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, viruses and fungi), but they also can include larger organisms such as parasitic worms or nonliving but harmful substances such as toxins or ionizing radiation. Disease also may result from changes within the organisman anatomical fault (congenital or acquired) or a physiological malfunction (e.g. diabetes mellitus, in which the body fails to secrete or adequately utilize insulin, a hormone that regulates blood-sugar levels). Other diseases are a combination of external and internal factors. An organism's failure to adapt to changes in its environment can produce damaging changes within it. Physiological malfunctions and disturbances of normal growth can be induced by changes of diet or by invasion of microorganisms or other agents. Nearly all organisms are able to defend themselves against most diseases. Humans and other vertebrates have developed two strategies of resistance, called immunity, to invading agents: nonspecific immunity, which is present in all vertebrates at birth and specific immunity, which is acquired only after stimulation by the presence of a certain microbe or its products (e.g. the virus that causes chicken pox). Immunity also can be stimulated artificially in humans or other animals by inoculating them with microorganisms that have been killed (as in typhoid vaccine) or weakened (attenuated) ones (as in measles vaccine), which produce the defensive immune reaction without causing the disease. Sometimes an organism's defensive reaction to invasion by an outside agent can become part of the disease. The crippling of the lungs produced by tuberculosis is caused partly by the destruction of lung tissue by the invading microorganism (in humans, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and partly by the fibrous tissue that the body lays around the infection in a defensive reaction. Disorders of the immune response itself can produce autoimmune disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) in which the immune response is triggered not by an outside invader but by the body's own tissues, which some cells fight against and try to reject. The immune system also can be disabled by an invading microorganism, as is the case with the disease AIDS. Not all organisms that invade another produce disease. Some can establish a mutually beneficial relationship with their host without impairing its vital systems; for example, the bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other vertebrates make possible the digestive processes of their hosts. In addition, organisms that are pathogenic to one species may be harmless to another. A disease that becomes established in an organism usually requires some form of treatment. In most cases, treatment consists of administering drugs that kill the causative agent, restore any physiological or biochemical imbalances that have occurred or control the symptoms caused by the agent so that the affected organism can continue to function. Other forms of treatment include moving the diseased organism to another environment or removing the diseased parts from the organism. The most effective way to control disease is by preemptory prevention. The best method is to eliminate a disease-causing organism from the environment, such as by killing pathogens or parasites contaminating a water supply. Also effective is the disruption of a pathogen's transmission from one organism to another, either by avoiding contact with body tissues or fluids that harbour a pathogen or by eliminating an intermediary vector (e.g. killing the mosquitoes that transmit malaria to humans). Disease also may be prevented by removing a susceptible organism from an unhealthful environment, strengthening the organism's defenses by making it healthier or vaccination. Additional reading Lawrie Reznek, The Nature of Disease (1987), written for the general reader, discusses the nature of disease from several perspectives, including medical, legal, political, philosophical and economic. David O. Slauson, Barry J. Cooper and Maja M. Suter, Mechanisms of Disease: A Textbook of Comparative General Pathology, 2nd ed (1990), written for the veterinary student but a great resource for pathologists and biomedical researchers, provides a fundamental overview of the mechanisms of diseases, often at the molecular level. Max Samter (ed.), Immunological Diseases, 4th ed. 2 vol (1988), covers the collagen diseases. F.M. Burnet, The Natural History of Infectious Disease, 3rd ed (1962), offers a unique view of infectious disease as an ecological and evolutionary phenomenon. Books for the general reader include June Goodfield, Quest for the Killers (1985), exploring efforts to conquer several epidemic diseases; Andrew Scott, Pirates of the Cell: The Story of Viruses from Molecule to Microbe, rev. ed (1987) and Peter Radetsky, The Invisible Invaders: The Story of the Emerging Age of Viruses (1991). William Burrows Dante G. Scarpelli

47. n - (an) illness of people, animals, plants, etc. caused by infection or a failure of health rather than by an accidenta contagious/infectious disease a communicable disease a common/rare/incurable/fatal disease a childhood disease They reported a sudden outbreak of the disease in the south of the country. The first symptom of the disease is a very high temperature. She has caught/contracted (= began to have) a lung disease/disease of the lungs. Starvation and disease have killed thousands of refugees. He's got Legionnaire's Disease. Hundreds of thousands of trees died from Dutch Elm Disease. (figurative) The real disease affecting the country is inflation.

48. Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

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İngilizce-Almanca çeviri: prion


2. biotechnology The causal agent of scrapie and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, it is a hydrophobic protein containing no nucleic acid.

3. Disease-causing agent, discovered by Stanley Prusiner, responsible for various fatal neurodegenerative diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. An abnormal form of a normally harmless protein found in mammals and birds, the disease-causing prion can enter the brain through infection, or it can arise from a mutation in the gene that encodes the protein. Once present in the brain it causes normal proteins to refold into the abnormal shape. As prion proteins multiply, they accumulate within nerve cells, destroying them and eventually causing brain tissue to become riddled with holes. Diseases caused by prions include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease and scrapie. Prions are unlike all other known disease-causing organisms in that they appear to lack nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).

4. also called Whalebird, any of several species of small Antarctic seabirds of the genus Pachyptila, in the family Procellariidae (order Procellariiformes). All are blue-gray above and whitish below. Among the broad-billed species, the bill, unique among petrels, is flattened, with the upper mandible fringed with strainers (lamellae) not unlike those in the mouths of ducks. The thin floor of the mouth is distensible, forming a small pouch like that of the pelican. In feeding, the bird "hydroplanes, " skittering across the water with its wings out and propelling itself with its feet as it dips its bill into the water for small marine invertebrates, such as squid and crustaceans. The smallest of the four species is the fairy prion (P. turtur), about 20 cm (8 inches) long; the largest is the broad-billed prion (P. forsteri) at about 27 cm. Most of the prions breed in burrows on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands. The broad-billed prion is more northerly in distribution, breeding on islands located between 35 and 60 S. A related bird, the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), is known in Alaska as the whalebird. a disease-causing agent that is responsible for a variety of fatal neurodegenerative diseases of animals and humans called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. A prion is an aberrant form of a normally harmless protein found in mammals and birds. The normal form of the protein, whose function is unknown, is located on the surface of cells in the brain. Only when it is in the aberrant configuration does the prion protein cause disease. The pathogenic protein can enter the brain through infection or it can arise from a mutation in the gene that encodes the protein. Once present in the brain it multiplies by inducing benign proteins to refold into the aberrant shape. The mechanism by which the conformational charge is achieved is not fully understood, but an additional factor, possibly another protein normally found in the body, may be involved. The normal protein structure is believed to consist of a number of flexible coils called alpha helices. In the aberrant protein some of these helices are stretched out into flat structures called beta strands. The normal protein conformation can be degraded rather easily by cellular enzymes called proteases, but the irregular protein shape is more resistant to this enzymatic activity. Thus, as prion proteins multiply they are not broken down by proteases and instead accumulate within nerve cells, destroying them. Progressive nerve cell destruction eventually causes brain tissue to become riddled with holes in a spongelike or spongiform, pattern. Diseases caused by prions include four disorders that affect humans: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia and kuru. Other prion diseases, such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly called mad cow disease) and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, are suffered by animals. For decades physicians believed that these diseases resulted from infection with slow-acting viruses, so-called because of the lengthy incubation times required for the illnesses to develop. These diseases were and sometimes still are, referred to as slow infections. The pathogenic agent of these diseases does have certain viral attributes, such as extremely small size and strain variation, but other properties are atypical of viruses. In particular the agent is resistent to exposure to ionizing ultraviolet radiation, which normally inactivates viruses by destroying their nucleic acid. Prions are unlike all other known disease-causing organisms in that they appear to lack nucleic acid-i.e. DNA or RNA-which is the genetic material that all other life-forms contain. Another unusual characteristic of prions is that they not only cause disease through infection but can be responsible for hereditary and sporadic forms of disease as well-for example, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease manifests in all three ways, with sporadic cases being the most common. The prion protein can act as an infectious agent, spreading disease when transmitted to another organism or it can arise from an inherited mutation. Prion diseases also show a sporadic pattern of incidence, meaning that they seem to appear in the population at random. The underlying molecular process that causes the aberrant protein to form in these cases remains to be delineated. Researchers suspect that other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease may arise from molecular mechanisms similar to those that cause the prion diseases. The concept of an infectious particle that lacks nucleic acid is unprecedented in biology. Because of its unorthodoxy, the scientific community initially viewed the prion theory with skepticism. Attempts to purify the disease-causing agent proved difficult, but in the early 1980s the American biochemist Stanley B. Prusiner and colleagues identified the "proteinaceous infectious particle, " a name that was shortened to "prion" (pronounced "pree-on"). Efforts to isolate an associated nucleic acid have proved fruitless and the prion model has gained widespread acceptance. Nevertheless many questions remain to be answered about this unique particle.

5. An infectious agent which does not have any nucleic acid (but just protein). Responsible for scrapie in sheep, kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

Vitamin D and Erectile Dysfunction - Barassi - 2014 - The Journal of Sexual Medicine - Wiley Online Library

Vitamin D and Erectile Dysfunction How to Cite

Barassi, A. Pezzilli, R. Colpi, G. M. Corsi Romanelli, M. M. and Melzi d'Eril, G. V. (2014), Vitamin D and Erectile Dysfunction. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11: 2792–2800. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12661

Author Information

Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Pancreas Unit, Department of Digestive Diseases and Internal Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy

ISES—Institute for the Infertility and Sexuality, Milan, Italy

Department of Biomedical Science for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Operative Unit of Laboratory Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy

* Corresponding Author: Alessandra Barassi, MD, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via di Rudinì 8, 20142 Milano, Italy. Tel: +393355444121; Fax: +3981844027; E-mail: alessandra.barassi@unimi.it

Publication History
  1. Issue published online: 28 OCT 2014
  2. Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014

Fiscal 2006

Asahi Kasei Pharma licenses rights to oral and inhaled formulations of fasudil hydrochloride in North America and Europe to CoTherix

Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation (AKP) has concluded an agreement granting CoTherix, Inc. of the United States exclusive rights in North America and Europe to develop and commercialize oral and inhaled formulations of fasudil hydrochloride, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Additionally, AKP has granted CoTherix the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize oral formulations of fasudil hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina in the same territories.

Under the terms of the agreement, CoTherix will make an upfront payment to AKP of $8.75 million, plus additional development and revenue milestone payments. CoTherix also has an option to develop fasudil hydrochloride in North America and Europe for other potential indications using the licensed formulations with the exception of stroke and eye diseases.

An injectable formulation of fasudil hydrochloride has been launched in Japan by AKP under the trade name Eril™ and is marketed for the improvement of cerebral vasospasm following surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage and associated cerebral ischemic symptoms.

PAH is a chronic, progressive, and often fatal disease, which is characterized by severe constriction and obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. This makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood through the lungs to be oxygenated. CoTherix estimates that PAH affects approximately 100,000 patients in the United States and Europe, with only about 30% diagnosed and under treatment. Its cause may be unknown, or result from other diseases that cause a restriction of blood flow to the lungs, including scleroderma, HIV, and lupus. Symptoms of the disease include fatigue, shortness of breath on exertion, chest pain, and dizziness. Left untreated, the median survival time following diagnosis may be as short as three years.

Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that often occurs when the heart does not get enough blood. Stable angina may occur during exercise or emotional stress. Some people, such as those with a coronary artery spasm, may have stable angina at rest. An estimated 6.5 million individuals in the United States suffer from stable angina. Stable angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease, which is a leading cause of death in Western countries. It is believed that Europe has a similar prevalence and incidence for stable angina as the United States.

The crucial role that Rho-kinase plays in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, stable angina, and atherosclerosis, has been established in preclinical and emerging clinical research over the last decade. In addition, results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that Rho-kinase inhibitors, such as Eril™, can reduce vasoconstriction and cell proliferation.

Located in South San Francisco, CA, United States, CoTherix, Inc. (NASDAQ: CTRX) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on licensing, developing and commercializing therapeutic products for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, including PAH and stable angina. CoTherix currently markets Ventavis Inhalation Solution in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group I). More information can be found at www.cotherix.com or www.4ventavis.com.

Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation

Asahi Kasei Pharma, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, is a research-based healthcare innovator that discovers, develops, manufactures, and markets products for the pharmaceutical, pharmaceutical intermediate, diagnostics, biopharmaceutical/biological filtration, medical device, medical nutrition, and contact lens markets. Asahi Kasei Pharma is a wholly owned business unit of Asahi Kasei Corporation, a US$12 billion technology company that provides innovative, science-based solutions to a diverse range of markets including chemicals and plastics, apparel, housing and construction, healthcare, and electronics.

CoTherix and the CoTherix logo are trademarks of CoTherix, Inc. Ventavis is a registered trademark of Schering AG. Eril is a trademark of Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation.

Akademik İngilizce düzenleme ve redaksiyon hizmetleri: Eril psikolojisi (Masculine psychology)-Social Sciences

Eril psikolojisi konulu makaleniz yayınlayalım

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Hrvatska Revija Za Rehabilitacijska Istrazivanja

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İngilizce makalelerinize yüksek kaliteli düzenleme sunabilmek için, Enago ortalama 19 yıllık deneyime sahip yüksek kaliteli editörlerle çalışır. Editörlerimiz ana dili İngilizce ve alanında uzman kişilerden oluşur.

Social Sciences alanında Enago tarafından düzenlenen ve dergilerde kabul alan makaleler

Journal of Helminthology; 2011 Jun 8:1-5

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The American Society of Hematology

Blood; February 16, 2011

Sumegi Janos Üç ana nedenden dolayı Enago İngilizce düzenleme hizmetlerini tavsiye etmek istiyorum: Birincisi, diğer benzer İngilizce düzenleme şirketlere kıyasla makul fiyatlar sunuyorlar, ikincisi yazarın isteğine uygun düzenleme yapıyorlar, üçüncüsü ise %100 güvenebileceğiniz şekilde düzenlenmiş makalenizi size tam zamanında teslim ediyorlar. Kesinlikle gelecekte de Enago İngilizce düzenleme hizmetini kullanacağım.

PLoS ONE; December 2011, Volume 6, Issue 12, e29378

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The English editing services offered by Enago is really good and I am fully satisfied. The services are fast and reliable. I am very glad to submit my articles for review by highly qualified editors of Enago.

Sevgi Kizilci
Dokuz Eylul Universitesi
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Residents of the USA can order Vasotec (Eril) to any city, to any address, for example to New York, Chicago, Atlanta or Los Angeles. You can order delivery of a Vasotec (Eril) to the Italy, France, Netherlands or any other country in the world.