Pulmicort (Budesonide) is an anti-inflammatory medication (corticosteroid) used in the prevention of asthma.
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Pulmicort (Budesonide) is an anti-inflammatory medication (corticosteroid) used in the prevention of asthma.
Active Ingredient: Budesonide
Pulmicort (Aero-bud) as known as: Abelitan, Aero-bud, Aeromax, Aeronid, Aerovial, Aerox, Aircort, Aldesonit, Aquacort, Asmavent, Astrocast, Aurid, Benacort, Benarin, Besonin aqua, Bidien, Biosonide, Bodix, Bronklast, Budair, Budamax, Budapp, Budasmal, Budecol, Budeflam, Budehaler, Budelin, Budemar, Budenas, Budenite, Budenobronch, Budeprol, Buderen, Buderex, Buderhin, Budes, Budesan, Budesitan, Budesoderm, Budesogen, Budeson, Budesonal, Budesonid, Budespray, Budiair, Budiar, Budicort, Budineb, Busonal, Busonid, Butacort, Butekont, Ciplabude, Clebudan, Cortinasal, Cortinase, Cuteral, Cycortide, Dedostryl, Demotest, Derinide, Desonax, Docbudeso, Duasma, Easi-cort, Eltair, Emdesonid, Entocir, Eolan, Esonide, Etrafonil, Farlidone, Giona, Horacort, Hypersol, Inflacort, Inflammide, Inflanaze, Intestifalk, Kesol, Labetasol, Lisobron, Lydenal, Marxide, Miflo, Miflonid, Miflonide, Miflonil, Minalerg, Nalator, Nasocort, Nastizol, Neplit, Neumocort, Neumotex, Novolizer, Numark, Obecirol, Obusonid, Oflo, Olfex bucal, Olfosonide, Olyspal, Proetzonide, Pulairmax, Pulmax, Pulmaxan, Pulmictan, Pulmo-lisoflam, Pulmolet, Pulmovent, Rafton, Recupex, Resata, Rhinobros, Rhinogen, Rhinoside, Rhinosol, Ribujet, Ribuspir, Rino-b, Rinoglin, Rinolet aqua, Rinoster, Sonidal, Tafen, Talgan, Timalar, Timat, Udesogel, Udesospray, Vericort, Vinecort, Xavin, Zefecort, Zycort, Zymacter
Identification and development of vaccine candidates for Buruli Ulcer Disease
EC contribution. € 4,599,983 Duration. 36 months Starting date. 01/01/2010 Funding scheme. Focused research project Contract/Grant agreement number. 242107 Web site: www.burulivac.eu
Keywords. protein subunit vaccines, attenuated live vaccines, mycobacterial infection, Mycobacterium ulcerans, tropical medicine, immune response, immunitySummary:
Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a neglected bacterial infection of the poor in remote rural areas, mostly affecting children. BUD, the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent humans after tuberculosis and leprosy, is most endemic in West Africa, but cases have been reported from more than 30 countries. BUD is a mutilating disease leading to severe disability. Treatment with antibiotics is possible but is long-lasting, requires injections, shows treatment failures and drug resistance may occur. A vaccine against M. ulcerans would protect persons at risk in highly endemic areas and could be used as a therapeutic vaccine to shorten duration of treatment and to prevent relapses.
The general objective of BuruliVac is to identify and develop novel vaccine candidates suitable for translation into clinical application. This objective will be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach involving among others basic and applied research in immunology, bioinformatics, molecular genetics, tropical medicine, microbiology and clinical bacteriology.
As currently no existing vaccine lead candidate is available, the consortium will identify and develop new vaccine candidates of different types, will evaluate them using bioinformatics, applied genomics and proteomics and will subject them to consecutive test systems. For evaluation of vaccine candidates regarding their application in humans, the consortium will also study the immune response and disease immunopathology to define correlates of protection. Essential pre-clinical testing in vitro and in vivo will select a small number of candidates that is amenable to be introduced into clinical studies.
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Protection has to be achieved against this infectious disease that is caused by a toxin-producing bacterium in rural areas of Africa that needs long-time antibiotic treatment and sometimes extensive surgery. Relapses are common. Protection by avoidance is not possible as the mode of infection is unclear.Aim:
To identify constituents of M. ulcerans or attenuated strains of M. ulcerans that can be used as a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine. In the course of these studies extensive capacity building will be performed in the African partner institutions concerning both scientific work and diagnostic and clinical management.Expected Results:
Proteins of the causing bacterium M. ulcerans will be identified that can be used as a vaccine, and attenuated safe strains of M. ulcerans will be generated that can be used as a life vaccine. The African partner institutions will in a position to perform immunological monitoring of patients and molecular diagnostic of the infection.Potential applications:
A vaccine against BUD can be used in people at special risk or concomitant with treatment. The scientific principles underlying this vaccine can be applied to other mycobacterial infections.Coordinator:
Prof. Bernhard Fleischer
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine
Dr. Gisela Bretzel
Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine
Prof. Francoise Portaels
Prins Leopold Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde
Prof. Gerd Pluschke
Dr. Mark Wansbrough-Jones
St George's, University of London
London, SW17 0RE
Dr. Tjip van der Werf
Academic Hospital Groningen /University Medical Center Groningen
9713 GZ Groningen
Dr. Caroline Demangel
Rue du Dr.Roux 25-28
75724 Paris Cedx 15
Dr. Adolf Diefenhardt
Deutsche Lepra- und Tuberkulosehilfe e.V.
Dr. Richard Odame Phillips
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
University Post Office
Dr. R. Christian Johnson
Programme National de Lutte contre la lpre et l'ulcre de Buruli
Ministere de la sante publique
06 BP 3029 Cotonou
Republique du Benin
Dr. Dissou Affolabi
Laboratoire de Rfrence des Mycobactries,
Centre Hospitalier de Pneumo-Phtisiologie
01 BP 817 Cotonou
Republique du Benin
Dr Mavinga Delphin Phanzu MD
Institut Medical Evangelique de Kimpese
Dr Kris Huygen
Institut Scientifique de Sante Publique
Rue Juliette Wytsman 14
Prof. Dr. Mahavir Singh
LIONEX Diagnostics & Therapeutics GmbH
Dr. Vera Siegmund
European Research and Project Office GmbH
Last update: 01/03/2012 | Top
big-bud — bigˈ bud noun A swelling of currant buds caused by a gall mite • • • Main Entry: ↑big … Useful english dictionary
big bud — noun 1. any of several diseases of plants characterized by abnormal swelling of the buds: as a. such a condition in currants caused by a gall mite (Eriophyes ribis) b. a virus disease of the tomato 2. also big bud hickory … Useful english dictionary
big bud — noun a disease of blackcurrant bushes in which the buds become swollen due to the presence of mites … English new terms dictionary
big-bud hickory — gauruotoji karija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Riešutmedinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis augalas (Carya tomentosa), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Carya tomentosa angl. big bud hickory; mockernut hickory; white heart… … Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)
big-bud hickory — noun smooth barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard shelled edible nut • Syn: ↑mockernut, ↑mockernut hickory, ↑black hickory, ↑white heart hickory, ↑Carya tomentosa • Hypernyms: ↑hickory, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
big — adj. & adv. adj. (bigger, biggest) 1 a of considerable size, amount, intensity, etc. (a big mistake; a big helping). b of a large or the largest size (big toe; big drum). 2 important; significant; outstanding (the big race; my big chance). 3 a… … Useful english dictionary
Bud Lindemann — Gordon Bud Lindemann (born August 22 1925 in Chicago, Illinois ndash; 1983) was a pioneer in motor sports broadcasting. Early historyLindemann graduated from high school in 1940. He joined the United States Coast Guard during World War II, and… … Wikipedia
Bud Wilkinson — (right) with President John F. Kennedy, during a 1961 visit to the White House Sport(s) Football Biographical details … Wikipedia
Bud Shank — in 2006 Background information Born 27 May 1926(1926 05 27) Origin … Wikipedia
Bud Neill — (1911 ndash;1970) was an innovative Scottish cartoonist who drew cartoon strips for a number of Glasgow based newspapers between the 1940s and 1960s. Following his death, his work has attained cult status with a worldwide following. Early… … Wikipedia
Bud Plays Bird — Album par Bud Powell Sortie 1958 puis 1996 Enregistrement 14 octobre 1957, 2 décembre 1957, 30 janvier 1958 Durée 65:47 Genre Jazz Producteur Rudy Tra … Wikipédia en Français
n. & v.
1 a an immature knoblike shoot from which a stem, leaf, or flower develops. b a flower or leaf that is not fully open.
2 Biol. an asexual outgrowth from a parent organism that separates to form a new individual.
3 anything still undeveloped.
—v. (budded. budding )
1 intr. Bot. & Zool. form a bud.
2 intr. begin to grow or develop (a budding cricketer).
3 tr. Hort. graft a bud (of a plant) on to another plant.
Phrases and idioms.
in bud having newly formed buds.
Etymology . ME. orig. unkn.
n. US colloq. (as a form of address) = BUDDY.
Etymology . abbr.
Useful english dictionary. 2012 .Look at other dictionaries:
bud — bud; bud·da; bud·der; bud·dha; bud·dha·hood; bud·dhi; bud·dhism; bud·dho·log·i·cal; bud·dhol·o·gy; bud·dle·ia; bud·dler; bud·ger·ee; bud·ger·i·gar; bud·ger·ow; bud·get·ary; bud·ge·teer; bud·gie; bud·less; bud·let; bud·ling; bud·mash; dis·bud;… … English syllables
Bud — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. <<>> Sigles d une seule lettre Sigles de deux lettres > Sigles de trois lettres … Wikipédia en Français
bud — bud1 [bud] n. [ME budde, bud, seedpod < IE base * bheu. see BIG] 1. a) a small swelling or projection on a plant, from which a shoot, cluster of leaves, or flower develops b) a partly opened flower 2. any undeveloped or immature person or… … English World dictionary
BUD — steht für: Budweiser (Anheuser Busch), Börsenkürzel einer US amerikanischen Brauerei Bergunfalldienst Black Urine Disease Flughafen Budapest im IATA Flughafencode Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Bud (Indiana) Bud (West Virginia) Bud (Wisconsin)… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bud — (b[u^]d), n. [OE. budde; cf. D. bot, G. butze, butz, the core of a fruit, bud, LG. butte in hagebutte, hainbutte, a hip of the dog rose, or OF. boton, F. bouton, bud, button, OF. boter to bud, push; all akin to E. beat. See
Bud — Bud, v. i. [imp. & p. p.
Bud — steht für: Budweiser/Anheuser Busch, Börsenkürzel einer US amerikanischen Brauerei Bergunfalldienst Black Urine Disease Flughafen Budapest im IATA Flughafencode Bud ist: ein englischer Vorname, siehe Bud (Vorname) die Kurzform von Budweiser, ein… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bud — Bud, v. t. To graft, as a plant with another or into another, by inserting a bud from the one into an opening in the bark of the other, in order to raise, upon the budded stock, fruit different from that which it would naturally bear. [1913… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Bud — /bud/, n. a male given name. Also, Budd. * * * I Small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a vascular plant that may develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot. Buds arise from meristem tissue. In temperate climates, trees form resting… … Universalium
bud — bȕd (bȕdi) vezn. DEFINICIJA zast. arh. udvojeni ili u korelaciji s ili u zn. bilo. bilo, ili. ili [bud danas bud sutra] ETIMOLOGIJA ← imp. budi, v. biti … Hrvatski jezični portal
Bud — informal a ↑Budweiser (=a type of beer) ▪ Hey, would you like a Bud? … Dictionary of contemporary English
Period of Activity
After winters with extremely cold temperatures or during late dormancy (February/March) when deacclimation vines are exposed to sudden low temperatures.
Injury will usually be more common in low spots in the vineyard, areas of vines stress or where natural air movement is restricted resulting in areas where cold stagnant air accumulates.
Did you think Marijuana is only for smoking and medicinal usage? If yes, you may have gone grievously wrong in your assumption. Marijuana, the wonderful element that takes smokers of pot to ecstasy, is also being increasingly used in foods.
Do you hate the idea of smoking, but need to use marijuana for medical purposes? Behold, we have the perfect solution for you! This awesome oil-based ingredient can be cooked and added to your favourite delicacy to enhance its taste like never before.
A large number of people have been increasingly using Marijuana edibles in their foods. This could be an intoxicatingly delicious experience that leaves you craving for more. You may like to ask the question “How can cooking marijuana benefit me?”
Here’s a brief lowdown to answer your question in the best possible way. Read along to know more about this wonderful ingredient:
Marijuana- Key to Good Health When Eaten
Who would have thought that this mystic ingredient, which is illegal in most countries, could boost your health when consumed in moderate quantities? Marijuana is a promising medicinal treatment that has altered the lives of many individuals. Here’s a brief lowdown on some of its amazing benefits:
Weed Edibles Usable for Cerebral Palsy along with Neurodegenerative Diseases
Cerebral palsy, an incurable disorder of brain development, can lead to problems with controlling movement and also be accompanied by pain. Extensive research and studies have shown that medical marijuana can provide maximum relief to patients suffering from cerebral palsy. The symptoms of various other neurodegenerative diseases, which negatively impact your cognitive learning capabilities have also been known to be greatly relieved by this wonder drug!
The promising positive impact of marijuana has also shown positive results in reducing symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Looking at the increasingly positive impact of marijuana, it looks like it would soon have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of Parkinson’s disease.
Marijuana Edibles are effective in cancer
It has been medically proven that marijuana can prevent cancer from spreading. Marijuana relieves cancer symptoms such as nausea, pain and fatigue. It helps in improving sleep in patients undergoing chemotherapy. With an increasing efficacy in controlling pain, eating marijuana could provide relief from spasms caused due to cancer.
Ingesting marijuana with your food could help soothe the splitting headache caused due to migraines. It is one pain that even a conventional medicine fails to cure!
Did you know that marijuana is also a wonderful muscle relaxant with an effective treatment for seizures? Countless cases of people suffering from seizures have functioned better by intake of marijuana!
It also enhances appetite and has an anti-depressing impact that elevates your mood. If you have difficulty in sleeping, marijuana edibles can be the right cure for you. Marijuana could be ingested by adding a bit to your food items. There are many delicious ways of consuming marijuana, which you’d never ever regret! This heady ingredient is sure to optimize your health in a better way!
Bud drop: The premature dropping of flower buds. The cause of this problem is primarily environmental. Temperature fluctuation due to drafts is commonly seen as a cause. Bud drop can also be caused by the lack of or excess water and changing light levels. In Christmas cacti, a lack of potassium or an excess of nitrogen can also cause this problem. Sometimes buds fall off a cactus simply because the plant has too many blossoms. Rough handling or turning a plant also will cause buds to abort.
It is important to maintain the care that a flowering cactus is used to when it is in bud. Resist moving your cactus to another site if it has buds or open flowers.
Corky scab: Brown, irregular spots developing in older parts of a stem. Most of the spots affect the epidermis of the plant only, so, damage is superficial and only affects the appearance of the plant. More severe or widespread attacks can destroy entire shoots or decrease flower production. Corky scab is normally the result of poor cultivation (i.e. overwatering, poor ventilation).
To control, increase light exposure and decrease humidity. The prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) are particularly prone to corky scab.
Etiolation: The abnormal elongation of cactus stems due to insufficient light. Stems may be pale or yellow with unusual spine characteristics. Commonly seen in plants taken from a commercial nursery into a dimly-lit retail environment. This may also occur if a cactus is fertilized while in its normal Winter dormancy period.
To correct etiolation, move the cactus into stronger light. While this will prevent further etiolation, the spindly elongated section of stem will remain as proof of improper care. You may also choose to prune the etiolated stem back to the healthy part; this acts to promote the growth of 'perfectly-shaped' offshoots or stems that may be removed and re-planted.
Rot: Rot is caused by microorganisms: fungi and bacteria. It may affect the roots, stem, and/or the crown of the plant. Typically, the diseased tissue takes on a watery, slimy, soft, and blackened appearance. Damage often starts at the base of the plant and progresses to the top. Plants start to lean, then often collapse and die.
Overwatering, particularly in cold weather when cacti are dormant, is the chief cause of the problem. The disease-causing organisms thrive in moist conditions. Cold temperature and plant wounds aggravate the problem.
In theory, rot in its early stages may be checked by moving plant to a dry, temperate environment. It has been our experience that once you spot rot it is already progressed past its early stages. If rot is above ground, cut out the diseased portion of the plant with a sharp knife and dust the wound with a fungicide. In many cases, the top of the plant appears healthy above a rotten base. This healthy top may be cut off, allowed to dry, and then re-rooted in a sandy medium. Remove and destroy infected plants and/or plant parts.
Proper cultural practices help to prevent rot. Sterilizing the potting media and placing a layer of gravel on top of the soil will kill or reduce bacterial damage. Water plants early in the day and avoid spreading disease by splashing water from one infected plant to a healthy plant. In Winter, the normal dormancy period for most cacti, water sparingly.
A partial list of rot-inducing microorganisms include: Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum, Bipolaris cactivora, Erwinia carotovora.
Sunburn: A change in the appearance in the plant due to too much exposure to the sun. The entire plant epidermis will turn a whitish, yellowish or reddish-brown color. In extreme cases, a sunburned plant may become sensitive to other diseases.
As mentioned, this disease is caused by too much light exposure. Typically, this occurs when rapidly bringing plants used to artificial light into intense natural light. Epiphytic cacti and seedlings are especially sensitive to sunburn. To prevent, a cactus should be gradually introduced to more light over a period of time. Plants should be placed into the shade, then into partial sun, and finally into full sun; this process may take one month. If you notice signs of sunburn, move the plant temporarily back into the shade. Also, sunburn is aggravated by hot weather and lack of water, so, make sure the plant is properly watered.
Pre-purchase Inspections/ Aircraft Selling and Purchasing
Allow me to share one piece of wisdom with you about the importance of pre-purchase checks on the aircraft you're intending to buy. Just do it!
Knowing what you are buying before you buy it will make you an informed and well educated buyer. Finding problems won't kill the deal, it simply offers you a bargaining tool for price negotiations.
There is no document in the CARs (Canadian Aircraft Regulations) or elsewhere that defines a pre-purchase inspection or provides a checklist. I recommend using the model of a 100 hour inspection/CARS 625 when you have your aircraft checked by your AME.
You should be looking for things like this:
Time life items i.e. propeller overhauls, IFR certification dates, ELT, tire age, engine hose dates. Dates are very important. Remember, prop overhauls are mandatory in Canada but not so in the USA.
Complete logs including original US logs. Once you have access to the Logs, sit down with your AME and read all of them !
Be aware of damage history. Depending on the extent of the damage, the price of the aircraft will be impacted.
Oil filter removed and cut open for contamination inspection. I prefer to ask for an oil analysis and any trending data available as well .
Any STC and correct approvals as per Transport Canada regulations.
Airworthiness Directive compliance and mandatory Service Bulletins if applicable
Corrosion inspection is very very important on many of these older airplanes
Keep in mind a pre-purchase is not an annual inspection and you shouldn't be looking to have your AME sign off an Annual. The two inspections are different.
If you're going to spend a lot of money on an aircraft, spending a little bit more in pre purchase costs and some travel time for your AME is effectively an insurance policy for the purchaser’s protection. If you're buying an aircraft that's thousands of miles away you might consider inquiring locally about an AME to do the pre-purchase for you. As with everything, circumstances will influence your thinking.
Don't be afraid to purchase an aircraft from the United States; the importation process isn't as scary as it appears. There is a batch of paperwork to process with Transport Canada to be sure, but we have a Minister's Delegate on-site ready to look after all these details. Be aware that a US Registered aircraft requires a US Pilot's license. I am regularly sent south of the border to fetch US registered aircraft and bring the aircraft home.
One of the most exciting parts of purchasing an aircraft from a far-away location is getting it home! If possible, make the trip yourself. That’s the fun part!
One last thing I remind customers of all the time: There are good airplanes and cheap airplanes out there, but no good cheap airplanes!
Bud Field, Brant AeroOther Pages
Welcome to our FAQ! Please read our FAQ and Grow Guides carefully.
You will find the answers to many, if not all, your questions.
For all general questions on cannabis cultivation such as "how can I tell male from female plants?", "how does cannabis flowering start?", “what lamps should I buy”, etc. please use Google, FAQ guides in marijuana internet forums, or buy a good grow book. A list of recommended reading and a short glossary is attached at the end of the FAQ.The following applies to all Mandala strains.
The aromatic properties of each strain are described in the strain info. Please note that aroma, and especially taste, are dependent on grow methods and how you dry and cure the buds. Therefore, variations in the aroma of a strain, between different cultivators, are quite normal and logical. Growers regularly express positive feedback on the aromatic qualities of our strains. Organically grown Mandala buds should have a sweet taste. In most Mandala strains the aroma is composed of a fine mix of scents and wonderfully balanced. This lends an interesting, multilayered, and enjoyable quality to the buds. Most often, seasoned growers describe our strains as having an "old school" taste such as the marijuana of the 1970's. The smoke is smooth and rich.Extra tips:
During peak flowering the grow room can fill with the scent of the plants, but it is seldom a problem for indoor set-ups. Usually one has to brush against them so that the aroma becomes strongly noticeable. Take a look at our STRAIN GUIDE for recommended low-odour strains that are especially suited for a "stealth" grow.
Taste can be negatively affected by improper drying and curing and bud mold. Also overfeeding and the use of bio-pesticides & fungicides adversely affects taste. For more info on how to get the best aroma out of your buds please refer to our topic on harvesting and the FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE .Phenotypes
In biology the word "phenotype" is used to define the distinct characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genes with the environment. When we talk about "phenotypes" we restrict this to a major set of differences between plants in a strain. It is unnecessary to distinguish between plants and mark them as a distinct "phenotype" because of an insignificant variable.
Which phenotypes in what % you will see in your garden depends on how many plants you grow out, plus the environmental conditions & cultivation style. You determine phenotype as much as the genetics may do!
There are two main phenotypes in several Mandala strains. Differences in appearance are however kept within normal limits so that the garden remains fairly even in growth and easy to care for. The variation among Mandala plants is surprisingly low for F1 hybrids (contrary to popular opinion an F1 generation can exhibit considerable variety). Depending on individual taste and expectations growers can also choose their favourite pheno as a mother plant for growing from clones.
In Hashberry and Sadhu the differences among phenos are primarily restricted to the amount of branching and have less to do with height for example. Ganesh shows very little variation. If there is a noteworthy difference among phenotypes you will read about it in the strain details. All other particular or peculiar growth patterns that you may observe in your garden can be due to environmental factors affecting your plants on an individual basis. Common factors are: light intensity, nutrients & plant growth products, pH, climate, pests and diseases.
One of the highlights in our genetics is that our strains can be grown in SOG style from seed. Many growers compliment us for the homogenous appearance of our strains. However, we strive to keep a careful balance between homogenity and hybrid vigour. One can be lost for the other if there is no strict guideline during breeding to prevent this.
Our aim is that each plant is worth growing in a strain regardless of phenotype. In a real-life scenario of a substantial crop of 100+ females you would find only 1-3% of plants that may fall below standard. This ensures a quality crop from seeds even on a commercial basis.FAQ Overview INDOOR Indoor When should I switch to a 12/12 light cycle (flowering) for indoor plant height of 60-100cm/2-3.5 feet?
From seed in soil: 20-25 cm/8-10 inches
Cuttings in soil: 30 cm/12 inches
From seed in hydro (examples)
Ganesh, Hashberry, Fruitylicious: 20 cm/8 inches
Kalichakra, Satori, Krystalica: 15-20 cm/6-8 inches
Cuttings in hydro (examples)
Ganesh, Hashberry, Fruitylicious: 25-30 cm/10+ inches
Kalichakra, Satori, Krystalica: 20 cm/8 inches
Please note these are approximate recommendations. The end result depends on grow conditions such as light intensity, CO2, temperature, plant care, nutrients, etc.How tall do the plants grow?
This depends on when you start 12/12 light cycle (flowering), if you are growing from seeds or clones, and your grow conditions. The above information shows what height you can expect when starting 12/12 at the height indicated.
If you are growing in a cupboard, grow-box, closet, etc. and concerned about height start flowering early at 6-8 inches. There are various methods to control height gently and effectively as well. Try LST (low stress training) for example. It is often sufficient to tie down the head shoot. Also pruning the top shoot once grows shorter and bushier plants (however more vegetative time is required with this method).I have a small grow box and am looking primarily for a short strain. What do you recommend?
Ganesh, Sadhu and Hashberry are perfect for the homebox, closets, and cupboards. Both strains have little stretch after 12/12 but yield very well. Speed Queen has medium height and is also a good choice for direct planting from seed in small spaces.
For extremely low grow spaces you can also startwith the 12/12 light cyclefrom germination or after 7-14 days growth. It usually best to give at least one week growth and to use a strong light source. Expect lower yields than in the strain details.
The minimum container size for the standard 28-30 day vegetative period under 400W+ HPS lamps is 5L/1 gallon. A 8L/2 gallon container is recommended, but if space is limited you can use the min. size. Larger pots = more nutrients and root development. For flowering you should provide at least 10-15L/2-3 gallons. Larger containers with quality soil make plant care easier as you hardly need to fertilize and plants have good space for root growth. In a SOG grow with shorter/smaller seed plants or clones you can reduce the container size to 4-8 Liters/1-2 gallons.
Outdoor the plants require large pots to support their fast growth and the long vegetative cycle. Provide at least 15L/3 gallons for the early growth (ie. after 4+ weeks). After flowering commences the plants should be in minimum 25L/6 gallon containers. Outdoor plants require considerable amounts of nitrogen during growth and restricted containers quickly lead to deficiencies and can contribute to a higher percentage of males.
These are basic guidelines. The actual container size required depends on the size of your plants and length of cultivation! If plants are root bound and still in pre-flowering you should repot as soon as possible for optimal nutrients and root space. In very dry summers bigger pots preserve more water and help prevent damage to roots from overheating.
Avoid excessively large containers in relation to the plant size if you are cultivating far north and need to harvest early. Otherwise the plants spend too much time with root and shoot development and flowering starts later than usual.
For more info on choosing containers please consult our SOIL GUIDE .What is the male-female ratio?
The male-female ratio is generally around 50-60% in our strains. This is the normal result from at least one packet of seeds. But we do receive frequent reports that growers get up to 70-80% of females (which corresponds to our own experience as well). An unusually low female ratio can be traced to negative environmental factors. Overall there is a natural balance between the % of males and females among a bigger population of plants.
If you plant considerably less than 10 seeds, such as only 4-5 seeds, it is possible to get an unbalanced ratio: a disproportionate number of females or males. This has nothing to do with the genetics of the strain. Rather, it is a matter of chance. While one grower may get many females, another one has a high number of males. We have often received feedback from growers who had 4-5 females from 5 seeds, but in some cases these results were reversed and, instead, a grower may have many males.I had many males in my batch of plants. Is this strain specific or a fault of the seed bank?
The % of males or females in each individual grow is beyond our control. It is determined by luck, grow conditions, and plant care. We fulfill our responsibility as breeders to ensure that the genetics are stable, so that the there are no biological weaknesses in a strain which may express themselves through a negative tendency to produce many males. If your plants are healthy and receiving a balanced supply of nutrients and sufficient light you should get at least 50% females. If you have many males and perhaps even one or more plants showing hermaphroditic traits from a full pack of seeds, these plants will have suffered from a serious and long-lasting environmental stress factor.
Common environmental triggers for a high % of males are:
Please refer to our detailed article on fertilizing here: FERTILIZING SMART GUIDEWhich soil mix works best?
Quality potting soil for regular garden & houseplants. Preferably not mixed with coco coir or large amounts of perlite/vermiculite. For a detailed look at some brands and what potting soil should contain to support healthy growth and flowering please read our Soil Guide
Good potting soil is usually composed of peat moss and some beneficial extras. It is always pre-fertilized and usually delivers sufficient nutrients for at least 4 weeks growth in 5-10L/1-2 gallon pots indoors. Please don't save money at the wrong end and buy cheap or low grade potting soil.
For best results we recommend not to “stretch” the soil unnecessarily with additives that have no nutritive value: coco coir, perlite, vermiculite, sand, expanded clay pellets, uncomposted materials such as wood chips, etc.
Please do not cover the soil surface with expanded clay pellets. This adversely affects the pH of the soil since many expanded clay pellets are very alkaline and not pH neutral. It also has no practical benefits.
Recommended additives are: worm castings, humus/compost, rock dust, endomycorrhizal fungi.
A small amount of composted organic ferts such as chicken manure, etc. can also be used for outdoor. Indoor composted fertilizers are not a must for healthy growth and high yields and should be treated with caution if you are a novice grower. There are excellent soil brands available which are organic or contain organic amendments and supply all nutrients from start to finish.
For greenhouse and outdoor, where the plants grow larger and receive sunlight, organic additives are recommended. Many organic fertilizers can be bought in liquid or granule form but should always be pre-tested on some plants to determine their potency, experiment with dosages, and to find out if the nitrogen is fast acting or not. Remember: It is possible to overfeed your plants with organic fertilizers. they can be extremely potent - especially pure guano! Please read our FERTILIZING SMART GUIDE for detailed information.
We do not recommend the use of fish meal, blood meal, or bone meal for health reasons. These are waste products from industrial type animal farms and can be full of residues from antibiotics, hormone treatments, or stem from diseased animals.
For more info on growing in soil and choosing a soil brand please consult our SOIL GUIDE .Should I top or prune my plants?
Our strains are bred for high yields and firm stems and branches. It is therefore not necessary to prune the plants in order to get satisfying yields or strong growth. If you want to give them a longer vegetative cycle for extra yields, control height for some reason, or require numerous shoots for cuttings you certainly have the option to prune any of the Mandala strains. The plants grow bushy with quality branches and heavy colas when pruned or topped.Should I remove fan leaves to let light pass to the lower shoots?
The fan leaves of cannabis plants function as an important energy storehouse. They are necessary for the absorption of light to manufacture sugars which feed the plant and make it grow. Vital nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are also stored in the fan leaves and used as required. Removing healthy fan leaves therefore disrupts and cuts off these potential growth factors. It also affects the side shoot at that internode which usually grows less after that.
Mandala plants develop particularly large fan leaves. This is due to their exceptional hybrid vigour and other outstanding genetic traits. The large leaves assist in the rapid and healthy growth of our strains and do not inhibit or obstruct bud development. It is not recommended to remove any healthy leaves out of concern that they obstruct the passage of light and thereby reduce flowering. All our strains typically develop chunky and heavy bud sites from the bottom to the top despite shade from the fan leaves. There are other options available if you wish to increase or utilize light intensity to the fullest (see the tips below).
Older bottom leaves are later used by the plant for utilizing naturally stored nitrogen and to shed unwanted waste products. Let the leaves drop off naturally and remove them.
Extra tips: It is better to prevent overcrowding in your grow space for better light distribution. You can also prune the bottom branches that may stretch too much and divert the plant's energy to the top half closer to the light source. “Runny” lower branches, growing upwards from the first few internodes, take up too much space and should be pruned. They most often occur in hydroponic cultivation due to the fast availability of nutrients. But they can also appear due to uneven light distribution and overcrowding. Rotate your plants around the grow space if you have dark corners, so that each plant benefits from bright areas during it's life cycle.
Some growers distribute fluorescent tubes around the bottom of the grow space for extra lighting. Tying down the branches, as in LST (low stress training), allows for bushier growth with more space between the shoots.
When harvesting a crop that was confined to a tight space with less than ideal lighting, consider harvesting tops first and leaving less developed buds further down time to ripen more. This works especially well with Satori, Kalichakra, and White Satin or other hybrids with a sativa influence.I found a male flower at an internode/in a bud of a female plant – what should I do?
Remove the male flower carefully (you can also spray some water on it first) with your fingers or tweezers. The pollen is not always potent and either way rarely a danger to other females. Isolated male stamen or flowers are a minor stress reaction of the plant from the abrupt light change to flowering. In nearly all cases the female plant continues to flower normally. But as a precautionary measure it is wise to observe the plant for the next few weeks to make sure that it stays “clean”.
Male stamen may also appear at the end of the plant's life cycle (senescence) in sinsemilla cultivation, i.e. unseeded garden. This is a normal reaction for cannabis and not particular to our strains. Again, in such a situation, there is no substantial danger to your crop as you can simply proceed to harvest.
If you observe a substantial amount of male flowers on a female then you should investigate possible environmental factors that are influencing the hormonal balance of the plants or causing stress. Common factors are: bad pH, low light, over- or underfertilizing, small containers, pests & diseases, use of plant growth products, inferior soil mix, etc.How should I water?
Always adjust the pH: 6,2 to 6,5 for soil cultivation; pH 5.5-6.0 for hydroponics (depending on substrate and drain values). Use cheap vinegar as a safe, inexpensive and non-nutritive alternative to pH-Down products for soil cultivation. Products such as pH-Down and pH-Up contain highly concentrated soluble mineral salts such as phosphorus, nitrate, or potassium and can lead to toxic salt buildup in the soil and over-fertilize your plants. Especially seedlings and young plants are prone to “burn”.
In regions with poor water quality consider using osmosis water with tap water mixed at 50-50%, or whatever is best according to your water quality. Let tap water sit in a bucket a few hours for chlorine to evaporate; use hot water in the winter so that it's room temperature for later use.
Please consult our WATER & PH GUIDE for more info.Can I flush on soil?
You should avoid watering more than normal and having a lot of run-off in soil grows. Heavy watering or flushing/rinsing the soil can cause bud mold (run-off also washes out nutrients). Instead, give the plants their daily requirements and water at the start of the light cycle. Even if they let the leaves hang a bit now and then in the final 10+ days it's better than over-watering at this stage.
In principle you should never have to flush in soil cultivation. It leads to all sorts of complications like waterlogged soil, nutrient run-off, fungus, etc.
If you already know you have made a mistake like over-watering, always wait for plant health to improve before taking steps further with feeding, etc. You can't "cure" anything with feeding unless there is a real nutrient deficiency at hand. You won't get a nutrient deficiency in soil if plants are in quality soil, have an adequate container size, and the pH of your water is OK. If the pH of your water is not within range you need to correct it. feeding would only stress the plants even more because they can't take up the nutrients in a substrate watered with a wrong pH.
Flushing your soil prior to harvest does NOT improve aroma and taste of the buds. It DOES increase chances of getting bud mold within 48 hours and can easily lead to other fungal infections which threaten your crop. The smart way to increase aroma is to buy quality soil and mix it with beneficial aroma enhancers such as worm manure and compost. Rinsing substrates should only be applied to hydroponic cultivations. The idea is to water with a very low EC, special ripening products, or only pure water a few days or a week prior to harvest - again, there should be no need to flush large amounts of water through the system. In coco coir this can also lead to a soggy substrate and increase the risk of bud mold.I am new to growing. Should I grow hydroponically or in soil to get good results?
We recommend that novice gardeners start in soil and not hydroponics. Hydroponics is very labour intensive and there are more potential mistakes to be made. You have to be on the lookout for pH, EC, watering cycles, etc.
Small mistakes can escalate quickly and all of this ads up to a lot of work and worries if you don't have the experience and time.
Hydroponics is often recommended to get high yields. But with our strains the big difference is that they yield so well just in regular soil that many growers get the same, or better results, than they ever did with their past hydro crops and different genetics.
That said though, you will find Mandala strains perfectly suited for hydroponics too and very easy to grow in any hydroponic medium.I have just transplanted my plants into new containers and started flowering. When should I start fertilizing?
Don't feed plants after you have recently transplanted them. After all, the point about transplanting is to provide them with fresh nutes in the soil! They don't need any extra feeding if they are sitting in fresh soil. Wait until the containers are well rooted. The time this takes depends on container size and light intensity of course. Nitrogen is required in higher amounts during growth and sexing. This nutrient is usually used up first in containers and needs to be replenished in moderate amounts during pre-flowering. Because plant growth slows down considerably during flowering you don't want to feed too much nitrogen. A well-balanced complete NPK for flowering with a formula of 4-6-7 or similar is perfect to stock up some extra nitrogen without disturbing flowering or causing overfeeding. Follow our recommendations in the article on fertilizing for the appropriate dosage and feeding frequency. Read our strain details for additional info on how nutrient efficient particular Mandala strains are.
Remember: There is no such thing as a standard “feeding schedule” on soil. Always observe your plants and let them decide when they require mild feedings! If your plants are growing with shiny green leaves and looking perfectly healthy there is no need to interfere unnecessarily with fertilizing.
For more info on growing in soil and fertilizing please read our SOIL GUIDE and FERTILIZING SMART GUIDEHow can I tell when my plants require some fertilizing? Hydroponics Which EC do you recommend?
Use an EC at the low-medium range (i.e. EC 1.0-1.6 mS/cm or 1000-1600 µS/cm). This recommendation is based on a starting EC of 0.4-0.5 mS/cm of your water. Adjust accordingly if your water has a very different EC and consider purifying your water if the EC is high. During flowering most Mandala strains can be grown with approx. 1.0-1.2 mS/cm or 1000-1200 µS/cm. The best EC for your hydroponic setup has to be determined by yourself through practice and observation.There is no standard guideline.
The optimal EC depends on many factors such as:
As you can see there are many environmental factors that play a role in nutrient uptake and nutrient demand!
You will be surprised how little fertilizer is required to grow our high performance strains. Mandala plants are bred to utilize nutrients extremely efficiently (not to be confused with nutrient sensitivity ). They are not finicky. as hydroponic cultivations maintained on high EC levels have proven. Our strains are tuned for optimal performance. Their profuse root growth, thick stems, and large leaves function as super-highways and storage houses for the uptake, assimilation, and storage of nutrients.
Remember: You can always adjust your EC upwards a bit if required. but you can't reverse damage from overfeeding.
By using an EC level that sufficiently provides for your plants without going over the top you will have a less care-intensive grow time, save $$ on fertlizer, achieve even higher yields and optimal calyx-leaf ratio, and enjoy better tasting herb.Is coco coir better than soil or other hydroponic substrates?
Coco coir is a very demanding substrate to grow in. It does not have the excellent air-to-water ratio as rockwool and retains considerably more water. That's why most problems in this medium are caused by an inadequate watering cycle. Controlling the pH is also more of an issue with coco coir. All our strains have been tested on coco successfully. In our opinion a fertilizer with a good NPK formula is a must for good flowering results on coco. Avoid using a fertilizer with considerably higher levels of potassium than phosphorus for example. The ratio between nitrogen and phosphorus needs to be approx. 1:3 during peak flowering. For example a fertilizer with 3-9-8 works well. Coco is a choice for growers who already have hydroponic experience and the time and inclination to monitor their grow on a daily basis.What hydro system works best with your strains?
Mandala strains have been grown successfully in every hydro setup from high tech Aero-Flo to self-made bucket systems. DWC “bubbler” and rockwool grows are an excellent choice. Expect stout, hardy, vigorous and high yielding plants in hydroponics with our strains. Root growth is tremendous and the fast growth cuts overall grow time very short.When should I start flushing?
If you utilize low EC levels and quality fertilizer it is not necessarily imperative that you flush the substrate in order to get good tasting buds. High quality fertilizer brands are composed of food grade chelates and other excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, amino acids, etc. These do not leave unpleasant residues in plant tissue. Excessive salt levels however can lead to a green or metallic taste in buds. The idea is to water with a very low EC, special ripening products, or only pure water a few days or a week prior to harvest - again, there should be no need to flush large amounts of water through the system. In coco coir this can also lead to a soggy substrate and increase the risk of bud mold.Outdoor How tall will the plants grow?
This depends on four factors: If you are growing from seed or clone, growing in the ground or pots, plant care, and which month you plant out (ie. length of daylight). Therefore, we cannot predict how tall your particular plants will grow without specific info's.
Generally speaking, the sativas in our catalogue will grow tallest and can reach a height of 3+ meters in the ground if planted early. The indicas grow to approx. 1.5-1.8 meters in the ground.
To cultivate short plants for incognito grows you have several options: late planting, LST or topping, growing in pots, and planting clones.
Remember: due to the fast and vigorous growth of Mandala strains you can plant seeds for outdoor as late as summer solstice. This reduces the overall height of the plants for a more discreet grow, speeds up flowering, and still yields a generous harvest.When is the best time to plant?
52-55°N: shortly before summer solstice
Tropics: between the rainy seasons
For more info on growing in soil and fertilizing please read our SOIL GUIDE and FERTILIZING SMART GUIDEHarvest How can I tell when to harvest?
The general consensus among growers is that the trichomes don't have to be clear, cloudy or amber in a certain percentage to be ready for harvest. You just have to go on your personal choice of more amber if you require a more couch lock stone, or more clear and cloudy if you require a more heady high. The trichomes are one indication, but even more importantly is watching the flowering growth. Once it makes a significant drop it's time to start harvesting the ripest looking buds/plants. Our harvest dates are a good milestone. We start counting from the day the 12/12 light cycle begins and our flowering times in the strain details are known to be very accurate. You should not let your plants flower considerably longer than the times indicated unless you want to increase CBD-CBN% for medical reasons.
Clones tend to ripen faster than seed plants.
Sativas like Satori and Kalichakra can ripen from top to bottom; the flowering parts closer to the light source will be riper than those in the shade for example. Consider harvesting the tops in that case, and letting the light pass through to the other buds so that they can catch up. In progressive harvesting don't wait too long to start with the first batch of harvested buds. If a strain such as Kalichakra has a max. 75 day flowering period you need to deduct at least 5-6 days from this period for the start of your harvest, so that the bottom shoots have time to catch up and are still harvested within the preferred time frame for best THC levels.
We go by bud growth since our strains retain clear/cloudy trichs far into flowering. Our preference is to harvest before flowering comes to a dead end. as in no fresh pistils at all. This retains the balanced high and max. potency.What is the best method for drying and curing?
To prevent bud mold spreading in your crop we advise to trim the buds from larger leaves and stalks straight after harvest. It is less work intensive and prevents damage to the trichomes to trim the buds while they are still fresh. If you like to preserve the large head buds they can be hung from a line after trimming. The small to medium trimmed buds can be spread out on any type of screen that promotes air passage such as mosquito mesh, simple meshed curtains, etc. Cheap plastic trays that can be connected to form towers with the bottom laid out with mesh work great. You can also spread out the mesh on a clothes dryer stand. A handy product for drying are the inexpensive and space saving hanging baskets sold at grow shops.
Even though the buds are lying flat out, if they have been trimmed properly they will retain a nice oval shape after drying. There is no need to turn them over while drying. Avoid any unnecessary handling so that the outer coating of resin is not rubbed off (most of the resin is contained in the bud however). Dry the buds at room temperature and normal humidity. Make sure the temperature does not drop too much to prevent mold. In case it does use a heater and small oscillating fan in the room to keep a good climate. Small to medium buds are usually dry enough for curing after 5-7 days. Larger head buds hung to dry require up to 12 days. Test the progress of drying by bending them. Even if the outside feels dry there is still enough moisture inside. Stems should be quite dry but still slightly bendable and not completely brittle and snapping when bent. This is a good stage to start the curing process.
The most common mistake growers make during curing is that they pack the buds into airtight containers. The second mistake is to fill the bags/containers to the top. When you first pack the buds into a bag or container fill only ¾ of the space. One of the best methods to cure buds is to use household zip-lock bags for storing vegetables. These are aroma-neutral and allow a minimal exchange of gases through the bags since they are not completely impermeable like glass for example. Cardboard boxes and paper bags are an alternative but they have certain disadvantages, such as that the buds might dry to quickly in them.
The first week of curing excess moisture will pass from the inner core of the buds to the outside. You can tell the difference because the dry surface of the packed buds is suddenly considerably more moist again from absorbing the escaped humidity when you open the bag/container a day later. In an airtight environment there is no possibility for this moisture to escape and for the necessary exchange of gases required for a good curing process. During curing the gases and moisture escaping from the buds need to be vented and fresh oxygen should be available. For this reason, the bags/containers with the buds should be opened for a few minutes every 2-3 days. Gently rotating the buds from the bottom of the bag to the top assists in an even drying and curing process. This is quite difficult to do in glass jars but a simple procedure with zip-lock bags.
Curing normally takes 6-8 weeks. After the first two weeks it is not necessary to open the bags/container every few days – once a week will suffice. Buds can also mature beyond the regular 2 month period and gain in taste and potency. For extended curing they should be stored in a zip-lock bag in a cool, dark place. When the curing process is completed the buds can be stored in airtight packaging such as glass jars for long-term storage if required.
If you are unexperienced and worried about drying and curing correctly, you should weigh your harvest before and after drying. This gives you a clear measurement of how much moisture is being lost and if the buds are properly dried for long-term storage. Generally speaking, it is better for the buds to be too dry than too moist if you are sealing them long-term to prevent loss of aroma and mold. See below for more info.How much weight do the buds lose from drying?
This depends on resin content. Generally, the buds of our strains loose 78% in weight during drying. For curing a dry weight of 23-24% from the original weight is usually perfect. After 4-6 weeks curing buds will loose approx. 2% more weight and are ready for storage.Can I store the dried buds long term and how?
Our strains have a long shelf-life. You should pack the buds into zip-lock bags and tupperware for storage in the refrigerator at 6-8°C. For smaller amounts buds can also be refrigerated in glass jars. They can be preserved like this with minimal loss of potency for one year. For unlimited storage you need to dry down the buds to maximum and then pack them into the freezer.My buds have dried to quickly and are very crumbly. What can I do?
Too dry buds easily absorb humidity. Place them in a bag that has been lightly sprayed with mineral water. You can also spread them out and spray them 1-2 times with a hand-held water dispenser and then repack. The moisture tends to disperse quite evenly among the buds this way.Mutations My plant has three internodes and shoots instead of two.
Trifoliates or triploids are common to cannabis as a plant species. They possess three sets of chromosomes instead of the usual two. Approx. 2% of the population in Mandala strains exhibit this trait. So for every 100 seeds there are max. 2 plants. About 60% of trifoliates turn out to be males. From the females you have 20% with a higher yield than normal (due to the extra node and vigour), 20% are just under average, and the rest are normal performers.There is a calyx growing on the fan leaf.
This is a genetic oddity that stems from some of our land race genetics. These fan leaves are great for hash making since they have more resin.I found a leaf that doesn't look normal.
Minor leaf deformations or discolourations can occur in any cannabis strain. It does not affect plant growth and is simply part of the natural diversity among plants.Do your strains have many mutations?
Definitely not. It is part of our breeding objective to reduce any undesirable traits to an absolute minimum. The parent strains, individuals selected for breeding, and resulting F1 generation are observed over the course of several seasons for any signs of abnormal growth before we proceed with the actual seed production for sale. Each Mandala strain has to pass strict quality controls before being made available to the cannabis community.
Among thousands of seeds it is nevertheless unavoidable that a tiny percentage of plants may show an abnormal growth pattern that is serious enough to inhibit growth. Mostly these are seedlings that fail to develop the first true set of leaves. Since our seeds are a biological product from natural breeding methods, and not a product of genetic manipulation or bioengineering, we cannot eliminate this risk completely. This is true of all seed banks however and we believe that our fair prices amply compensate for any minor losses in this regard.General Are your strains pure landrace genetics?
All our strains contain a certain percentage of landrace genetics or are hybrids of mixed landrace stock.Can I buy special non-listed landrace seeds from you?
We only sell what is offered in our catalogue.Can you send me free seeds?
Our policy is to keep our prices extremely customer friendly so that they are affordable to everyone.How can I store your seeds and for how long?
Seeds can be stored at room temperature for short-term. For long-term storage of several months to 3 years please store the seeds in a dry, air-tight packaging (seal in zip-lock bag and place in a small Tupperware box, etc.) in the refrigerator (5-8°). Frozen seeds may get damaged when thawed quickly and therefore this is not a necessary option unless you plan to store the seeds longer than 3 years. Germination rates may slowly deteriorate after 3 years under proper storage. Please note that this is a biological product and we cannot guarantee the duration of viability.Recommended reading:
Marijuana Horticulture – The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower's Bible
Hemp Diseases and Pests
J.M. McPartland, R.C. Clarke, D.P. Watson
Phenotype: The phenotype of an individual plant is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, color, or height that varies between individuals. Phenotype is determined to some extent by genotype, or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes. Many phenotypes are determined by multiple genes and influenced by environmental factors. Thus, the identity of one or a few known alleles does not always enable prediction of the phenotype.
pH: pH is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution and, therefore, its acidity or alkalinity. Many plants require a certain pH in the substrate in order to absorb nutrients properly. For cannabis the ideal pH is between 6.2-6.8. The pH can best be measured with liquid testers or electrodes.
EC level: Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current. Mineral salts dissolved in solvents influence the electrical current. An EC meter can therefore measure the amount of salts in a nutrient solution. Organic fertilizers can also be measured in terms of EC or nutrient strength.
SOG: Sea of Green; close planting in rows to maximize plants per m2/f2 from seed or clone.
SCROG: Screen of Green; growing the plants through a wire mesh for bushier and even top growth of flowering shoots.
LST: Low stress training as defined by tying plant stems down rather than pruning them.
Cola: A main flowering stem on the plant.