Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes.
Active Ingredient: metformin
Metformin (Orabet) as known as: Adecco, Adimet, Aglumet, Aglurab, Amaryl m, Anglucid, Bagomet, Baligluc, Ben-q-met, Benofomin, Bi-euglucon m, Bidimefor, Bigmet, Bigsens, Biguanil, Biocos, Brot, Clormin, Comet, Dabex, Dalsec, Daomin, Debeone, Diabamyl, Diabefagos, Diabesin, Diabetase, Diabetex, Diabetformin, Diabetmin, Diabetyl, Diabex, Diabiformin, Diafac, Diafase, Diafat, Diaformin, Diaformina, Diaformine, Diafree, Diaglitab, Dialinax, Diamet, Dianben, Diaphage, Diazen, Dibeta sr, Diformin retard, Diguan, Dimefor, Dimet, Dimethylbiguanid, Dinamel, Dinorax, Diolan, Diout, Dipimet, Docmetformi, Emfor, Emiphage, Eraphage, Espa-formin, Etform, Eucreas, Euform, Ficonax, Fintaxim, Forbetes, Fordia, Formell, Formet, Formilab, Formin, Forminal, Forminhasan, Formit, Fornidd, Fortamet, Galvumet, Glafornil, Glibemet, Glibomet, Glicenex, Gliclafin-m, Gliconorm, Glicorest, Glidanil, Glifage, Glifor, Gliformin, Glifortex, Glikos, Glimcare forte, Gliminfor, Glisulin, Glucaminol, Glucare, Glucobon biomo, Glucofage, Glucofine, Glucofinn, Glucofor, Glucofor-g, Glucogood, Glucohexal, Glucomide, Glucomin, Glucomine, Glucoplus, Glucored forte, Glucotika, Gludepatic, Glufor, Gluformin, Glukofen, Glumefor, Glumet, Glumetsan, Glumetza, Glumin, Glunor, Gluphage xr, Glyciphage, Glycon, Glycoran, Glyformin, Glymax, Glymet, Glymin xr, Glyvik-m, Glyzen, Gradiab, Gucofree, Haurymellin, Hipoglucem, Hipoglucin, Humamet, Icandra, Ifor, Informet, Insimet, Islotin, Janumet, Juformin, Langerin, Marphage, Matofin, Mectin, Medet, Medfort, Mediabet, Medifor, Medobis, Meforal, Meforex, Meglu, Meglubet, Meglucon, Megluer, Meguan, Meguanin, Mekoll, Melbexa, Melbin, Merckformin, Mescorit, Metaglip, Metaphage, Metarin, Metbay, Metex, Metfen, Metfin, Metfirex, Metfodiab, Metfogamma, Metfonorm, Metfor, Metfor-acis, Metforal, Metforalmille, Metforem, Metforil, Metform, Metformax, Metformdoc, Metformed, Metformina, Metformine, Metformine pamoate, Metforminum, Methormyl, Methpage, Metifor, Metkar, Metmin, Metnit, Metomin, Metored, Metormin, Metphage, Metphar, Metrion, Metsop, Metsulina, Mettas, Metwan, Miformin, Minifor, Nelbis, Neoform, Neoformin, Nevox, Nobesit, Nor glucox, Normaglyc, Normell, Novo-metformin, Nu-metformin, Nvmet, Obid, Obmet, Okamet, Omformin, Orabet, Oramet, Ormin, Oxemet, Panfor, Pleiamide, Predial, Preform, Proinsul, Reclimet, Reduluc, Reglus, Rezult-m, Riomet, Risidon, Rosicon-mf, Samin, Siamformet, Siofor, Sophamet, Stadamet, Stagid, Sucomet, Sugamet, Tabrophage, Velmetia, Walaphage, Xmet, Zendiab, Zumamet
N - (para-Metilbenzolsulfonil) - N-n-butilmochevina.
Synonyms. Aglycid, Arcosal, Artosin, Beglucin, D-860, R Diabecid, Diabetamid, Diabetol, Dirastan, Dolipol, Mobenol, Neoinsoral, Orabet, Oresan, Orinase, Rastinon, Tolbusal, Tolbutamide, Tolbutamidum, Tolumid, Toluvan and others.
The white crystalline powder slightly bitter taste. Almost nerastvorim in water, soluble in alcohol.
He is one of the main representatives of oral sulfonylureas gipoglikemiziruyuschih derivatives. Saharoponizhayuschee most of the drug expressed in the first 5 to 7 h after administration and lasts up to 12 hours (after a single admission).
As with other drugs in this group, used mainly in type II diabetes.
Assign inside. Early treatment given to 2 g / day, 1 g (2 pills for 0.5 g) the patient takes the morning, one hour before meals (usually 7 to 8 am) and 1 g of 5 - 6-hour evening. Increasing doses of more than 2 g acceleration of the effect usually does not.
The beneficial effects of the drug is usually during the first 2 to 3 weeks (in some patients during the 1 st week). After removing glyukozurii and normalization of blood glucose after 2 weeks dose can be reduced to 1 g and 0.5 g morning in the afternoon, and while maintaining good performance through the same period, to 0.5 and 0.5 g morning g afternoon. During at least one month continue receiving the drug in the dosage, and later with a good performance to reduce the daily dose of 0.5 or 0.25 grams or less (depending on the results of studies).
In light cases treatment can begin with two doses of 0.5 grams per day, with the consequent increase in ill effect.
Translated into treatment butamidom patients receiving insulin (compensation violations Carbohydrate share achieved in insulin doses less than 40 ED / day), butamid designate dose of 1 g, 2 times a day and reduce by half the dose of insulin. Further clarification dose of insulin, the reduction or elimination of the drug produced by urine tests (glucose and acetone) and blood (glucose). If compensation for the violations of diabetes requires less than 10 ED insulin a day, it can be cancelled immediately and appoint butamid 1 g 2 times a day. If the first weeks of treatment butamidom ginerglikemiya and glyukazurin not eliminated, should go to the treatment of active drug or combination of drugs with sulfanilamidnogo biguanidinovym and if compensation violations metabolism not come, we must turn to be treated with insulin.
Higher doses butamida for adults inside. single 1, 5 grams daily 4 years
Treatment butamidom produced under the close supervision of a doctor; Patients must abide by the diet; Systematic Study of blood glucose (morning PCP), and daily urine; Before treatment, and the first time these studies produce daily. In the treatment process must systematically common blood test.
Butamid malotoksichen, but in some cases can be side effects. headache, diarrhoeal phenomenon, allergic reaction (itching, dermatitis), radiation, thrombocytopenia, a violation of liver function. If the side effects are not medicines overturned.
When hypoglycemia reduces dose butamida; If necessary designate glucose and hold such events as when insulin overdose.
If during treatment butamidom a resistance to it, should be replaced butamid saharoponizhayuschim other oral drugs or insulin.
Butamid contraindicated in prekomatoznom and coma, ketoacidosis in childhood and adolescence, pregnancy and lactation, acute infectious diseases, milder forms of diabetes (offset by a diet), violations of liver and kidney functions, radiation, granulotsitopenii, rapid intervention, allergies to sulfanilamidnyh use drugs.
Product. tablets for 0.25 and 0.5 g.
Storage. List B. The well ukuporennoy package in a dry place.
Tolbutamide is an anti-diabetic drug that is used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) or adult maturity onset diabetes. Taking this medication lowers blood sugar levels by promoting the creation and release of insulin from the pancreas and also encouraging the transfer of sugar from the blood into the cells in the body that need it. These two benefits, in combination with a diet that is low in sugar and fat, allow diabetics to manage their blood sugar levels more efficiently.
Take this medicine as exactly prescribed by your healthcare specialist. Don't hesitate to ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor if you cannot understand certain parts of the given instructions. Moreover, take each dose of the drug with a full glass—about eight ounces—of water. Tolbutamide is usually taken before the first main meal, breakfast or otherwise, if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it's taken more than once a day. It is crucial to take this medication as regularly as possible to get the most therapeutic benefits.
Cease tolbutamide treatment and seek immediate emergency medical attention if you experience an allergic reaction to the drug. Symptoms of allergy include the hives. closing of the throat, difficulty in breathing, and swelling of the tongue. lips. or face.
You should not take this medication—or you may need to make a dosage alteration and have special monitoring during tolbutamide therapy—if you have any of these conditions: kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, type-1 diabetes, a serious infection, illness, injury, or have a condition that requires surgery. In addition, patients who are sixty-five years of age or older may have a more powerful reaction to the drug and may need a lesser dosage.
Tolbutamide is within FDA pregnancy category C, which means that it is dangerous to the unborn baby. This drug should also be avoided during the first trimester of pregnancy, because it may produce birth defects or teratogenesis. Mothers should not take this drug without first consulting their respective doctors about the risks, especially if they are pregnant or plan to be pregnant during treatment. They will probably be prescribed insulin instead, because that is the medication of choice for treating diabetes during pregnancy.
As an additional precaution, this drug also passes into breast milk and may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) to a nursing baby. Breastfeeding mothers should not use tolbutamide. Again, inform your doctor first before taking this medicine if you are currently breastfeeding a baby.
Lastly, intake of excessive amounts of alcohol is discouraged while taking this medication. In turn, your blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently when under tolbutamide treatment in order to avoid complications involving low blood sugar.
The other most common side effects of tolbutamide mostly root from blood sugar levels becoming too high (from missed tolbumatide doses or excessive food intake) or too low (from tolbutamide overdose). Diabetics should be familiar with the symptoms of both high blood sugar levels (excessive thirst, hunger, and urination) and low blood sugar levels (shaking, headache. clammy skin, and difficulty in concentrating) and know how to treat both conditions. Just be sure close friends and family are nearby and know how to help you during such emergencies.
Tolbutamide has the following structural formula:
• Molecular formula of tolbutamide is C12H18N2O3S
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 1-butyl-3-(4-methylphenyl)sulfonylurea
infection by fungi of the genus Candida , generally C. albicans, most commonly involving the skin, oral mucosa ( thrush ), respiratory tract, or vagina; occasionally there is a systemic infection or endocarditis. It is most often associated with pregnancy, glycosuria, diabetes mellitus, or use of antibiotics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that in the United States this condition is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial infections of the blood stream. Called also candidosis and moniliasis .
The most prominent symptom of vaginitis due to Candida infection is severe itching. Sexual transmission is unlikely. Intravaginal cream containing miconazole or clotrimazole. applied each night for one week, usually clears up the infection. Difficulty or pain with swallowing, or retrosternal pain, may indicate candidiasis of the esophagus. Systemic antifungal therapy is indicated for esophagitis and other more severe forms of the disease. Therapeutic options include ketoconazole. fluconazole. and amphotericin b. Chronic suppressive therapy is sometimes required for severely immunocompromised patients. The Infectious Disease Society of America has published “Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Candidiasis” on their web site, http://www.idsociety.org.
atrophic candidiasis oral candidiasis marked by erythematous, pebbled patches on the hard or soft palate, buccal mucosa, and dorsal surface of the tongue, a complication of numerous different conditions such as vitamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, or poorly fitting dentures. There are acute forms and a chronic form called denture stomatitis .
bronchopulmonary candidiasis candidiasis of the respiratory tree, occurring in a mild afebrile form manifested as chronic bronchitis, and in a usually fatal form resembling tuberculosis. Called also bronchocandidiasis .
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis a group comprising a number of varying forms of Candida infection, marked by chronic candidiasis of the skin and nails and the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina that is resistant to treatment; it may be localized or diffuse, is sometimes familial, and may be associated with disorders of the immune and endocrine systems.
endocardial candidiasisCandida endocarditis.
pulmonary candidiasis a type of fungal pneumonia caused by infection with Candida species, seen especially in immunocompromised patients or those with malignancies. Called also Candida pneumonia.
vaginal candidiasis (vulvovaginal candidiasis ) candidal infection of the vagina, and usually also the vulva, commonly characterized by itching, creamy white discharge, vulvar redness and swelling, and dyspareunia. Called also Candida or candidal vaginitis and Candida or candidal vulvovaginitis .oral candidiasis
Infectious disease A yeast infection of the adult oral mucosa, caused by Candida albicans. an opportunistic pathogen linked to immune compromise–eg, with AIDS, immunosuppression in transplants, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, DM, ↑ age, poor health, inherited immune defects, xerostomia Clinical Whitish plaques on oral mucosa which, if scraped away, leave a reddish base and pinpoint bleeding; OC may spread to the esophagus, producing candida esophagitis with dysphagia, and disseminate throughout the body–mortality of systemic candidiasis may reach 70%. See Oral thrush.
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References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast, the other studies' top 5 manifestations included sinusitis (stage II), oral candidiasis (stage III/ IV), cervical lymphadenopathy (stage I), otitis media (stage II) and aphthous ulcers (stage II/III) (Fig.
Prevalence of oral lesions, specifically Oral Candidiasis in patients who had access to HAART, was less when compared with those who did not have access to HAART [Nicolatou-Galitis et al.
Higher frequencies of non-albicans species were observed in HIV infected individuals with oral candidiasis (35%) as compared to the asymptomatic HIV positive (19.
Oral Candidiasis was the leading presenting complaint followed by Molluscum Contagiosum, Condyloma Accuminata (seen only in male patients) and Multidermatomal Herpes Zoster.
Oral candidiasis (thrush) is the most common oral condition of HIV infection.
Then there's the thick, white coating of oral candidiasis. or thrush, which can occur after a course of antibiotics.
Products to be developed include treatments for cystic fibrosis infections, for which there is an Orphan Drug designation, oral candidiasis. dermatological diseases, and sexually transmitted infections.
The patient was a 59-year-old homosexual man, who was first noted to be positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 3 years earlier Subsequently, he was diagnosed as having hepatitis B, oral candidiasis. central nervous system toxoplasmosis, and perirectal herpes simplex virus.
Weight gain, anemia, and oral candidiasis were the most common complications of pemphigus and its treatment.
Time from HIV seroconversion to oral candidiasis or hairy leuko plakia among homosexual and bisexual men enrolled in three prospective cohorts.
After a few years of infection persons begin to lose T-helper cells, then begin to develop outward manifestations of immune dysfunction such as oral candidiasis. then begin to suffer life-threatening diseases such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
1) Oral candidiasis generally develops after more marked immunosuppression, and esophageal candidiasis occurs only with severe immunocompromise" (p.
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Indications: Orabet (Metformin) is a biguanide-type medicine used along with a diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. Orabet (Metformin) works by helping restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce, and by decreasing the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent heart disease, strokes, kidney disease, blindness, circulation problems, and sexual function problems. A doctor may prescribe Orabet (Metformin) for additional conditions. Further Orabet reference material.How To Buy Orabet Online In The EU
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Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamesedefinitions - Tolbutamide
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1. sulfonylurea; an oral antidiabetic drug (trade name Orinase) used in the treatment of adult-onset diabetes mellitus
1. (MeSH ) A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)synonyms - Tolbutamide Tolbutamide
Tolbutamide is a first generation potassium channel blocker. sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic drug sold under the brand name Orinase. This drug may be used in the management of type II diabetes if diet alone is not effective. Tolbutamide stimulates the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. Since the pancreas must synthesize insulin in order for this drug to work, it is not effective in the management of type I diabetes. It is not routinely used due to a higher incidence of adverse effects compared to newer second generation sulfonylureas, such as glyburide. It generally has a short duration of action due to its rapid metabolism, and is therefore safe for use in elderly diabetics.Contents History
Orinase was developed by Upjohn Co. at a time when the primary medical treatment for diabetes was insulin injections. Eli Lilly had a lock on the market for insulin production at the time. Orinase, like other treatments for drugs detected by so-called paraclinical signs rather than clinically observable signs or patient-reported symptoms, benefitted from an increased sensitivity and availability of blood glucose testing. According to Jeremy A. Greene, Milton Moskowitz (editor in 1961 of Drug and Cosmetic Industry ) claimed that the introduction of Orinase "expanded the total market by bringing under medical care diabetics who were formerly not treated." It did this by changing the mindset about diabetes even more than insulin had. Treatment of this chronic disease was no longer seen as a mere slowing of "inexorable degeneration" but instead viewed through "a model of surveillance and early detection"(Greene 84).
Orinase and other sulfonulureas emerged from European pharmaceutical research into antibiotics, specifically from attempts to develop sulfas. One of the contenders for a new sulfa antibiotic had serious side effects during clinical trials at Montpelier University including blackouts, convulsions, and coma, side effects not observed with any other drugs in the sulfa cohort. An insulin researcher at the same university heard of these side effects and recognized them as common results of hypoglycemia. The resulting class of drugs for lowering blood sugar came to be known as the sulfonylureas, epitomized by Orinase and still in use today in other forms.
Unfortunately for diabetics dependent on insulin as a treatment for their condition, this research at Montpelier occurred in the early 1940s and was significantly disrupted by German occupation of France during World War II. Development of these compounds was taken over by German pharmaceutical companies which were obviously disinclined to share their bounty with nations upon which they were waging war. The German research was, in turn, disrupted by Germany's defeat in 1945 and the partition of Germany into East and West. The sulfonylureas were trapped in East Germany. In 1952, someone smuggled a sample to a West German pharmaceutical company and research resumed. Clinical trials in diabetics began in 1954 in Berlin. In 1956 two different sulfonylureas were brought to market in Germany under the trade names Nadisan and Rastinon. As an important backdrop to this prime example of how society can affect science, American pharmaceutical companies in the post-war period had been seeking to establish business relations with the remnants of German pharmaceutical giants weakened by the war and partition of Germany. Upjohn (based in Kalamazoo up until its purchase by Pharmacia in the 1990s) made deals with the German company Hoechst, maker of Rastinon. The result was a cross-licensing agreement which produced Orinase.
Now begins a portion of the tale which involves intense industrial competition. Recall that Eli Lilly had locked down the market for diabetes therapy with insulin. Upjohn stood to open up a whole new arena of treatment for this chronic condition, one with a built-in and sustainable market, i.e. patient population. Just as two German companies brought sulfonylureas to market within the same year, Upjohn discovered that Eli Lilly had begun clinical trials for another German oral hypoglycemic, carbutamide, and was considering a similar licensing deal with the German pharmaceutical company Boehringer which made Nadisan (carbutamide). Upjohn pushed for large-scale clinical trials from 1955-1957, enrolling over 5,000 patients at multiple sites.
Upjohn's formulation became ascendant when the Lilly formulation demonstrated mounting evidence of toxicity in parallel trials at the Joslin Clinic. Lilly pulled carbutamide and halted development, leaving the field open for Upjohn to market a new treatment for diabetics to a patient population previously monopolized by Eli Lilly. In 1956, Upjohn filed for approval from the Food and Drug Administration. A notable fact about the application is its size: 10,580 pages in 23 volumes with 5,786 cases reports. Jeremy A. Greene analyzes that this was necessary to "render visible the relatively small improvements provided in less severe forms of diabetes." (92) Indeed, Orinase was marketed by Upjohn not as a cure-all for all diabetics, but specifically as a treatment that was "not an oral insulin" and "did not work in all diabetics." Those were the instructions for marketing given to Upjohn's salespeople. This is just as well, for as indicated by the FDA application, Orinase had been demonstrated "not to be effective in severe Diabetes, but only in milder cases of the disease." (Greene 93) Greene's analysis reveals an important fact about Orinase: that it was one of a new class of drugs (including treatments for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia) aimed at providing marginal benefits over existing treatments for patients who had not previously been a target market for pharmaceuticals.
According to Greene, there was a close connection between the launch of Orinase and increased funding by Upjohn for public health efforts to find previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic diabetics. The only way to detect such diabetics was through population-wide screening using urine or blood sugar tests. Such so-called "hidden diabetics", once found, were "unlikely to submit themselves to a lifetime of insulin injections" to prevent themselves from developing symptoms of a condition that currently did not seem to be affecting them at all. Indeed, "Orinase altered this logic. To newly detected, symptomless diabetics, Orinase offered a solution that many found preferable to diet or insulin." (Greene 99) The appeal? It was a pill that required no lifestyle changes and involved no risk of infection or pain such as that incurred by insulin injections. The increase in funding for, and interest in, aggressive detection of hidden diabetics served to identify patients who would be more likely to take Orinase than either of the other two options.
As blood sugar testing for diagnosis of diabetes became more widespread, a curious side effect occurred: because blood sugar testing is not absolutely definitive in diagnoses of diabetes, more and more people were receiving borderline tests regarding their glycemic status. These borderline persons could be conceived of not as having diabetes, but as being at risk for diabetes. We now label such persons as "prediabetic." Prediabetics have high blood sugar, but normal levels of sugar in their urine (glycosuria), whereas high blood sugar combined with glycosuria were considered definitive of diabetes. Upjohn saw an opportunity to potentially benefit and definitely market to a yet-greater expansion of the diabetic population, beyond even the "hidden diabetics" revealed by earlier public health campaigns. What's more, Upjohn found a new use for Orinase: as a diagnostic. Orinase Diagnostic was added to the Orinase product line and, by 1962, was being touted by Upjohn salesmen as means of detecting prediabetes in that an abnormal response to Orinase following administration of cortisone in a "stress test" could be taken to indicate prediabetes. Orinase thus not only served to detect a previously hidden patient population, but also detected a patient population most likely to be interested in Orinase as a treatment for their newly diagnosed prediabetes. By the late 1960s, Orinase Diagnostic was withdrawn and the drug reverted to its therapeutic purpose. By that point, prediabetes had become a diagnosable and treatable condition which had dramatically increased the market for Orinase. The benefits for Upjohn are clear. The benefits for those diagnosed with the condition stemmed from the medical consensus that prediabetes might be reversible whereas diabetes was clearly an irreversible chronic disease, albeit one that could now be treated fairly well.
Orinase began to fall out of favor in May 1970 when asymptomatic prediabetics on long-term regimens of Orinase began to see news reports (beginning with the Washington Post ) that Orinase may have serious side effects including death from cardiovascular problems, according to a long-term study. Patients learned of this before their physicians, in many cases, and before the FDA could advise relabeling the medication or suggesting alterations in appropriate usage, a public firestorm began over the use of medications to treat risk conditions that are themselves asymptomatic. The question of whether Orinase did or did not increase cardiovascular problems in those taking it has not been conclusively settled. The result: Orinase and other medical treatments for prediabetes were "rolled back" by the FDA and practitioners in an attempt to focus on symptomatic patients for whom the risks of treatment, whatever they were, might be balanced by the symptoms of the disease. But according to Jeremy A. Greene, "there was no simple path back" from the diagnostic and therapeutic shift to asymptomatic risk conditions.
Pharmacia - Upjohn (now, itself, a casualty of mergers with other companies) stopped making Orinase in 2000, though a generic is still available and occasionally used.Historical consequences
The heritage of Orinase (tolbutamide) has had a lasting effect on medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. Patients today are still diagnosed with prediabetes, many of them managing to stave off the onset of diabetes through dietary and lifestyle changes. But many also have the option to take Bristol-Myers Squibb's oral antidibetic medication Glucophage (metformin), which demonstrated a 31 percent reduction in three-year incidence of development of diabetes relative to placebo. While impressive, the lifestyle-modification arm of that same trial demonstrated a 58% reduction. (Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group)
Orinase was one of a number of drugs developed during the 1950s and 1960's for a variety of conditions first to treat symptomatic diseases and later to treat asymptomatic conditions that put the patient at risk of developing symptomatic disease. Its use and marketing played a definitive, though not solely sufficient, role in establishing the condition of prediabetes as a legitimate diagnosable condition. As such, it illustrates that science, medicine, markets, and health can interact in complicated and fascinating ways that are neither clearly desirable nor undesirable.Side Effects
Salicylates displace tolbutamide from its binding site on plasma binding proteins which lead to increase in free tolbutamide concentration and thus hypoglycemic shock.Synthesis
A number of different routes are available for the preparation of tolbutamide. The shortest route involves the simple addition of para -toluenesulfonamide to butyl isocyanate. [ 1 ]
An online version of the USDOT's listing of hazardous materials from 49CFR 172.101. This table can be sorted by proper shipping name, UN/NA ID and/or by primary hazard class/division.
Have you ever wondered what those four digit numbers on the placards on the side of trucks and rail cars mean? Our online 2008 ERG will give you your answer. This is an online version of the guidebook produced by the USDOT for first responders during the initial phase of a Dangerous goods/HazMat incident. ERG data last verified/updated Oct. 2, 2011
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Introduces stoichiometry and explains the differences between molarity, molality and normality.
Provides comprehensive data for each element of the periodic table of elements including up to 40 properties, names in 10 languages and common chemical compounds. Information also provided for 3,600 nuclides and 4,400 nuclide decay modes.
Editor's note: Some chemicals in this database contain more information than others due to the original reason this information was collected and how the compilation was accomplished.
While working with material safety data sheets (MSDS), I found that manufacturers sometimes used obscure names for constituent chemicals and I didn't always have a good idea of what I was dealing with. To resolve this problem, over the years, I compiled chemical names and identifiers into a personal database, cross referencing regulatory and health safety information when possible. Colleagues and friends eventually started suggesting that I make my data available on this website so that others could benefit from my efforts -- which I finally did in 2004. The more common, regulated and/or hazardous a chemical is, the more information I will have likely collected it.Trademarks
If you are aware of any synonyms listed above that are registered trademarks, please contact us with relevant information so that trademarks can be appropriately noted.Notes about mixtures
Some chemicals listed in this database or not pure chemical compounds, rather they are mixtures/solutions of chemicals. It is not uncommon for wide range of molar ratios of a mixture to be lumped together as "synonyms" of the same "chemical". In some instances chemicals that are very similar from a health & safety and/or regulatory standpoint also may have been lumped together.Reference Sources
Data for this database was compiled from: hundreds of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) of common industrial and household products; the Hazardous Materials Table from the United States "Code of Federal Regulations" title 49 section 172.101; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards; the US DOT 1996, 2000 & 2004 Emergency Response Guidebooks; U.S. National Library of Medicine and many other related resources.Disclaimer
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Sulfonylureas lower blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes by directly stimulating the acute release of insulin from functioning beta cells of pancreatic islet tissue by an unknown process that involves a sulfonylurea receptor (receptor 1) on the beta cell. Sulfonylureas inhibit the ATP-potassium channels on the beta cell membrane and potassium efflux, which results in depolarization and calcium influx, calcium-calmodulin binding, kinase activation, and release of insulin-containing granules by exocytosis, an effect similar to that of glucose.butamide for patients
Treatment with tolbutamide may increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to treatment of diabetes with diet alone or diet plus insulin. Discuss with your doctor the risks and benefits of treatment with tolbutamide. Know the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which include headache, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, and nausea. Carry a piece of hard candy or glucose tablets with you to treat episodes of low blood sugar. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines closely. Changing any of them can affect blood sugar levels. Do not change your dose of tolbutamide without first talking to your doctor. Avoid alcohol. It lowers blood sugar and may interfere with your diabetes treatment.butamide Interactions
Sulphinpyrazone, a drug used as an antithrombotic agent and inhibitor of platelet aggregation has a potent side effect as a uricosuric agent. The uricosuric side effect increases the urinary excretion of uric acid effectively blocking hepatic conjugation. Tests show that Sulphinpyrazone’s effect on Tolbutamide is a reduction of liver function to 60% of normal without interfering with protein binding. Taking alpha-lipoic acid or chromium with tolbutamide may require a change in the drugs dosage. Use ephedra with caution when taking tolbutamide; ephedra can raise blood sugar levels.butamide Contraindications
You should not take tolbutamide if you have had an allergic reaction to it. Tolbutamide should not be taken if you are suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (a life-threatening medical emergency caused by insufficient insulin and marked by excessive thirst, nausea, fatigue, pain below the breastbone, and fruity breath). In addition, Tolbutamide should not be used as the sole therapy in treating type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes.
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