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Category: Arthritis


Motrin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.

Active Ingredient: ibuprofen

Motrin (Liberat) as known as: Acatar zatoki, Actron, Acuilfem, Adax, Adex, Advel, Advil, Advil-mono, Advilcaps, Adviltab, Afebril, Ainex, Aktren, Alges-x, Algiasdin, Algidrin, Algifor, Algifor-l, Algofen, Algoflex, Algofren, Alidol f, Alindrin, Aliviol, Alivium, Alogesia, Altran, Anadvil, Anadvil rhume, Anafen, Anafidol, Anaflam, Analginakut, Analgion, Analper fem, Anco, Antalfort, Antalgil, Antalisin, Antarène, Antiflam, Antigrippine ibuprofen, Apirofeno, Apiron, Aprofen, Arafa, Ardinex, Arthrifen, Articalm, Artofen, Artril, Astefor, Atomo, Back pain, Balkaprofen, Baroc, Bediatil, Bestafen, Betagesic, Betaprofen, Bexistar, Biatain-ibu, Bifen, Blockten, Bolinet, Bonifen, Brafeno, Bren, Brufanic, Brufen, Brugesic, Brumed, Buburone, Bucoflam, Bufect, Bufen-sr, Buprex, Buprodol, Buprofen, Buprophar, Burana, Burana-c, Burana-caps, Buscofen, Butafen, Butidiona, Caldolor, Calmafen, Calmidol, Calmine, Cap-profen, Causalon ibu, Chemofen, Cibalgina, Cliptol, Combunox, Copiron, Cuprofen, Dadicil, Dadosel, Dalsy, Deep relief, Degiton, Deprofen, Deucodol, Dip rilif, Diprodol, Dismenol, Dismenol formel l, Diverin, Doctril, Dofen, Dolaraz, Dolgit, Dolin, Dolito, Dolo-puren, Dolo-spedifen, Dolobene, Dolobeneurin, Dolocanil, Dolocyl, Dolofast, Dolofen-f, Dolofin, Doloflam, Dolofor, Dolofort, Doloforte, Dologesic, Dolomate, Dolomax, Dolonet, Dolorac, Doloral, Doloraz, Dolorsyn, Dolorub, Doloxene, Dolprofen, Dolven, Doraplax, Dorival, Druisel, Duanibu, Ecoprofen, Edenil, Emflam, Emifen, Epsilon, Ergix douleur et fièvre, Erofen, Espasmovet, Espidifen, Esprenit, Esrufen, Ethifen, Eudorlin, Eufenil, Expanfen, Extrapan, Fabogesic, Factopan, Farsifen, Faspic, Febratic, Febricol, Febrifen, Febrolito, Femen, Femicaps, Feminalin, Femmex, Fenbid, Fenomas, Fenopine, Fenpic, Fenris, Fiedosin, Finalflex, Flamadol, Flamex, Flexistad, Fontol, Frenatermin, Gelobufen, Gelofeno, Gelopiril, Gélufène, Gerofen, Gineflor, Ginenorm, Grefen, Gyno-neuralgin, Hagifen, Haltran, Hapacol dau nhuc, Hémagène tailleur, I-pain, I-profen, Ib-u-ron, Ibalgin, Ibu, Ibuaid, Ibubenitol, Ibubeta, Ibubex, Ibucaps, Ibucare, Ibucler, Ibucod, Ibucodone, Ibuden, Ibudol, Ibudolor, Ibufabra, Ibufac, Ibufarmalid, Ibufen, Ibufix, Ibuflam, Ibuflamar, Ibugan, Ibugel, Ibugesic, Ibuhexal, Ibukem, Ibukey, Ibuklaph, Ibuleve, Ibulgan, Ibum, Ibumac, Ibumar, Ibumax, Ibumed, Ibumetin, Ibumousse, Ibumultin, Ibunate, Ibunovalgina, Ibupal, Ibupar, Ibuphil, Ibupirac, Ibupiretas, Ibupirol, Ibuprin, Ibuprof von ct, Ibuprofena, Ibuprofene, Ibuprofenix, Ibuprofeno, Ibuprofenum, Ibuprohm, Ibuprom, Ibuprovon, Ibuprox, Iburion, Ibusal, Ibuscent, Ibusi, Ibusifar, Ibusol, Ibuspray, Ibutan, Ibuten, Ibutenk, Ibutop, Ibux, Ibuxim, Ibuxin, Ibuzidine, Idyl, Imbun, Infibu, Infibutabletas, Inflam, Intafen, Intralgis, Ipren, Iproben, Iprofen, Ipronin, Iprox, Ipson, Ipufen, Irfen, Irufen, Junifen, Kin crema, Kontagripp sandoz, Kratalgin, Landelun, Lefebron, Lexaprofen, Liberat, Lisiprofen, Lumbax, Malafene, Marcofen, Matrix, Maxifen, Medafen, Medicol, Mediflam, Mediflam ninos, Medipren, Mejoral, Melfen, Menadol, Mensoton, Mestral, Metabel, Metorin, Migränin, Modafen, Mofen, Mogifen, Molargesico, Moment, Momentact, Motricit, Nagifen, Napacetin, Narfen, Neobrufen, Neofen, Neomeritine, Neoprofen, Neuralgin, Neurofen, Niofen, Nodolfen, Nonpiron, Norvectan, Novogeniol, Novogent, Nureflex, Nurofen, Nurofen rapid, Nurofenflash, Nurofentabs, Nurosolv, Oberdol, Oladol, Omafen, Optajun, Optalidon, Optalidon ibu, Optifen, Opturem, Ostarin, Oxibut, Ozonol, Pabiprofen, Paduden, Paidofebril, Painfree, Pakurat, Pamprin ib, Panafen, Pango, Parofen, Pedea, Pediaprofen, Pediatrin, Pedifen, Pelimed schmerz, Perdofemina, Perdophen pediatrie, Perfen, Perofen, Perviam, Pfeil, Phorpain, Pirexin, Pironal, Ponstil, Ponstil mujer, Ponstin, Ponstinetas, Probinex, Profen, Profinal, Proflex, Proris, Prosinal, Provin, Provon, Pymeprofen, Pyriped, Quadrax, Quimoral, Rafen, Ranfen, Ratiodol, Ratiodolor, Rebufen, Remofen, Renidon, Reprexain, Reufen, Reuprofen, Rhelafen, Ribunal, Rimofen, Robax platinum, Rufen, Rupan, Saetil, Saldeva, Salivia, Sapbufen, Sapofen, Sarixell, Schmerz-dolgit, Sconin, Serviprofen, Siflam, Sindol, Sine-aid ib, Siyafen, Smadol, Solpaflex, Solufen, Solvium, Spedifen, Spidifen, Spidufen, Spifen, Staderm, Subheron, Subitene, Sudafed sinus, Suprafen, Tabalon, Tatanol, Tenvalin, Teprix, Terbofen, Termalfeno, Termyl, Thermoflam, Tispol ibu-dd, Togal n, Tonal, Trauma-dolgit, Tri-profen, Tricalma, Trifene, Trosifen, Tussamag, Uniprofen, Unipron, Upfen, Upren, Urem, Urgo ibuprofen, Vargas, Vell, Verfen, Vesicum, Yariven, Zafen, Zatoprom, Zip-a-dol

European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Communciable Diseases - European Networks

Brussels, 14 November 2001

Communciable Diseases - European Networks

Communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis, Measles, Influenza, AIDs, Hepatitis C, represent a serious risk to human health, although the advent of interventions such as antibiotics and vaccines has reduced the threat. Communicable diseases do not respect national frontiers and can spread rapidly if actions are not taken to combat them. They have an impact on individuals regardless of age, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status. Not only do they cause illness and impose a heavy financial burden on society, they also contribute to about one third of all deaths occurring globally.

New diseases such as AIDS are continuing to emerge and others are developing drug-resistant forms such as multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. In addition, new scientific developments on the role of infectious agents in chronic conditions such as cancer, heart diseases or allergies are under investigation.

The identification, monitoring and control of communicable disease outbreaks are greatly facilitated by well-functioning surveillance systems. Surveillance systems provide information for early detection of and rapid response to outbreaks or potential outbreaks, and also help to identify disease trends, risk factors, and the need for interventions. They provide information for priority setting, planning, implementation and resource allocation for preventive programmes and for evaluating preventive programmes and control measures.

Communicable Diseases Network of the EU

In responding to these various issues the Commission proposal for a network for the epidemiological surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the EU was established by Decision 2119/98/EC of the European Parliament and the Council and started work in 1999. The Communicable Diseases Network was set up to detect and control communicable disease in people regardless of the cause and manner of transmission. Its principal aim is to prevent further transmission of the disease to other persons; by epidemiological surveillance and investigation of the outbreak to try to identify its cause; and through investigation of cases of human disease to identify control measures. It takes account of the need to integrate this objective into international endeavours to reduce these diseases It provides the necessary information to take preventive action and is particularly concerned with a situation which may develop at EU level.

How is the communicable diseases network structured?

The communicable diseases network consists of two pillars:
  • Tracking Diseases A surveillance network designed as a network of national surveillance institutes on specific diseases and health related issues. Commission Decision 2000/96/EC specifies the list of communicable diseases to be placed progressively under EU-wide surveillance and the criteria for their selection. (See Annex 1). The network ´s main task is to monitor and track developments. Within that network disease-specific sub-networks have been created. (See Annex 2)

  • Rapid Alert The second pillar of the network is an early warning and response system (EWRS) to alert public health authorities in Member States and the Commission on outbreaks with greater than national dimensions, so that a co-ordinated EU action may be required. Commission Decision 2000/57/EC on the EWRS makes it clear that all events which could lead to outbreaks of EU-wide significance should be reported under the EWRS irrespective of whether or not a disease-specific network at EU level has been set up.
  • Depending on the specific situation, the Commission and Member States agree on the appropriate action to be taken individually or together.

    The EWRS is a sophisticated telematic system linking the designated authorities in Member States and the Commission. The system allows for immediate exchange of views on risk assessment and risk management crucial for timely public health action. Several systems on communicable disease surveillance (e.g. legionellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis) are already functioning. These have already proven to be a useful tool during a number of outbreaks/incidents (paratyphoid fever in Turkey; Legionnaires's disease in Belgium, Lassa fever in Germany).

    In addition, the Commission also funds publications like "Eurosurveillance Monthly" and the internet based "Eurosurveillance Weekly" as well as providing financial support for training programmes for field epidemiologists.

    The first progress report of the operation of the network was issued on 7 September 2000 (see (COM 2000) 471 final or

    covering the period from July 1999 to May 2000.


    1.1 For the diseases/health issues listed below, surveillance within the EU network will be performed by standardised collection and analysis of data in a way that will be determined for each disease/health issue when specific EU surveillance networks are put in place.

    2.1 Diseases preventable by vaccination

    Infections with haemophilus influenza group B

    Other articles

    CDC Online Newsroom - Press Release - Waterborne Diseases Could Cost over $500 Million Annually in U

    Press Release

    For Immediate Release: July 14, 2010
    Contact: Division of News & Electronic Media, Office of Communication
    (404) 639-3286

    Waterborne Diseases Could Cost over $500 Million Annually in U.S.

    Hospitalizations for three common waterborne diseases cost the health care system as much as $539 million annually, according to research presented today at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    "These cost data highlight that water-related diseases pose not only a physical burden to the thousands of people sickened by them each year, but also a substantial burden in health care costs, including direct government payments through Medicare and Medicaid," says Michael Beach of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an author of the study.

    Currently, there are no well-documented data on the total health care costs associated with all waterborne diseases. However, using data from a large insurance claims database between 2004 and 2007, Beach and his colleagues estimated the hospitalization cost of three common waterborne diseases in the United States: Legionnaires' disease, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. For each case of disease, they calculated the cost paid by the insurer, the out-of-pocket cost to the patient, and the total amount paid.

    Total estimated costs for hospitalization for the three diseases was $154-539 million, including $44-147 million in direct government payments for Medicare and Medicaid. Estimated annual costs for the individual diseases were: giardiasis, $16-63 million; cryptosporidiosis, $37-145 million; and Legionnaires' disease, $101-321 million.

    Inpatient hospitalization costs per case averaged more than $34,000 for Legionnaires' disease, approximately $9,000 for giardiasis and more than $21,000 for cryptosporidiosis.

    "When people think about these diseases, they usually think of a simple case of diarrhea, which is a nuisance but quickly goes away. However, these infections can cause severe illness that often result in hospital stays of more than a week, which can quickly drive up health care costs," Beach says.

    Other symptoms can include rashes, eye and ear infections and respiratory or neurological symptoms and can even be fatal.

    Modest investments in preventing these diseases could lead to reduced disease and significant healthcare cost savings, Beach says. Some examples of possible, low-cost interventions include public education campaigns, appropriate maintenance of building water systems, and regular inspection of pools and other recreational water facilities.

    The International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases is organized by the CDC, the American Society for Microbiology, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the World Health Organization. More information on the meeting can be found online at www.iceid.org.

    “Editor's Note: The preliminary cost data on water-related disease referenced in this press release have been finalized. The final data are summarized in the following publication. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water. Epidemiology and Infection. 2012; Jan 11.” (The new data are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233584) and these data supersede the preliminary data released by CDC on July 14, 2010.


    Diseases of Leaves

    Diseases of Leaves

    At least 20 different fungi and one bacterium are pathogenic on maple foliage. Fortunately, leaf diseases seldom detract from the aesthetic values of maples, and even on those rare occasions when they do, they do not threaten the overall health of affected trees.

    Most of the fungi that cause foliage diseases are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions, and higher disease incidence can be expected in years when spring and early summer weather is cool and wet for prolonged periods of time. Leaves in lower crowns and on north sides of trees are affected more often because they remain wet longer in the morning (following dew) and after rainy periods. The powdery mildews are exceptions in that they are favored by shade and dry foliage; they are most serious in mid- to late summer.

    Leaf diseases can be prevented some what by pruning or thinning to improve air circulation through crowns. In nurseries, planting trees further apart also will help speed drying of foliage after it has been wetted. Overwintering sites for many leaf disease fungi are eliminated by collecting and disposing of fallen leaves in autumn. However, because these fungi are such prolific spore producers, a few missed leaves can provide sufficient spores to start a new epidemic. Protective fungicides give good control of some maple leaf diseases, but they must be applied before infection by pathogens occurs. Timing fungicide applications to immediately precede infection periods often is difficult, but failure to do so can result in wasted chemicals, time, and money.

    1) Gray mold spot, bull's eye spot
    Cristulariella depraedens red, slv, sug, str, mtn, nwy, jpn, syc
    C. moricola
    red, slv, sug, blk, box, jpn, syc

    Diseases caused by the two species of Cristulariella are indistinguishable from one another on maple leaves. Lesions have light brown centers with darker margins and may have concentric zones of alternating light and dark tissue. In some cases, the lesions are nearly perfect circles, but in others they are irregular and may spread over entire leaves. Both fungi overwinter on remnants of leaves infected the previous year, and they begin to liberate spores in early spring. If conditions are favorable (cool and wet), infection of new leaves occurs readily, and subsequent generations of spores may be produced and cause disease throughout the summer. These diseases usually go unnoticed until early June when spots are numerous and badly infected leaves start to drop.

    2) Anthracnose
    Discula sp. red, slv, sug, box, nwy

    The pathogen spends the winter in fallen leaves and begins to produce its spores in the spring as new maple leaves are expanding. Infections occur on or near major leaf veins and cause irregularly-shaped areas of dead tissue around them. When weather is favorable, additional crops of spores are produced from minute structures on killed tissues. A high incidence of lesions may result in defoliation starting in mid- to late July.

    3) Phyllosticta spot, purple eye
    Phyllosticta minimawidespread, all species

    Symptoms of this disease are circular "eyes" with light brown centers and red dish purple to brown borders. Soon after leaf spots are visible, tiny (less than l/2 mm) black, spore-producing pustules appear in their centers. Most infections take place early in spring on tender, young leaves, but prolonged rainy periods later in the season allow continued reinfection.

    4) Tar spot

    Rhytisma americanumred, slv, sug, mtn
    R. punctatumred, slv, sug, blk, box, mtn

    These diseases, as their name suggests, cause infected leaves to appear as if splashed with tar. Actually, the shiny, black tarlike bodies are masses of fungal tissue and each is surrounded by a band of yellow leaf tissue. Tar spots of Rhytisma americanum are 3-10 mm in diameter and are distributed randomly on the leaf. Those of R. punctatum are much smaller (1-2 mm diameter) and occur in clusters at each place where the pathogen has infected a leaf. Both fungi produce spots only on the upper surfaces of leaves, and they are usually not notice able until midsummer, even though infection occurs in spring. Defoliation by tar spots is rare.

    5) Leaf blister (extremely rare)
    Taphrina dearnessii red, mtn
    T. sacchari sug

    Areas of leaves infected with either of these fungi produce many extra leaf cells and the cells are larger than normal. A result of this unusual development is that parts of infected leaves become distorted and blackened and resemble shallow blisters; hence, the name of the disease. Spores of the pathogens are liberated from diseased leaves in the summer, and they lodge among bud scales where they lie dormant until new leaves emerge the following spring. Then, infection takes place and the fungi begin another cycle.

    6) Powdery mildew
    Phyllactinia guttata sug. box
    Uncinula circinata red, slv, sug, box

    Powdery mildew fungi overwinter as dormant spores in the protective environment afforded by bud scales or in spore-producing structures on twigs and leaf debris. Although new leaves become infected as they emerge in the spring the diseases may not be evident until mid summer, when they appear as a powdery, white coating on upper and/or lower leaf surfaces. With some powdery mildews, minute black spheres, visible with a magnifying glass, may be intertwined with the powdery material. Though these spheres represent another phase in development of the fungus, their contribution to epidemic development is of minor importance.

    Liberat diseases

    Diseases in hedgehogs

    Nearly all the hedgehogs taken into human care - apart from most orphaned hoglets - are sick. Even so-called "Autumn Orphans" are hardly ever "just" underweight, but are suffering from severe infestations of internal and/or external parasites.

    Make sure you observe basic hygiene rules when dealing with hedgehogs! Wash your hands thoroughly after handling every hedgehog!

    Basically, treatment of any sick hedgehog will only be successful once it has regained its normal body temperature (approx. 36°C)

    We refer veterinary surgeons and experienced hedgehog carers to our (German) booklet "Igel in der Tierarztpraxis" (= "The hedgehog in the vet's practice") which was written for veterinary surgeons by a vet who is herself extremely experienced with hedgehogs. This German specialist publication is revised with every new edition.

    As a diagnostic and therapeutic aid we recommend the CD-ROM "Parasitosen und Mykosen des Igels" (Parasitoses and mycoses of the hedgehog). (If you are interested in the paper file of that CD in English, please contact the German regional hedgehog society "Arbeitskreis Igelschutz Berlin".)

    You can order our publications with the Online order form .

    As a general principle, hedgehogs should be housed individually. Only litter-mates should be put together at the beginning (until they reach 250-300g bodyweight). Keeping hedgehogs on their own is a basic requirement for restoring them to health and avoids the risk of cross infection, in addition, it corresponds with the biology of the solitary hedgehog. Read more about this on the page about the Housing of hedgehogs in care.

    If you find a hedgehog you should examine him carefully for injuries. To do this you must inspect the head, belly and legs. If the hedgehog is injured you should take the prickly patient to a vet at once.

    The treatment of injured hedgehogs is a matter for a vet who is familiar with them and/or an experienced hedgehog rescue centre.

    External parasites

    In the summer months, you will find fly eggs and maggots in wounds, and also in the body orifices (ears, mouth, anus etc) of uninjured but sick and weak animals. These must be removed immediately. Fly eggs are whitish and rodshaped, about 1.5 mm long and clumped together, maggots are like little white worms. Remove them very carefully with tweezers.

    Hedgehog fleas are best removed with a special spray- available from a pet shop or vet. For young/weak hedgehogs only choose a gentle product which will not adversely affect the patient. Don't use flea powder! It sticks inbetween the spines and on the feet and could get walked into food and ingested.

    Ticks should not be treated with oil, nail varnish or glue! Grip them with tweezers as close to the hedgehog's skin as possible and pull them off with a twist.

    Hedgehog patients should only be bathed when absolutely necessary, as this procedure will cause even more stress in addition to their weakness and captivity.

    Hedgehog rescue centres and vets will help with the removal of parasites.

    If a hedgehog has no external injuries, then internal parasites are the probable cause of his weakness and emaciation. Internal parasites include lung threadworm, lungworm, intestinal threadworm, intestinal fluke and also coccidia and tapeworm. A light to moderate internal parasite burden is normal in wild animals; however, a heavy infestation linked with lack of food or debilitation after rearing young, can be lethal. Lack of appetite, coughing or noisy breathing are symptoms of heavy lungworm infestation.

    Therefore, most hedgehogs taken into care are treated for internal parasites.

    Note: The active ingredient Doramectin (German trade name Dectomax), is effective for worming domestic and farm animals, but is only effective against the lungworm Crenosoma str. in hedgehogs, however, it works demonstrably slower than the active ingredient Levamisole (German trade names Levamisol 10%, Belamisol 10%, Nematovet 10%) because this has the beneficial side effect of stimulating the appetite of the majority of emaciated and weak animals, thus facilitating the hedgehogs' recovery. - (See "Igel in der Tierarztpraxis" and "Krankheiten der Heimtiere" 7th, total revised edition 2008.)

    A faecal examination will tell you what parasites the animal is suffering from. Collect the droppings over several days, soft or runny bits are best - and take them to be examined by a parasitological institute, vet or adequately equipped hedgehog rescue centre. Then the hedgehog can be prescribed the correct treatment!

    Scabby lesions on the skin or significant spine loss are signs for skin diseases. Those can have different causes. Mites or ringworm can be the reason for spine loss and skin changes. As the person finding the hedgehog cannot possibly know the cause for this, hygiene is of the highest order when handling the patient. Some skin diseases (mycoses) are zoonotic (transmissable to humans) - therefore the carer must wear spine-proof gloves at all times when handling the hedgehog. Diagnosis and treatment are matters for a vet who is used to dealing with hedgehogs. Vets who are well versed in treating hedgehogs often work in co-operation with a rescue centre.

    Bacterial infections

    Frequently, bacterial infections of the lungs and intestines are diagnosed in hedgehogs. These are usually secondary infections in animals weakened by heavy parasite infestations. To avoid the risk of cross-infection, when several hedgehogs are being cared for, scrupulous attention must be paid to hygiene. Diagnosis and treatment are matters for a vet who is knowledgeable about hedgehogs, often in conjunction with the local hedgehog rescue centre.

    Old hedgehogs often have dental calculus. When adult hedgehogs in care do not eat well or do not appear to be able to eat at all, a dental examination is necessary. Diagnosis and treatment are matters for a vet who is knowledgeable about hedgehogs, often in conjunction with the local hedgehog rescue centre.

    There are many other diseases which can befall and weaken hedgehogs. There are, for example, abscesses, poisoning, lameness, eye diseases, tumours and viral infections.

    Further signs of illness in hedgehogs: green, slimy, smelly droppings streaked with blood, diarrhoea, bleeding from mouth or bowel, loss of balance, lameness, listlessness, abscesses, cramps (not to be confused with the hedgehog suddenly flinching or rolling up!), pale mucosa or swollen legs.

    The sympathetic animal lover is in effect the link to the hedgehog rescue centre who, in turn, will recommend a competent small animal vet to help the hedgehog appropriately.

    When the prickly patient has fully recovered, he should be immediately released back into the wild - this is the aim - or, all according to the time of year, he may have to over-winter in human custody and not be released until the next Spring. Read more about this under Hibernation in human custody and under Release .

    Liberate vs Release - What - s the difference?

    Liberate vs Release - What's the difference? liberate release Etymology 1

    From (etyl ) relaisser (variant of relascher).

    Noun (en-noun">en-noun )
  • The event of setting (someone or something) free (e.g. hostages, slaves, prisoners, caged animals, hooked or stuck mechanisms).
  • *<American Scientist ) |passage=Similar studies of rats have employed four different intracranial resorbable, slow sustained release systems—surgical foam, a thermal gel depot, a microcapsule or biodegradable polymer beads.>>
  • (software) The distribution of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product; the distribution can be both public or private.
  • Anything recently released or made available (as for sale).
  • That which is released, untied or let go. Derived terms

    * prerelease * release notes * release from requirement * software release * release process

    Verb (en-verb )
  • To let go (of); to cease to hold or contain.
  • To make available to the public.
  • To free or liberate; to set free.
  • To discharge.
  • (telephone) (of a call ) To hang up.
  • (soccer) To set up; to provide with a goal-scoring opportunity
  • * <released Van Persie, only for the Dutchman's snap-shot to be tipped around the post.>> = Antonyms Etymology 2
  • Thyroid Problems, Disease - Symptoms, Causes, and Diagnosis

    Women's Health What Are Thyroid Problems?

    Through the hormones it produces, the thyroid gland influences almost all of the metabolic processes in your body. Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism .

    Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

    What Causes Thyroid Problems?

    All types of hyperthyroidism are due to an overproduction of thyroid hormones, but the condition can occur in several ways:

    • Graves' disease. The production of too much thyroid hormone.
    • Toxic adenomas. Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body's chemical balance; some goiters may contain several of these nodules.
    • Subacute thyroiditis. Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to "leak" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
    • Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland. Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.

    Hypothyroidism . by contrast, stems from an underproduction of thyroid hormones. Since your body's energy production requires certain amounts of thyroid hormones, a drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Causes of hypothyroidism include:

    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis . In this autoimmune disorder. the body attacks thyroid tissue. The tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.
    • Removal of the thyroid gland. The thyroid may have been surgically removed or chemically destroyed.
    • Exposure to excessive amounts of iodide. Cold and sinus medicines, the heart medicine amiodarone. or certain contrast dyes given before some X-rays may expose you to too much iodine.You may be at greater risk for developing hypothyroidism if you have had thyroid problems in the past.
    • Lithium . This drug has also been implicated as a cause of hypothyroidism.

    Untreated for long periods of time, hypothyroidism can bring on a myxedema coma. a rare but potentially fatal condition that requires immediate hormone treatment.

    2015 Release: Undiagnosed Diseases Network launches online application portal

    Undiagnosed Diseases Network launches online application portal UDN Gateway enables patients to apply to national network of clinical sites

    Bethesda, Md.. Wed. Sept. 16, 2015 - The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), a clinical research initiative of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has opened an online patient application portal called the UDN Gateway. Introduction of this application system sets the stage for the network to advance its core mission: to diagnose patients who suffer from conditions that even skilled physicians have been unable to diagnose despite extensive clinical investigation. These diseases are difficult for doctors to diagnose because they are rarely seen, have not previously been described or are unrecognized forms of more common diseases.

    The new system streamlines the application process. All applications for the UDN will go through the Gateway, rather than through individual clinical sites in the network. The Gateway replaces what had previously been a paper-and-mail application process for the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP), which is now part of the UDN.

    "Although undiagnosed conditions present an array of challenges for clinicians, once identified, they may lead to treatments for individual patients. They also may lead to new, generalizable medical insights," said James M. Anderson, M.D. Ph.D. director of NIH's Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives (DPCPSI), which provides financial support and joint leadership for the network via the NIH Common Fund. "The UDN Gateway will provide patients and their families access to the nation's leading diagnostic teams and sophisticated diagnostic tools."

    The UDN grew out of the success of the Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Since its 2008 launch, the UDP has reviewed more than 3,100 applications from patients around the world. More than 800 patients have been enrolled for a one-week evaluation. While approximately 25 percent of those have received some level of clinical, molecular or biochemical diagnosis, many patients remain undiagnosed.

    By adding six additional clinical sites to the original NIH UDP, the UDN will broaden its diagnostic expertise while expanding the opportunity for patients to participate. These additional clinical sites are:

    • Baylor College of Medicine, Houston
    • Duke Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, with Columbia University, New York City
    • Harvard Teaching Hospitals (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital), Boston
    • Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, California
    • University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center
    • Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

    By the summer of 2017, each new clinical site will accept about 50 patients per year. The network has also brought on board two DNA sequencing facilities. One is at the Baylor College of Medicine, and the other is at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology in Huntsville, Alabama, with Illumina in San Diego.

    The broader geographic distribution of sites in the UDN is intended to better serve patients. To support this collaboration on undiagnosed diseases, the UDN Coordinating Center at Harvard Medical School Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI) created the UDN Gateway as a centralized online application site.

    "The Gateway is an important part of the infrastructure that we are establishing for the UDN," said Rachel Ramoni, D.M.D. Ph.D. "Our goal is to match 21st century medicine with 21st century technology by creating a comprehensive and streamlined online application process." Dr. Ramoni serves as executive director and a principal investigator of the UDN Coordinating Center at DBMI.

    Those who are accepted will be seen by researchers and physicians from a wide array of medical specialties and may have their DNA sequenced to detect variations in genes that may underpin their disorders.

    "The UDN aims to improve the level of diagnosis and care for patients with undiagnosed diseases," said Anastasia Wise, Ph.D. program director, NHGRI Division of Genomic Medicine and co-coordinator for the NIH Common Fund's Undiagnosed Diseases Network. "Based upon the experience of the NIH UDP, we know that the need and potential are great. The UDN Gateway will expand our ability to connect with patients who may benefit from the UDN. We want to make it as easy as possible for patients and their families to apply to participate in the network."

    For more information about the UDN, including related funding announcements, visit http://commonfund.nih.gov/Diseases/index .

    These UDN clinical sites are supported by NIH grants 1-U01HG007672-01, 1-U01HG007674-01, 1-U01HG007709-01, 1-U01HG007690-01, 1-U01HG007708-01, and 1-U01HG007703-01.

    NHGRI is one of the 27 institutes and centers at the National Institutes of Health. The NHGRI Extramural Research Program supports grants for research and training and career development at sites nationwide. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at www.genome.gov .

    The NIH Common Fund encourages collaboration and supports a series of exceptionally high-impact, trans-NIH programs. Common Fund programs are designed to pursue major opportunities and gaps in biomedical research that no single NIH Institute could tackle alone, but that the agency as a whole can address to make the biggest impact possible on the progress of medical research. Additional information about the NIH Common Fund can be found at http://commonfund.nih.gov .

    National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 institutes and centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov .

    Last Updated: November 17, 2015

    Further Resources:

    Bane (New Earth) - DC Database

    Bane (New Earth) Contents History

    Bane is a super-intelligent world-class fighter and tactical genius who enhances his great physical strength with a steroid called Venom. making him one of Batman 's greatest and most dangerous enemies. In addition to being one of the only men ever to independently figure out Batman's secret identity, he has also been an anti-hero, a government agent, a mercenary and a dictator. He is currently a member of the Secret Six. and has also been a member of the Suicide Squad and the Secret Society of Super-Villains.


    Born to serve the life sentence of his father, Bane's childhood and early adult life were spent behind the walls of Peña Duro, an infamous prison located in Santa Prisca. His mother was imprisoned with him, and remained so until her death when Bane was only six years old; at her 'funeral', Bane was forced to bear witness to her corpse being callously thrown by prison guards from the cliffs of Punto De Tiburon into the shark-infested waters. Though imprisoned, Bane's natural abilities allowed him to develop extraordinary skills within the prison's walls. He read as many books as he could get his hands on, built up his body in the prison's gym, and learned to fight in the merciless school of prison life. Despite his circumstances, he appeared to have found teachers of various sorts during his incarceration, ranging from hardened convicts to an elderly Jesuit priest, under whose tutelage he apparently received a classical education.

    However, he committed his first murder at the age of eight, stabbing a criminal who wanted to use him to gain information about the prison.

    During his years in prison, Bane carried a teddy bear he called Osito (Spanish for "little bear"), whom he considered his only friend. Unbeknownst to most, Osito had a hole in his back to hold a knife that Bane used against anyone who bullied him.

    Bane ultimately established himself as the "king" of Peña Duro prison. The prison's controllers took note and eventually forced him to become a test subject for a mysterious drug known as Venom. which had killed all other subjects. It nearly killed him as well, but he survived and found its effects enhanced his physical strength, although he needed to take it every 12 hours (via a system of cables pumped directly into his brain) or he would suffer debilitating side-effects. [1]

    Years later, Bane escaped Peña Duro, along with several accomplices, his friends Trogg. Zombie. and Bird. His ambition turned to destroying Batman. about whom he had heard tales while serving his sentence. He was fascinated with Gotham City as, like the prison, it was a place where fear ruled: in this case, fear of Batman. Bane was convinced that the demonic bat that haunted his dreams since childhood was a representation of the Batman.

    Wanting to test himself, Bane challenged and defeated Killer Croc. who was one of Batman's most formidable opponents at that time. [2] Later, he wanted to test Batman and he used the Riddler to do so. Injecting Venom to the criminal, Bane turned Riddler into a ripped version of himself, giving Batman not only a classical mental challenge by Riddler, but also a physical challenge. [3]

    Aware that a direct assault on Batman would be foolish, Bane destroyed the walls of Arkham Asylum. allowing all of its deranged inmates (including the Joker. the Scarecrow. the Mad Hatter. the Ventriloquist. Firefly. Two-Face. and Zsasz ) to escape into Gotham City [4]. where Batman spent three months rounding them up.

    In the meantime, Bane started being noticed among the criminals of Gotham and when Mad Hatter sent a mind-controlled Film Freak to find him, Bane showed his superiority by killing Film Freak. [5] Bane noticed that Robin was following him and he captured the teen wonder. Robin was saved by the timely intervention of Killer Croc, who fought Bane for revenge from their last encounter.

    Croc damaged Bane's venom pumping machine while Bane broke Croc's arm again. [6] They were dragged by the water current to the river, where Bane left an unconscious Croc. [7] Bane was later summoned to Gotham Civic Center by Bird. Upon arriving, Bane noticed Bruce Wayne among the crowd part of a charity event and he recognized him as Batman at the first sight. Bane returned to his hideout and told Bird to keep him updated on the situation with Poison Ivy while he followed Joker and Scarecrow's activities. [8] [9]

    After his last encounter with Bane's henchmen and running himself to exhaustion, Batman returned to Wayne Manor. where Bane had knocked Alfred unconscious and was waiting for him. [10] He fought Batman in the Batcave. defeated him and as the coup de grâce, broke Batman's back and left him paraplegic, thereby having been the only man to have "Broken the Bat". [11] Afterwards, Bane took Batman to Downtown Gotham and tossed his broken body in the middle of the street. [12]


    While Bane established himself as ruler of Gotham's criminal underworld, Bruce Wayne passed the mantle of Batman to Jean-Paul Valley. also known as Azrael. As Batman, Jean-Paul grew increasingly violent, allowing the villain Abattoir to fall to his death. Jean-Paul also refused to recognize Robin as his partner. Utilizing a sophisticated combat suit in place of the traditional Batman uniform, he fought Bane and defeated him by severing the tubes that pumped the Venom into his bloodstream, causing severe withdrawal. Valley then gave the weakened Bane a vicious beating, leaving him alive but broken. [13]

    Following those events Bane recovered from his Venom addiction while serving time in prison. He eventually escaped and returned to Gotham, where he fought alongside Batman to take out a criminal ring that was distributing a Venom derivative to street-level thugs. Following a victory over the criminals, Bane proclaimed that he was "innocent" of his past crimes and urged Batman to stop hunting him. He then left Gotham (without fighting Batman) to begin a search for his father.

    Bane's search brought him back to Santa Prisca. In search of leads, Bane questioned the Jesuit priest who had taught him while he was in Peña Duro. The priest explained that there were four men who could possibly have been his father: a Santa Priscan revolutionary, an American doctor, an English mercenary, and a Swiss banker. While searching for the Swiss in Rome, Bane encountered Talia al Ghul. who introduced him to her father, the infamous terrorist Ra's al Ghul. Bane impressed the old man so much that he chose him as his heir (an "honor" he had previously imparted on Batman).

    Ra's al Ghul and Bane then launched a plague attack on Gotham. Bruce Wayne, again costumed as Batman, got his rematch with Bane and finally defeated him in single combat. Since then, whenever Batman and Bane squared off in battle, it would usually end in a draw.

    Veritas Liberat

    According to the Jesuit priest, there was a possibility that Bane's biological father was an American doctor. In researching this issue, Bane came to the conclusion that he and Batman both shared Dr. Thomas Wayne as their biological father, as the late Dr. Wayne had apparently become close to Bane's mother during his time in Santa Prisca. Bane alerted Batman to this possibility, and stayed at Wayne Manor while the DNA tests were being performed, and even fought alongside his former nemesis on the streets of Gotham. Ultimately, it was revealed that Dr. Wayne was not Bane's father, and Bane left Gotham peacefully (and with Batman's blessing and financial backing) to pursue leads in the snowy mountains of Kangchenjunga.

    Bane eventually found his father, the unscrupulous King Snake. With Batman looking on, Bane helped foil King Snake's plans to unleash a powerful weapon upon the world. Bane saved Batman from being shot by King Snake, but was himself mortally wounded in the process. Batman then saved Bane by bathing him in a Lazarus Pit. and left him with a clean slate and a new opportunity at life.

    Infinite Crisis & One Year Later

    Some years later, Bane returned to his homeland to put an end to the drug lords' government after discovering that a new, more addicting strain of Venom had been created. He destroyed every research note on Venom, but not before learning that both strains of Venom derived from chemist Rex Tyler's early research on Miraclo. and vowed to kill Tyler for his role in the creation of the drug that was destroying his homeland. To this end, he joined hundreds of other villains in the Battle of Metropolis. during which he broke the back of the hero Judomaster. killing the hero. [14]

    Bane resurfaced one year later. searching for the Hourmen (Rex and Rick Tyler ), asking them for help. To win their trust, he tells them how, prior to the Battle of Metropolis, he had returned to Santa Prisca to eliminate the drug lords. He claimed that in his rush to wipe out the drug trade, he was captured and re-implanted with the cranial tubes, which pumped him full of the new Venom. Unable to shake off his addiction without dying from the withdrawal, Bane claimed that he was forced to work as an enforcer for the drug cartel. Believing that Bane sought Rex Tyler's expertise in chemistry, Rick let him approach his father, unaware that the story was a ruse through which Bane intended to carry out his revenge against Rex Tyler. Bane learned from the Tylers that no written notes exist of Rex's work, then captured Rex and stole Rick's equipment. He planned to kill Rex and force Rick to take the last of the new Venom, so that Rick would spend the rest of his life as an addict. However, father and son eventually subdued Bane, burying the mercenary in the rubble of the very same Santa Priscan penitentiary where his story began.

    Shortly afterwards, Bane discovered that while his criminal pursuits in America had failed, he had become a hero to his countrymen. His campaign against the drug lords had destroyed the local cartels' stranglehold on the country's government, thus enabling the government to hold actual democratic elections. Bane joined in, throwing his support behind a national-isolationist party with anti-US interests. Bane's candidate was projected to win by 36% of the vote, but the results were manipulated by super-hacker Colonel Computron. under orders from Amanda Waller. then the White Queen of Checkmate. Upon discovering that the elections were rigged, an outraged Bane used his influence to enforce martial law, plunging the country into a civil war. Unaware that his client worked in the agency, Computron offered information to Checkmate on who ordered him to rig the elections in exchange for their help in escaping the country. Fire and Thomas Jagger. son of the late Judomaster, were sent to perform the extraction, with Jagger debating whether or not to seek revenge for his father's murder. The mission was sabotaged by Fire, who was being blackmailed by Waller, and as a result, Jagger was forced to fight Bane in order to allow Fire to escape. Though Jagger held back, Bane was brought to his knees.

    Having lost his hero status after imposing martial law upon his countrymen, Bane became addicted to Venom once more and joined the Suicide Squad. He appears once more to be wearing the tubing system to apply Venom- whether he has returned to the drug is unknown. He was later tricked by his fellow squad members, and sent to the prison planet during Salvation Run. [15] where he joined with Lex Luthor's faction after Joker's faction rebelled against Luthor's leadership. He later attacked Thunder and Lightning when they were attempting to feed Martian Manhunter.

    Secret Six

    More recently, Bane has joined the Secret Six. and has sought to rid himself of any temptation to use Venom again by employing tactical combat techniques instead of relying on crushing strength. He has also adopted a more peaceful demeanor. [16]

    As part of the team, Bane was joined by Catman and Ragdoll on a mission to stop criminals in Gotham City after Batman's death. Catman and Bane had a discussion about their suitable positions to take place as Gotham's vigilantes. Their hopes however, were crushed when Nightwing banished them from Gotham and they decided to move on as the Secret Six. [17]

    Since joining the team, he became very attached to Scandal Savage, though not in a romantic way. He views her as his pseudo daughter and grew to love her, even becoming furious when someone hurts her or calls her derogatory words. In some lighter moments, he chastises her for using foul language, shows concern over what foods she should eat to have proper nutrition, and even tried to send her to her room when he was angry with her.

    Though Scandal has bonded closely with him and proven she cares for him very much, (such as when she helped him through his withdrawals when he quit using Venom, or becoming angry/distressed when he is injured) he does not believe she loves him, saying "No woman will ever love me". However, this belief does not keep him from loving Scandal as a daughter, going so far as trying to conquer another world in an attempt to give her a safe place to call home where they could be family and free of enemies.

    He has also assumed a role of leadership in the Secret Six by his own executive decision, believing the team was too disorganized and needed someone to keep them in line. While the team initially protested, saying they weren't blind followers, he has become leader none the less. Though admittedly, the team does not always listen to his orders, for example, they entered a cult base to save Black Alice (their newest teammate) when Bane had directly ordered them not to until they'd gotten more information. Despite this, he's still determined to shape them into an organized and disciplined team.

    Powers and Abilities Powers
    • Venom Usage . Bane's use of the Super-steroid Venom allowed him to temporarily enhance his physical functions to superhuman levels, particularly his strength, endurance, and speed. His body's senses and healing abilities are also augmented to a degree. Bane needs to periodically inject himself with Venom to retain these abilities, although overuse can result in temporary insanity.
      • Superhuman Strength . The primary effect of Venom is that it enhances strength to low superhuman levels, depending on how much venom is injected. Bane has been shown to be stronger than Batman even without the Venom, and while injected is able to bend thick steel. When Bane injects the maximum amount of Venom that is considered healthy into himself, he becomes capable of lifting about 2 tons. He is ultimately capable of exceeding his limit to 3 tons, though not without temporarily losing control over himself.
      • Enhanced Reflexes . Under the effects of Venom, Bane can react just as fast as the fittest human can. Able to react as fast if not a margin faster than Batman. Bane has fought many opponents while applying his tactics and supporting his massive frame.
      • Enhanced Speed . Under the effects of Venom, Bane can run as fast as the fittest human can. Running on par with Olympic runners, Bane can support his weight while maintaining a high rate of speed.
      • Superhuman Stamina . Under the effects of Venom, Bane can fight almost forever. As long as he can continue to pump Venom into his veins he can continue fighting indefinitely. While on a single dose of venom Bane has fought many battles for many hours and never seemingly stopped.
      • Superhuman Durability . Under the effects of Venom, Bane can withstand powerful blows from metahumans, multiple bullets and explosions. With mere scratches and bruises Bane has withstood extreme torment at the hands of his enemies.
      • Accelerated Healing . Bane can also use his Venom as a form of medicine to heal from injuries, poisons and diseases. Depending on how devastating the injury, Bane needs to inject a certain amount of Venom into himself. When faced with extreme wounds, such as many broken bones, excessive blood loss, or terminal poisons or diseases, Bane needs to inject an unhealthy amount of venom which will cause him to temporarily go berserk in order to heal properly.
    • Genius Level Intellect . Bane is also highly intelligent; Ra's al Ghul says that Bane "has a mind equal to the greatest he has known". In prison, he teaches himself various scientific disciplines equal to the level of understanding of leading experts in those fields, making him a genius, as well as one of Batman's most intelligent foes.
    • Photographic Memory . Bane has a photographic memory, which borders on absolute total recall. This has allowed him to memorize the countless skills, disciplines, and facts that he taught himself over the years. Within one year, he is able to deduce Batman's secret identity.
    • Polymath. Despite the absence of a college, high school, or even primary education as a result of incarceration, he has completely memorized all the facts in countless encyclopedias and books during his time in Peña Duro. He is exceptionally knowledgeable in various subjects including Mathematics, various Sciences, History, Geography, Medicine, and most likely more, to a level that would have definitely given him degrees in these fields.
    • Multilingualism . Bane teaches himself ten active languages and at least four additional arcane and dead ones, those mentioned are Spanish, French, German, Russian, Mandarin, English, Farsi, Dhari, some Urdu, [18] and Latin.
    • Escapology . Bane is challenged only by Batman, Nightwing, and Mister Miracle in the arts of escaping and infiltration, and has managed to break out of Peña Duro (which is arguably the most heavily fortified prison in the world) as well as various maximum security centers, including Blackgate and Arkham Asylum.
    • Martial Arts . Bane is a highly formidable combatant who has not only mastered, but also created several forms of martial arts. Though less skilled than the likes of Batman or Lady Shiva, Bane's fighting ability combined with his peak strength and endurance make him a highly formidable opponent for any non-meta and many metahuman foes.
    • Tactical Analysis . He is also highly devious (he crafts the escape from Arkham Asylum of all of Batman's enemies), and a superb strategist and tactician, who has committed various famous war manuals (such as Sun Tzu's "The Art Of War" and Karl von Clausewitz's "On War") to memory.
    • Drug Addiction . (formerly) Dependence on Venom.
      • Venom Overdose . If Bane happens to overdose on Venom, he will temporarily go into a feral state in which his physical abilities increase tremendously, but he himself becomes little more than a mindless monster.
    Paraphernalia Equipment
    • Venom . When Bane made use of Venom, he injected it into his brain through a special tube which was connected to wrist cuffs. Activating the control key, Bane could send large amounts of Venom directly into his brain for maximum effect.

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