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Levin

Category: Antibiotics

Description

Levaquin is used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, sinuses, kidneys, bladder, or prostate. It is also used to treat bacterial infections that cause bronchitis or pneumonia, and to treat people who have been exposed to anthrax.

Active Ingredient: Levofloxacin

Levaquin (Levin) as known as: Acquire, Alefox-oz, Alevokem, Anlev, Apo-levofloxacin, Armolev, Auxxil, Bacnil, Benfloxin, Cina, Cinacol, Co levofloxacin, Corbic, Corvox, Cravit, Cravox, Difloxin, Elequine, Evabit, Evonex, Exolev, Farlev, Floracid, Floxator, Floximax, Floxlevo, Glevo, Iquix, Isofloxx, Lailixin, Laiwoxing, Lebel, Ledric, Leeflox, Lefex, Leflokin, Leflox, Lefloxin, Leflumax, Lefos, Lefoxin, Lekuicin, Leoflox, Lequin, Letab, Levin, Leviproxol, Levo, Levobac, Levobact, Levocin, Levocine, Levodak, Levoday, Levof, Levoflox, Levofloxacina, Levofloxacino, Levofloxacinum, Levogen, Levoking, Levolacin, Levomac, Levomax, Levonidin, Levonix, Levoprolin, Levoproxol, Levoquin, Levoquinol, Levoquinox, Levores, Levosina, Levotac, Levovid, Levox, Levoxa, Levoxacin, Levoxal, Levoxetina, Levoxin, Levozine, Levunid, Lexa, Lexacin, Livacin, Locin, Lovequin, Lovicin, Loxin, Loxof, Lufi, Medibiox, Mosardal, Neumoflox, Nevotek, Nislev, Nivoloc, Novacilina, Nufalev, Oftaquix, Olcin, Orlev, Ovel, Ovelquin, Potant, Priflox, Prixar, Prolecin, Proxime, Quantrum, Quinix, Quinobiot, Quinolev, Quixin, Recamicina, Reskuin, Resquin, Rinvox, Rodixina, Septibiotic, Tamiram, Tavaloxx, Tavanic, Teraquin, Tevox, Tivanik, Trevox, Truxa, Ultraquin, Uniflox, Urilev, Voflaxin, Voleflok, Volequin, Volox, Voxin, Weishaxin, Xenoxin, Yaxinbituo, Zenilev, Zidalev

Kleine-Levin Syndrome Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes

Kleine-Levin Syndrome Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Introduction

Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring periods of excessive amounts of sleep and altered behavior. More detailed information about the symptoms. causes. and treatments of Kleine-Levin Syndrome is available below.

Symptoms of Kleine-Levin Syndrome Treatments for Kleine-Levin Syndrome
  • There is no definitive treatment for Kleine-Levin syndrome. Stimulants, including amphetamines, methylphenidate, and modafinil, administered orally, can be used to treat sleepiness
  • more treatments. »
Home Diagnostic Testing

Home medical testing related to Kleine-Levin Syndrome:

Wrongly Diagnosed with Kleine-Levin Syndrome? Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Related Patient Stories Causes of Kleine-Levin Syndrome
  • The cause of Kleine-Levin Syndrome is not known. Some attribute it to autoimmunity and hereditary predisposition
  • more causes. »
Disease Topics Related To Kleine-Levin Syndrome Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Undiagnosed Conditions Misdiagnosis and Kleine-Levin Syndrome

RLS sleep disorder causing night-time leg sensations often misdiagnosed. A common but relatively unknown sleep-related disorder called Restless Leg Syndrome. read more »

Vitamin B12 deficiency under-diagnosed. The condition of Vitamin B12 deficiency is a possible misdiagnosis of various conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (see symptoms of multiple sclerosis ). See symptoms of. read more »

Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Research Doctors & Specialists Evidence Based Medicine Research for Kleine-Levin Syndrome

Other articles

Disease Information for Kleine-Levin syndrome

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Disease Information for Kleine-Levin syndrome

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Clinical Manifestations Signs & Symptoms Adolescent Anorexia Decreased appetite Appetite increased Binge eating/purging behavior pattern Excessive appetite/child Hyperphagia Polyphagia Weight gain in Children Apathy/Indifference Behavior problems Confusion on wakening/difficulty waking Confusion/Disoriented Daytime Sleepiness Delirium Drowsiness/somnolence Irritability/short tempered Lethargy/torpor Sleep attacks/extreme daytime drowsiness Destructive Behavior Inappropriate sexuality Episodic symptoms/events Hypersomnia/Increased need for sleep Weight gain Typical Clinical Presentation Presentation/Periodic somnolence/morbid hunger Disease Progression Course/3 to 5 Years Course/Chronic disorder Course/Chronic only Course/One to two years Course/Periodic Episodic Course/Relapsing Course/Self limited usually Prognosis/Full recovery usual Prognosis/Slow steady recovery Demographics & Risk Factors Past History Past history/Encephalitis Past history/Head injury Established Disease Population Patient/Bulemia/Eating disorder/Purging Population Group Child Man Population/Pediatrics population Sex & Age Groups Population/Adolescent Population/Adult ('twenties') Population/Boy patient Population/Children/all Population/Male Population/Man patient Population/Old child Diagnostic Test Results Electrodiagnosis EEG/Abnormality Associated Diseases & Rule outs Rule Outs Bulimia/Eating Disorder Hypothalamic lesion Kluver Bucy Bitemporal syndrome Narcolepsy Associated Disease & Complications Amnesia Eating disorder Hallucinations Hypothalamic dysfunction Kleine-Levin syndrome Nymphomania/hypersexuality female Obesity Obesity in Children Obesity, massive Satyriasis/hypersexuality male Sedation/torpor induced Disease Synergy - Causes Synergy/General stress Disease Mechanism & Classification Class CLASS/Pediatric disorders (ex) CLASS/Endocrine gland (category) CLASS/Hypothalamus/neurohypophysis involvement (ex) CLASS/Neurologic (category) Pathophysiology Pathophysiology/Sporadic/hereditary/process Pathophysiology/Appestat/hypothalamic center stim Pathophysiology/CNS depression Pathophysiology/Dysomnia/hypersomnias (ex) Pathophysiology/Maternal Chromosome mutation Process PROCESS/Autoimmune disorder (ex) PROCESS/Autosomal dominant hereditary disease (ex). PROCESS/Eponymic (category) PROCESS/Genetic disorder/Spontaneous mutations/sporadic PROCESS/Hereditofamilial (category) PROCESS/INCIDENCE/Esoteric disease (example) PROCESS/Metabolic/storage disorder (category) PROCESS/Reference organ/system (category) PROCESS/Vegetative-Autonomic/Endocrine (category) Synonyms Synonym Hypersomnia bulimia syndrome, Hypersomnia Periodic, Kleine Levin, Kleine Levin Critchley Syndrome, KLEINE LEVIN HIBERNATION SYNDROME, Kleine Levin Syndrome, Kleine Levin syndrome (disorder), Periodic Hypersomnia, Periodic Hypersomnias, syndrome hypersomnia bulimia, Syndrome Kleine Levin, Syndrome Kleine Levin Critchley, Synonym/Familial hibernation syndrome, Synonym/Hypersomnia bulimia syndrome, Synonym/Hypothalamic Hypersomnolence Syndrome, Synonym/Kleine-Levin Hibernating disorder, Synonym/Periodic somnolence, morbid hunger syndrome Treatment Drug Therapy - Indication RX/Flumazenil (Mazicon) Other Treatments TX/Expectant/supportive treatment. TX/Treatment often ineffective Definition

A condition characterized by recurrent hypersomnia and hyperphagia and marked by such symptoms as mental confusion, excessive sleep requirements, restlessness, and hallucinations; Kleine Levin Syndrome; Familial Hibernation Syndrome ; Kleine-Levin Hibernation; Syndrome; Periodic Somnolence and Morbid Hunger; Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the need for excessive amounts of sleep (hypersomnolence), (i.e. up to 20 hours a day); excessive food intake (compulsive hyperphagia); and an abnormally uninhibited sexual drive. The disorder primarily affects adolescent males. When awake, affected individuals may exhibit irritability, lack of energy (lethargy), and/or lack of emotions (apathy); They may also appear confused (disoriented) and experience hallucinations; Symptoms of Kleine-Levin Syndrome are cyclical; An affected individual may go for weeks or months without experiencing symptoms; When present, symptoms may persist for days to weeks; In some cases, the symptoms associated with Kleine-Levin syndrome eventually disappear with advancing age; However, episodes may recur later during life;

The exact cause of Kleine-Levin syndrome is not known. However, researchers believe that in some cases, the disorder may be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait; It is thought that symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome may be related to malfunction of the portion of the brain that helps to regulate functions such as sleep, appetite, and body temperature (hypothalamus); (NORD rare disease org 2005) ---------------------------------------------

Hypersomnia periodica, hibernation syndrome, hypersomnia-bulmia syndrome, hypersomnia-megaphagia syndrome, periodic hypersomnia-megaphagia syndrome, periodic somnolence, periodic somnolence and morbid hunger syndrome.

A strange condition of unknown aetiology which almost exclusively affects young males aged 15-25 years. Characterized by periods lasting from days to weeks of attacks of somnolence accompanied by excessive food intake, and various mental symptoms. Common mental symptoms are confusion, irritability, restlessness, euphoria, hallucinations, delusions, and schizophreniform states. Attacks may occur every 3 to 6 months and last from 2 to 3 days. Between attacks the patients recover completely and the sleep periods usually disappear in adult age. This syndrome may easily be confused for other neurological, metabolical or psychiatric disease

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Kleine-Levin Syndrome

Mental Health Center

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Kleine-Levin Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms Disorder Subdivisions General Discussion

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the need for excessive amounts of sleep (hypersomnolence), (i.e. up to 20 hours a day); excessive food intake (compulsive hyperphagia); and behavioral changes such as an abnormally uninhibited sexual drive. The disorder primarily affects adolescent males. When awake, affected individuals may exhibit irritability, lack of energy (lethargy), and/or lack of emotions (apathy). They may also appear confused (disoriented) and experience hallucinations. Symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome are cyclical. An affected individual may go for weeks or months without experiencing symptoms. When present, symptoms may persist for days to weeks. In some cases, the symptoms associated with Kleine-Levin syndrome eventually disappear with advancing age. However, episodes may recur later during life.

The exact cause of Kleine-Levin syndrome is not known. However, researchers believe that in some cases, hereditary factors may cause some individuals to have a genetic predisposition to developing the disorder. It is thought that symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome may be related to malfunction of the portion of the brain that helps to regulate functions such as sleep. appetite, and body temperature (hypothalamus). Some researchers speculate that Kleine-Levin syndrome may be an autoimmune disorder .

Resources

National Sleep Foundation
1010 N. Glebe Road
Suite 310
Arlington, VA 22201
Tel: (703)243-1697
Email: nsf@sleepfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.sleepfoundation.org

American Sleep Association
1610 14th Street NW
Suite 300
Rochester, MN 55901
Tel: (507)287-6006
Fax: (507)287-6008
Email: asda@millcomm.com
Internet: http://www.sleepassociation.org/

National Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse
1211 Chestnut Street
Suite 1207
Philadelphia, PA 19107-6312
USA
Tel: (215)751-1810
Fax: (215)636-6312
Tel: (800)553-4539
Email: info@mhselfhelp.org
Internet: http://www.mhselfhelp.org

Mental Health America
2000 N. Beauregard Street, 6th Floor
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
USA
Tel: (703)684-7722
Fax: (703)684-5968
Tel: (800)969-6642
TDD: (800)433-5959
Email: infoctr@mentalhealthamerica.net
Internet: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/

NIH/National Institute of Mental Health
Health Science Writing, Press and Dissemination Branch
6001 Executive Boulevard
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
Tel: (301)443-4513
Fax: (301)443-4279
Tel: (866)615-6464
TDD: (301)443-8431
Email: nimhinfo@nih.gov
Internet: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

Kleine-Levin Syndrome Foundation
PO Box 5382
San Jose, CA 95150-5382
Tel: (408)265-1099
Fax: (408)269-2131
Email: facts@klsfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.klsfoundation.org

For a Complete Report:

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

Last Updated: 4/6/2007
Copyright 1996, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

WebMD Medical Reference from the National Organization for Rare Disorders

Last Updated: May 28, 2015

This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

Copyright 2011 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Kleine-Levin Syndrome

Topic Contents Kleine-Levin Syndrome

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Kleine-Levin Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms
  • Kleine-Levin Hibernation Syndrome
  • Familial Hibernation Syndrome
  • Periodic Somnolence and Morbid Hunger
Disorder Subdivisions General Discussion

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the need for excessive amounts of sleep (hypersomnolence), (i.e. up to 20 hours a day); excessive food intake (compulsive hyperphagia); and behavioral changes such as an abnormally uninhibited sexual drive. The disorder primarily affects adolescent males. When awake, affected individuals may exhibit irritability, lack of energy (lethargy), and/or lack of emotions (apathy). They may also appear confused (disoriented) and experience hallucinations. Symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome are cyclical. An affected individual may go for weeks or months without experiencing symptoms. When present, symptoms may persist for days to weeks. In some cases, the symptoms associated with Kleine-Levin syndrome eventually disappear with advancing age. However, episodes may recur later during life.

The exact cause of Kleine-Levin syndrome is not known. However, researchers believe that in some cases, hereditary factors may cause some individuals to have a genetic predisposition to developing the disorder. It is thought that symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome may be related to malfunction of the portion of the brain that helps to regulate functions such as sleep, appetite, and body temperature (hypothalamus). Some researchers speculate that Kleine-Levin syndrome may be an autoimmune disorder.

Resources

National Sleep Foundation
1010 N. Glebe Road
Suite 310
Arlington, VA 22201
Tel: (703)243-1697
Email: nsf@sleepfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.sleepfoundation.org

American Sleep Association
1610 14th Street NW
Suite 300
Rochester, MN 55901
Tel: (507)287-6006
Fax: (507)287-6008
Email: asda@millcomm.com
Internet: http://www.sleepassociation.org/

National Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse
1211 Chestnut Street
Suite 1207
Philadelphia, PA 19107-6312
USA
Tel: (215)751-1810
Fax: (215)636-6312
Tel: (800)553-4539
Email: info@mhselfhelp.org
Internet: http://www.mhselfhelp.org

Mental Health America
2000 N. Beauregard Street, 6th Floor
Alexandria, VA 22314-2971
USA
Tel: (703)684-7722
Fax: (703)684-5968
Tel: (800)969-6642
TDD: (800)433-5959
Email: infoctr@mentalhealthamerica.net
Internet: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/

NIH/National Institute of Mental Health
Health Science Writing, Press and Dissemination Branch
6001 Executive Boulevard
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
Tel: (301)443-4513
Fax: (301)443-4279
Tel: (866)615-6464
TDD: (301)443-8431
Email: nimhinfo@nih.gov
Internet: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

Kleine-Levin Syndrome Foundation
PO Box 5382
San Jose, CA 95150-5382
Tel: (408)265-1099
Fax: (408)269-2131
Email: facts@klsfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.klsfoundation.org

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

Last Updated: 4/6/2007
Copyright 1996, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Levin diseases

Stephen M. Levin (deceased) M.D. About Dr. Levin

For more than four decades, Stephen M. Levin, M.D. focused on occupational health and the hazards it can bring, leaving a legacy as a hero to the working class.

Long renowned for his studies of the American workplace, Levin developed a particular interest in asbestos-related diseases such as mesothelioma, the rare cancer which can affect the linings of the lungs, heart or abdomen. He was a researcher and a staunch advocate for those affected by occupational disease.

Fast Fact: Dr. Levin was one of more than 100 writers who wrote an appeal to Quebec's government requesting the end of their asbestos export industry.

In 2009, Levin, a professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, took the lead in the institution's study of disease pathology in Libby, Montana. In the town of Libby, residents and workers were exposed for many years to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite ore, leading to alarming rates of lung-related diseases in the area.

Levin's research in Libby helped determine the level of environmental cleanup that is necessary to protect the future of residents.

Through the years, Levin has studied other on-the-job hazards like occupational asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, musculoskeletal disorders and various repetitive strain injuries. The American Journal of Industrial Medicine published many of his studies and papers.

At Mount Sinai, he left his work with mesothelioma to peers like Raja Michael Flores. M.D.

Talk to a Doctor About Your Diagnosis

Get help connecting with the nation's top mesothelioma doctors and cancer centers.

Lasting Legacy

Levin was lauded for his early studies of construction workers in the New York City area and the occupational diseases and hazards they have faced.

Much of his work was supported by grants from the http://www.asbestos.com/asbestos/regulatory-organizations.php (NIOSH). He spoke extensively at disease-related conferences on the plight of those affected by asbestos poisoning, treating patients and campaigning for their rights to be protected.

Levin also was the principle investigator in a study of residents, workers and volunteers affected by the toxins released into the air in the moments, days, weeks and months after the attacks on the World Trade Center. He was head of the WTC Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program and lectured extensively on the subject.

Levin, who also was on staff at St. John's Riverside Hospital in Yonkers, New York, earned his medical degree from New York University School of Medicine, then completed residencies at Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Bellevue Hospital Center.

He was co-director of the Mount Sinai-Irving J. Selikoff Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, a facility which serves as a referral center for workers exposed to hazards on the job.

Publications

Among his 28 publications, Levin has written about respiratory and pulmonary disease in World Trade Center recovery workers, the environmental exposure that occurred at Libby, Montana, and other post-disaster exposure hazards.

Jarcho-Levin Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

  • costovertebral segmentation anomalies
  • spondylocostal dysostosis
  • spondylocostal dysplasia
  • spondylothoracic dysostosis
  • spondylothoracic dysplasia
Subdivisions of Jarcho-Levin Syndrome General Discussion

Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by distinctive malformations of bones of the spinal column (vertebrae) and the ribs, respiratory insufficiency, and/or other abnormalities. Infants born with Jarcho-Levin syndrome have short necks, limited neck motion due to abnormalities of the cervical vertebrae and short stature.

In most cases, infants with Jarcho-Levin syndrome experience respiratory insufficiency and are prone to repeated respiratory infections (pneumonia) that result in life-threatening complications. The vertebrae are fused and the ribs fail to develop properly, therefore, the chest cavity is too small to accommodate the growing lungs.

There are apparently two forms of Jarcho-Levin Syndrome that are inherited as autosomal recessive genetic traits and termed spondylocostal dysostosis type 1 (SCDO1) and spondylocostal dyostosis type 2 (SCDO2).

Signs & Symptoms

Jarcho-Levin Syndrome is characterized by multiple skeletal deformities caused by fused and/or malformed vertebrae, small, malformed or missing ribs, and a chest cavity that is to small for the infant’s lungs especially as the lungs grow. There is incomplete development (dysplasia) of one side of certain vertebrae (hemivertebrae), fusion of certain ribs, and/or other rib malformations. Consequently the infant is subject to repeated and severe infections of the lungs (pneumonia).

As a result of these developmental problems, the neck, trunk and torso appear to be short so that patients are considered to be of “short stature” or dwarfs. The fingers are usually webbed (syndactyly), elongated and permanently bent (camptodactyly).

In addition, symptoms may include a broad forehead, a wide nasal bridge, nostrils that are tipped forward (anteverted nares), upwardly slanted eyelids, and an enlarged posterior skull. Occasionally distention of the stomach and pelvis may occur due to an obstruction of the bladder. Undescended testicles, absent external genitalia, a double uterus, closed or absent anal and bladder openings, a single umbilical artery, and defects of the brain may also be present.

SCDO2 is milder than SCDO1 in that not all vertebrae are affected.

Causes

There are two forms of Jarcho-Levin syndrome that are transmitted as autosomal recessive genetic traits. SCDO1 is caused by an abnormality in the DLL3 gene located on chromosome 19 at 19q13. SCDO2 is caused by an abnormality in the MESP2 gene located on chromosome 15 at 15q26.1.

Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22 and the sex chromosomes are designated X and Y. Males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. Each chromosome has a short arm designated “p” and a long arm designated “q”. Chromosomes are further sub-divided into many bands that are numbered. For example, “chromosome 19q13” refers to band 13 on the long arm of chromosome 19. The numbered bands specify the location of the thousands of genes that are present on each chromosome.

Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait that are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother.

Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.

All individuals carry 4-5 abnormal genes. Parents who are close relatives (consanguineous) have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.

Affected Populations

Jarcho-Levin Syndrome is a very rare disorder that affects males and females in equal numbers. There seems to be a higher incidence of this disorder in people with Spanish heritage.

Jones KL. Ed. Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. 5th ed. W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; 1997:598.

Whittock NV, Sparrow DB, Wouters MA, et al. Mutated MESP2 causes spondylocostal dysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:1249-54.

Teli M, Hosalkar H, Gill I, et al. Spondylocostal dysostosis: thirteen new cases treated by conservative and surgical means. Spine. 2004;29:1447-51.

Cornier AS, Ramirez N, Arroyo S, et al. Phenotype characterizations and natural history of spondylothoracic dysplasia syndrome: a series of 27 new cases. Am J Med Genet. 2004;128A:120-26.

Kauffmann E, Roman H, Barau G, et al. Case Report: a prenatal case of Jarcho-Levin syndrome diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 2003;23:163-65.

Tubbs RS, Wellons JC3rd, Blount JP, et al. Jarcho-Levin syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002;36:279.

FROM THE INTERNET

McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Spondylocostal Dysostosis, Autosomal Recessive 1, SCDO1. Entry Number; 277300: Last Edit Date; 8/26/2004.

McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Spondylocostal Dysostosis, Autosomal Recessive 2, SCDO2. Entry Number; 608681: Last Edit Date; 6/4/2004.

McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Costovertebral Segmentation Anomalies. Entry Number; 122600: Last Edit Date; 3/17/2004.

Letts RM, Jawadi AH, Congenital Spinal Deformity. emedicine. Last Updated: September 16, 2004. 32pp.

Jarcho-Levin Syndrome. Orphanet. January 2004. 1pp.

The Titanium Rib Project. nd. multiple.

Years Published

1989, 1992, 1997, 2005

The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.

The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
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NORD's Rare Disease Database provides brief introductions for patients and their families to more than 1,200 rare diseases. This is not a comprehensive database since there are nearly 7,000 diseases considered rare in the U.S. We add new topics as we are able to do so, with the help of rare disease medical experts.

If you are seeking information about a rare disease that is not in this database, we would suggest contacting the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) at the National Institutes of Health. NIH has the most complete database of rare diseases in the U.S.

Representatives of patient organizations whose medical advisors are interested in assisting NORD in creating a report on a disease not currently covered in this database may write to orphan@rarediseases.org .

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Kleine-Levin Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

Synonyms of Kleine-Levin Syndrome
  • Familial Hibernation Syndrome
  • Kleine-Levin Hibernation Syndrome
  • Periodic Somnolence and Morbid Hunger
General Discussion

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the need for excessive amounts of sleep (hypersomnolence), (i.e. up to 20 hours a day); excessive food intake (compulsive hyperphagia); and behavioral changes such as an abnormally uninhibited sexual drive. The disorder primarily affects adolescent males. When awake, affected individuals may exhibit irritability, lack of energy (lethargy), and/or lack of emotions (apathy). They may also appear confused (disoriented) and experience hallucinations. Symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome are cyclical. An affected individual may go for weeks or months without experiencing symptoms. When present, symptoms may persist for days to weeks. In some cases, the symptoms associated with Kleine-Levin syndrome eventually disappear with advancing age. However, episodes may recur later during life.

The exact cause of Kleine-Levin syndrome is not known. However, researchers believe that in some cases, hereditary factors may cause some individuals to have a genetic predisposition to developing the disorder. It is thought that symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome may be related to malfunction of the portion of the brain that helps to regulate functions such as sleep, appetite, and body temperature (hypothalamus). Some researchers speculate that Kleine-Levin syndrome may be an autoimmune disorder.

Signs & Symptoms

Kleine-Levin syndrome is an extremely rare disorder characterized by the need for excessive amounts of sleep (hypersomnolence), excessive eating (compulsive hyperphagia), and behavioral abnormalities.

Onset of symptoms associated with this disorder is extremely rapid. Such symptoms may persist for days to weeks. Affected individuals may have approximately two to 12 episodes per year. In most cases, no symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome are exhibited between episodes. Episodes become less frequent with age and may eventually disappear (spontaneous remission). However, episodes have been reported to occur in individuals well into the fourth and fifth decades of life.

Individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome may sleep for 18 to 20 hours per day and wake only to eat, urinate, and defecate. Although affected individuals can be awakened, they may be irritable or listless (lethargic) and/or lack emotion (apathy). They may also appear confused (disoriented), or have difficulties speaking such as slurred speech. In some cases, affected individuals may experience hallucinations or sense of distorted reality in which they feel detached from their surroundings or have disconnected thinking.

In addition, individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome may have an uncontrollable urge to eat excessively (compulsive hyperphagia). Affected individuals generally do not complain of being excessively hungry but will typically consume available food, regardless of the food’s condition, quality, or appeal to their preferences. Most individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome may experience weight gain associated with episodes of compulsive hyperphagia.

In some cases, individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome also exhibit an abnormal sexual drive. They may be sexually uninhibited or have an abnormally increased sex drive (hypersexuality). In addition, in some cases, episodes of Kleine-Levin syndrome may be characterized by other behavioral abnormalities such as memory problems, inattentiveness, absentmindedness, and/or difficulties with concentration. Some affected individuals may show signs of depression, aggression, and/or anxiety. (For more information on Depression, see the Related Disorders section of this report.)

Causes

The exact cause of Kleine-Levin syndrome is unknown. It is speculated that symptoms may develop due to malfunction or damage to the portion of the brain that helps to regulate functions such as sleep, appetite, and body temperature (hypothalamus). As with most diseases with no known cause, some researchers have speculated that, in some cases, symptoms may develop as a result of a head injury or an infectious disease affecting the hypothalamus; however, this is unproven.

In some cases, the development of Kleine-Levin syndrome follows a flu-like illness indicating an infection leading some researchers to speculate that an underlying autoimmune process may play a role in the development of the disorder. Autoimmune disorders are caused when the body’s natural defenses against “foreign” or invading organisms (e.g. antibodies) begin to attack healthy tissue for unknown reasons. A Stanford University study in 2005 determined that 72 percent of the cases studied were preceded by symptoms of infection.

In extremely rare cases, more than one family member has been affected (familial Kleine-Levin syndrome). These rare cases and the possible role of infection in the development of Kleine-Levin syndrome suggest that genetic factors may cause some individuals to have a predisposition to developing the disorder.

Affected Populations

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder that primarily affects adolescent males, usually around the age of 16 years. However, there have been cases involving females and older men. Males appear to be affected three times as often as females (M3:F1). On average, women had a longer disease course than men.

More than 500 cases have been reported in the medical literature. However, because cases of Kleine-Levin syndrome often go unrecognized, the disorder is under-diagnosed, making it difficult to determine its true frequency in the general population.

Symptoms associated with the disorder usually become apparent during adolescence. Individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome may have episodes that last for a few days or up to several weeks. Episodes occur approximately two to 12 times per year. Most affected individuals exhibit no symptoms of Kleine-Levin syndrome between episodes. In some cases, symptoms subside with advancing age (spontaneous remission), most often by early adult life. However, in other cases, the disorder persists throughout adulthood.

Related Disorders

Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Kleine-Levin syndrome. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal sleepiness during the day, sudden extreme muscle weakness (cataplexy), hallucinations, paralysis while sleeping, and disrupted sleep during the night. Excessive daytime sleepiness is usually the first symptom of narcolepsy. People with narcolepsy may also experience lack of energy (lethargy), an irresistible urge to sleep (“sleep attack”), and/or an inability to resist sleep. The symptoms of narcolepsy generally begin between the ages of 10 to 20 years. The exact cause of narcolepsy is not known. (For more information on this disorder, choose “Narcolepsy” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Numerous disorders in addition to narcolepsy are involved with disturbed sleeping patterns. A partial list of these disorders includes cataplexy, sleep apnea, delayed sleep phase syndrome, excessive daytime sleepiness, and African sleeping sickness. A recently described disorder known as idiopathic hypersomnia is characterized by excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) that occurs for unknown reasons (idiopathic).

The following disorder may be associated with Kleine-Levin syndrome as secondary a characteristic. It is not necessary for a differential diagnosis:

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of profound sadness, unhappiness, and discouragement. Affected individuals may be irritable, have difficulty concentrating, and/or experience confusion and/or hallucinations. Some affected individuals may also experience extremes in eating behaviors: they may refuse to eat or may eat enormous amounts of food. In addition, affected individuals may sleep excessively or may be unable to sleep (insomnia). Some researchers believe that depression may be caused by a variety of factors, including diet, family history, and the interaction of many genes (polygenic inheritance), possibly in combination with environmental factors (multifactorial inheritance). (For more information on this disorder, choose “Depression” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Standard Therapies

Kleine-Levin syndrome may be suspected based upon a thorough clinical evaluation and a detailed patient history. Kleine-Levin syndrome may be confirmed based upon excessive sleep requirements (hypersomnolence); the desire to eat all available food (compulsive hyperphagia); and hypersexuality. Certain medical tests may be performed to rule out other conditions such as epilepsy, brain lesions, meningitis or encephalitis.

The treatment of Kleine-Levin syndrome is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists. Pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, and other health care professionals may need to systematically and comprehensively plan an affected adolescent's treatment.

Specific therapies for the treatment of Kleine-Levin syndrome are symptomatic and supportive. In some cases, stimulants may provide temporary relief from the need for excessive amounts of sleep. Amphetamines were most successful in reducing sleepiness in affected individuals, but had no effect on other associated symptoms (e.g. behavioral changes).

Investigational Therapies

In some cases, individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome have appeared to respond to treatment with phenytoin, an anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. In another case reported in the medical literature, an affected individual was treated with the combination of an antidepressant and the drug carbamazepine. More research is needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of these drugs for the treatment of Kleine-Levin syndrome.

Lithium, a drug used to treat serious mood disorders (affective) disorders, has been effective in some cases. One report detailed five adolescents with Kleine-Levin syndrome who received treatment with lithium. Episodes of excessive sleep were shortened by treatment with lithium and no behavioral symptoms were present. All five adolescents had relapses while on lithium treatment. More research is necessary to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of lithium as a treatment option for individuals with Kleine-Levin syndrome.

Researchers at the Stanford University Center for Narcolepsy will be conducting a study on Kleine-Levin syndrome. The study is designed to measure the HLA group and possible other genetic factors predisposing to KLS in all (200 cases are planned) volunteers KLS patients, their parents (50 pairs of parents are planed), and compare it to the HLA group in age, sex and ethnic-matched controls (200 cases are planed). The study includes questionnaire and blood sampling. For more information on this study, contact:

Dr. Isabelle Arnulf

Stanford Center for Narcolepsy

701B Welch Road

Palo Alto CA 94304

Phone: (650) 724-8839

Fax (650) 725-4913

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.

For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:

Tollfree: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:

References

Glaze DG. Kleine-Levin Syndrome. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:544.

Adams, RD, et al, eds. Principles of Neurology. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Companies; 1997:569.

Kaplan HI & Sadock BJ, eds. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 5th Ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1989:1117.

Arnulf I, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome: a systemic review of 186 cases in the literature. Brain. 2005;128:2763-76.

Poppe M, et al. The Kleine-Levin syndrome – effects of treatment with lithium. Neuropediatrics. 2003;34:113-9.

Dauvilliers Y, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome: an autoimmune hypothesis based on clinical and genetic analyses. Neurology. 2002;59:1739-45.

Katz JD, Ropper AH. Familial Kleine-Levin syndrome: two siblings with unusually long hypersomnic spells. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:1959-61.

Muratori F, et al. Efficacy of lithium treatment in Kleine-Levin syndrome. Eur Psychiatry. 2002;17:232-33.

Billiard M, Dauvilliers Y. Idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2001;5:349-358.

Minvielle S, et al. Klein-Levin syndrome: a neurological disease with psychiatric symptoms. Encephale. 2000;26:71-74.

Papacostas SS, et al. The Kleine-Levin syndrome. Report of a case and review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry. 2000;15:231-35.

Kesler A, et al. Kleine Levin syndrome (KLS) in young females. Sleep. 2000;15:563-37.

Fontenelle L, et al. Neuropsychological sequelae in Kleine-Levin syndrome: case report. Arq Neurosiquiatr. 2000;58:531-34.

Masi G, et al. The Kleine-Levin syndrome as a neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report. Psychiatry. 2000;63:93-100.

Pike M, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome: a case of diagnostic confusion. Arch Disease Child. 1994;71:355-57.

Wurthmann C, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1991;59:190-94.

Chiu HF, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome 15 years later. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1989;23:425-27.

Visscher F, et al. The Kleine-Levin syndrome. Tijdschr Kindergeneeskd. 1989;57:218-21.

Fukunishi I, et al. A female case with the Kleine-Levin syndrome and its physiopathologic aspects. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1989;43:45-49.

Smolik P, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome ethiopathogenesis and treatment. Acta Univ Carol. 1988;128:5-94.

Will RG, et al. Kleine-Levin syndrome: report of two cases with onset of symptoms precipitated by head trauma. Br J Psychiatry. 1988;152:410-12.

FROM THE INTERNET

McKusick VA, ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Baltimore. MD: The Johns Hopkins University; Entry No:148840; Last Update:11/5/94.

Years Published

1996, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007

The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.

The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Ave. Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100

Report Index

NORD's Rare Disease Database provides brief introductions for patients and their families to more than 1,200 rare diseases. This is not a comprehensive database since there are nearly 7,000 diseases considered rare in the U.S. We add new topics as we are able to do so, with the help of rare disease medical experts.

If you are seeking information about a rare disease that is not in this database, we would suggest contacting the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) at the National Institutes of Health. NIH has the most complete database of rare diseases in the U.S.

Representatives of patient organizations whose medical advisors are interested in assisting NORD in creating a report on a disease not currently covered in this database may write to orphan@rarediseases.org .

Log in Alone we are rare. Together we are strong. ®

Follow NORD

Sign up for NORD News Featured Partnerships

Copyright ©2015 NORD - National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. All rights reserved.

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