Propecia is the only drug for the treatment of the male alopecia, and it gives result in more than 90% of cases. Millions of men all over the world have already estimated the efficiency and safety of this drug restoring the growth of the hair within one year.
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Propecia is the only drug for the treatment of the male alopecia, and it gives result in more than 90% of cases. Millions of men all over the world have already estimated the efficiency and safety of this drug restoring the growth of the hair within one year.
Active Ingredient: Finasteride
Propecia (Nasteril) as known as: Alopec, Alopros, Alsteride, Ambulase, Andofin, Androfin, Andropel, Andropyl, Androstatin, Antiprost, Apeplus, Aprost, Ativol, Avertex, Borealis, Chibro-proscar, Daric, Dilaprost, Eucoprost, Finacapil, Finahair, Finalop, Finamed, Finanorm, Finapil, Finar, Finarid, Finascar, Finaspros, Finaster, Finasterax, Finasterida, Finastéride, Finasteridum, Finasterin, Finastid, Finastir, Finazil, Fincar 5, Finocar, Finol, Finpro, Finpros, Finprostat, Finster, Fintex, Fintral, Fintrid, Finural, Firide, Fisterid, Fisteride, Fistrin, Flaxin, Flutiamik, Folcres, Folister, Fynasid, Gefina, Genaprost, Glopisine, Hyplafin, Kinscar, Lifin, Lopecia, Mostrafin, Nasteril, Nasterol, Penester, Poruxin, Pro-cure, Prohair, Proleak, Pronor, Propeshia, Prosmin, Prostacide, Prostacom, Prostafin, Prostanil, Prostanorm, Prostanovag, Prostarinol, Prostasax, Prostene, Prosterid, Prosterit, Prostide, Q-prost, Recur, Reduprost, Reduscar, Renacidin, Reprostom, Sterakfin, Sutrico, Symasteride, Tealep, Tensen, Tricofarma, Ulgafen, Urototal, Vetiprost, Winfinas, Zasterid, Zerlon
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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient finasteride:Pharmacological action
Finasteride is an inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase - an enzyme that converts testosterone into a more active dihydrotestosterone. Decreases the amount of dihydrotestosterone in the blood and prostate tissue. Inhibits the stimulatory effect of dihydrotestosterone on the development of prostate adenoma.
Finasteride reduces the size of enlarged prostate, improves urine flow and reduce symptoms associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy. May be required several months of treatment to reduce the clinical presentations of the disease.
Well absorbed and penetrates into the tissue and body fluids, found in semen. Bioavailability is 80% and it is independent of ingestion. Cmax achieved within 1-2 hours. Plasma protein binding is 90%. Finasteride withdraws in the form of metabolites by the kidneys (39%) and through the intestine (57%). T1/2 is 6-8 hours. Long-term (3-7 months) using of this medication in a dose of 5 mg / day reduces the concentration of 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the serum on 70%.Why is Nasteril prescribed?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (due to reduce the size of the prostate gland; to improve urine flow and reduce symptoms associated with hyperplasia; to reduce the risk of acute urinary retention requiring catheterization or surgical intervention, including transurethral resection of the prostate and prostatectomy).
Finasteride as some brand and generic names medicines is also used to treat male pattern hair loss (a common condition in which men have gradual thinning of the hair on the scalp, leading to a receding hairline or balding on the top of the head.) This medication has not been shown to treat thinning hair at the temples and is not used to treat hair loss in women or children.
The daily dose is 5 mg, the multiplicity of reception - 1 time / day. The treatment is long-term.Nasteril side effects
From the reproductive system: rarely - impotence, decreased libido, a decrease in ejaculate volume, gynecomastia.
Allergic reactions: possible skin rash, angioedema.
Increased sensitivity to finasteride, obstructive uropathy, prostate cancer. Finasteride is not used for women and children.Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Women of childbearing age and pregnant women should avoid contact with this drug, because it has a teratogenic effect (the ability to inhibit the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone can cause developmental disorder of sex organs in male fetus), penetrates into the seminal fluid.Special instructions
With carefully administered finasteride with liver failure.
With a large volume of residual urine and / or a sharp decrease in current of urine should bear in mind the development of obstructive uropathy.
Before starting treatment with finasteride and periodically during treatment should be performed a rectal examination, and other methods' researches for the presence of prostate cancer.
There is not detected clinically significant interaction finasteride with propranolol, digoxin, glyburide, warfarin, theophylline and antipyrine.
Apparently finasteride did not significantly affect the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and accordingly does not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs metabolized by liver enzymes.
There are not a clinically significant drug interactions with the simultaneous application of finasteride with ACE inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, diuretics, histamine H2-blockers receptor inhibitors of HMG-KoA-reductase, NSAIDs, quinolones and benzodiazepines.
PLEASE, BE CAREFUL!
Be sure to consult your doctor before taking any medication!
Propecia is used for treating certain types of male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia) in men. Propecia is a steroid reductase inhibitor. It works by reducing the amount of the hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body. This may block certain types of hair loss in men.
Use Propecia as directed by your doctor.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Propecia.
Store Propecia at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Propecia out of the reach of children and away from pets.
Active Ingredient: Finasteride.
Inactive Ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose LF, titanium dioxide, magnesium stearate, talc, docusate sodium, yellow ferric oxide, and red ferric oxide.
Propecia can affect a blood test called PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) for the screening of prostate cancer. If you have a PSA test done, you should tell your doctor(s) that you are taking Propecia. Because Propecia decreases PSA levels, changes in PSA levels will need to be carefully evaluated by your doctor(s). Any increase in follow-up PSA levels from their lowest point should be carefully evaluated even if the test results are still within the normal range for men not taking Propecia. You should also tell your doctor if you have not been taking Propecia as prescribed because this may affect the PSA test results. For more information, talk to your doctor.
Do NOT use Propecia if:
Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.
Some medical conditions may interact with Propecia. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:
Some medicines may interact with Propecia. However, no specific interactions with Propecia are known at this time. Ask your health care provider if Propecia may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.
Important safety information:
All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.
No common side effects have been reported with Propecia.
Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:
Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); breast enlargement, lumps, pain, or tenderness; nipple discharge; testicular pain.
This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.
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Small, motile, short rods, with two to six peritrichous flagella or a polar or subpolar flag- ellum, ordinarily Gram-negative, not producing visible gas or detectable acid in ordinary culture media; growth on carbohydrate media usually accompanied by copious entracel- lular, polysaccharide slime; gelatin liquefied slowly or not at all; optimum temperatures 25° to 30°C. Found in soil, or plant roots in soil, or in hypertrophies or galls on roots or stems of plants.
Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy Root of apple, also recorded on coton- easter, hollyhock, honey locust, honeysuckle, mulberry, peavine, peach, quince, Russian olive, rose, and spirea. "Woolly root" and "woolly knot" are other names given to this disease, which was long considered merely a form of crown gall. Both diseases may appear on the same plant and in early stages be confused. In hairy root a great number of small roots protrude either directly from stems or roots or from localized hard swellings that frequently occur at the graft union. The disease is common on grafted nursery apple trees 1, 2, or 3 years old, and the root development may be as profuse as witches' brooms. Control measures are the same as for crown gall.
Agrobacterium rubi. Cane Gall of brambles, on blackberry, black and purple raspberries, and, very rarely, red raspberry. Symptoms appear on fruiting canes in late May or June as small, spherical protuberances or elongated ridges of white gall tissue, turning brown after several weeks. Canes often split open and dry out; produce small seedy berries. Cane gall is not as important as crown gall, but one should use the same preventive measures. Avoid runner plants from infected mother plants.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Crown Gall on a great variety of plants in more than 40 families, general on blackberry, raspberry, and other brambles,
Figure 3.3 Crown Gall on Rose
on grapes and on rose (see Fig. 3.3); on fruit trees - apple, apricot, cherry, fig, peach and nectarine, pear (rarely), plum; on nuts - almond very susceptible, walnut fairly susceptible, pecan occasionally; on shade trees, willow and other hard woods; rare on conifers but reported on incense cedar and juniper; on many shrubs and vines, particularly honeysuckle and euonymus; on perennials such as asters, daisies, and chrysanthemums; and on beets, turnips, and a few other vegetables, with tomato widely used in experiments. Crown gall was first noticed on grape in Europe in 1853, and the organism was first isolated in 1904 in the United States from galls on Paris daisy. It
is of first importance as a disease of nursery stock, but may cause losses of large productive trees in neglected orchards, especially almonds and peaches in California and other warm climates. It is very important to rose growers and to the amateur gardeners who sometimes receive infected bushes. Symptoms. The galls are usually rounded, with an irregular rough surface, ranging up to several inches, usually occurring near the soil line, commonly at the graft union, but sometimes on roots or aerial parts. On euonymus, galls are formed anywhere along the vine. This is primarily a disease of the parenchyma, starting with a rapid proliferation of cells in the meristematic tissue and the formation of more or less convoluted soft or hard overgrowths or tumors. The close analogy of the unorganized cell growth of plant galls to wild cell proliferation in human cancer has intrigued scientists for many years. In some fashion bacteria provide stimulus for this overdevelopment, but similar galls have been produced on plants experimentally by injecting a virus or growth-promoting substances.
Entrance of bacteria into plants for natural infection is through wounds. In nurseries and orchards nematodes, the plow, the disc, or the hoe may be responsible; on the propagating bench grafting tools are indicted. Many claims have been made for the longevity of crown gall bacteria in soil, but it now seems to be established that they do not live in the absence of host plants more than a couple of years, and that sudden outbreaks of crown gall on land not previously growing susceptible crops are due to irrigation water bringing in viable bacteria from other infected orchards. The addition of lime to the soil may encourage crown gall, for bacteria do not live in an acid medium. The period of greatest activity is during the warm months. Control. For home gardens rigid exclusion of all suspected planting stock is the very best control. Do not accept from your nurseryman blackberries, raspberries, roses, or fruit trees showing suspicious bumps. If you have had previous trouble, choose a different location for new, healthy plants. Be careful not to wound stems in cultivating.
For nurserymen, sanitary propagating practices are a must. Stock should be healthy. Grafting knives should be sterilized by frequent dipping in 10% Chlorox solution, 1 ounce in 2 gallons of water, or in denatured alcohol. If nursery soil is infested, 2 years' growth of cowpeas, oats, or crotalaria between crops will minimize crown gall.
Fruit and nut growers can perhaps plant less susceptible varieties, although fruit that is resistant in one locality may be diseased in another. American grape varieties are considered more resistant than European. Apples may be
Painting galls with a solution of Elgetol-methanol has given control of crown gall on peaches and almonds in California. One part Elgetol (sodium dini- trocresol) is shaken with 4 parts synthetic wood alcohol and applied with a brush, covering the surface of the gall and extending 1/2 inch to 1 inch beyond the margin into healthy bark.
Slender, straight to slightly curved rods, with irregularly stained segments or granules, often with pointed or club-shaped swellings at ends; nonmotile with a few exceptions (C. flaccumfaciens and C. poinsettiae). Gram-positive.
Clavibacter agcopyri (see Corynebacterium agcopyei). Yellow Gum Disease on western wheat grass.
Clavibacter fascians (see Rhodococcus fascians). Fasciation, widespread on sweet pea, also on carnation, chrysanthemum, gypsophila, geranium, petunia,impatiens, Hebe sp. and pyrethrum.
Clavibacter flaccumfaciens (see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens). Bacterial Wilt of bean, widespread on kidney and lima beans and soybean, causing considerable loss.
Clavibacter humiferum (see Corynebacterium humiferum). Reported from wetwood of poplar, in Colorado.
Clavibacter michiganense (see Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiga- nense). Bacterial Canker of Tomato, widespread, formerly causing serious losses of tomato canning crops.
Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense (formerly Clavibacter michiganens). Bacterial Canker of Tomato, widespread, formerly causing serious losses of tomato canning crops. The disease has now been reported on browallia, brunfelsia, cestrum, Datura sp. eggplant, Jerusalem-cherry, bittersweet, pepper, painted-tongue, potato, ground-cherry, and butterfly- flower in Wyoming. This is a vascular wilt disease, seedlings remaining stunted. Symptoms on older plants start with wilting of margins of lower leaflets, often only on one side of a leaf. Leaflets curl upward, brown, and wither, but remain attached to stem. One-sided infection may extend up through the plant and open cankers from pith to outer surface of stem. Fruit infection starts with small, raised, snow-white spots, centers later browned
and roughened but the white color persisting as a halo to give a bird's-eye spot. Fruits can be distorted, stunted, yellow inside. In the field, bacteria are spread by splashed rain and can persist in soil 2 or more years. Seeds carry the bacteria internally as well as externally.
Control. Use certified seed, a 2- or 3-year rotation; clean up tomato refuse at end of season and diseased plants throughout season. Fermenting tomato pulp for 4 days at a temperature near 70°F will destroy bacteria on surface of seed; hot-water treatment, 25 minutes at 122°F will kill some, perhaps not all, of internal bacteria. Start seedlings in soil that has not previously grown tomato.
Clavibacter poinsettiae (see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettia). Stem Canker and Leaf Spot of Poinsettia, a relatively new disease, first noted in greenhouses in 1941.
Clavibacter sepedonicum (see Clavibacter michiganense subsp. sepe- donicum). Bacterial Ring Rot of potato, widespread since 1931, when it probably was introduced from Europe.
Clavibacter michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (formerly Clavibacter sepedonicum). Bacterial Ring Rot of potato, widespread since 1931, when it probably was introduced from Europe. All commercial varieties are susceptible, with losses formerly in millions of dollars in decay of tubers in field and storage. Now a single infected plant in a potato field disqualifies the whole field for certification. Symptoms appear when plants are nearly full grown, with one or more stems in a hill wilted and stunted while the rest seem healthy. Lower leaves have pale yellow areas between veins; these turn deeper yellow, and margins roll upward. A creamy exudate is expelled when the stem is cut across. This bacterium may also occur in sugar beet which are symptomless.
Tuber infection takes place at the stem end, and the most prominent symptoms appear some time after storage. The vascular ring turns creamy yellow to light brown, with a crumbly or cheesy odorless decay followed by decay from secondary organisms. Bacteria are not spread from plant to plant in the field, but by cutting knife and fingers at planting. A knife used to cut one infected tuber may contaminate the next 20 seed pieces. Control. Use certified seed potatoes. Use several knives and rotate them in disinfestant. Commercial growers use a rotating knife passed through a chemical or hot-water bath between cuts. Disinfest tools, grader, digger, and bags; sweep storage house clean and spray with copper sulfate, 1 pound to 5 gallons of water.
Corynebacterium humiferum (formerly Clavibacter humiferum). Reported from wetwood of poplar, in Colorado.
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (formerly Clavibacter flaccumfaciens). Bacterial Wilt of Bean, widespread on kidney and lima beans and soybean, causing considerable loss. Plants wilt at any stage from seedling to pod-production, with leaves turning dry, brown, and ragged after rains. Plants are often stunted. Bacteria winter on or in seed, which appear yellow or wrinkled and varnished. When infected seed is planted, bacteria pass from cotyledons into stems and xylem vessels. Other plants are infected by mechanical injury and perhaps by insects, but there is not much danger from splashed rain. Plants girdled at nodes may break over. Control. Use seed grown in Idaho or California.
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettia (formerly Clavibacter poinsettiae). Stem Canker and Leaf Spot of Poinsettia, a relatively new disease, first noted in greenhouses in 1941. Longitudinal water-soaked streaks appear on one side of green stems, sometimes continuing through leaf petioles to cause spotting or blotching of leaves and complete defoliation. The cortex of stems turns yellow, the vascular system brown. Stems may crack open and bend down, with glistening, golden brown masses of bacteria oozing from stem ruptures and leaf lesions. Control. Discard diseased stock plants; place cuttings from healthy mother plants in sterilized media; avoid overhead watering and syringing; rogue suspicious plants promptly.
Rhodococcus fascians (formerly Clavibacter fascians). Fasciation, widespread on sweet pea, also on carnation, chrysanthemum, gypsophila, geranium, petunia,impatiens, Hebe sp. and pyrethrum. Sweet pea symptoms are masses of short, thick, and aborted stems with misshapen leaves developing near the soil line at first or second stem nodes. The fasciated growth on old plants may have a diameter of 3 inches but does not extend more than an inch or two above ground. The portion exposed to light develops normal green color. Plants are not killed, but stems are dwarfed and blossom production is curtailed.
Control. Sterilize soil or use fresh.
Rickettsialike bacteria. Bacterial Wilt on Toronto creeping bentgrass; bacteria found in xylem of roots, crown, and leaves. Initially, leaf blades wilt from tip down and within several days entire leaf wilts, becomes dark green, shriveled, and twisted; also leaf scorch of mulberry.
Motile rods (usually) with peritrichous flagella; Gram-negative; producing acid with or without visible gas from a variety of sugars; invading tissues of living plants producing dry necroses, galls, wilts, and soft rots. The genus is named for Erwin F. Smith, pioneer in plant diseases caused by bacteria.
Enterobacter cloacae. Bulb Decay on onion.
Erwinia amylovora. Fire Blight, general on many species in several tribes of the Rosaceae, particularly serious on apple, pear, and quince. Other hosts include almond, amelanchier, apricot, aronia, blackberry, cherry, chokecher- ry, cotoneaster, crabapple, exochorda, geum, hawthorn, holodiscus, India hawthorn, kerria, Japanese quince, loquat, medlar, mountain-ash, plum, pho- tinia, pyracantha, raspberry, rose, spirea, and strawberry. Apparently a native disease, first noticed near the Hudson River in 1780, fire blight spread south and west with increased cultivation of pears and apples. By 1880 it had practically wrecked pear orchards in Illinois, Iowa, and other states in the Northern Mississippi Valley. Then it devastated pears on the Texas Gulf. Reaching California by 1910 it played havoc up the coast to Washington.
Symptoms. Blossoms and leaves of infected twigs suddenly wilt, turn dark brown to black, shrivel and die, but remain attached to twigs (see Fig. 3.4). The bark is shrunken, dark brown to purplish, sometimes blistered with gum oozing out. Brown or black blighted branches with dead persistent leaves look as if scorched by fire. The bacteria survive the winter in living tissue at the edge of "holdover cankers" on limbs. These are dead, slightly sunken areas with a definite margin or slight crack where dead tissue has shrunk away from living. In moist weather bacteria appear on the surface of cankers in pearly viscid drops of ooze, which is carried by wind-blown rain or insects to blossoms. Infection spreads from the blighted bloom to the young fruit, then down the pedicel to adjacent leaves, which turn brown, remaining hang-
ing around the blighted blossom cluster. Leaf and fruit blight is also possible by direct invasion, a secondary infection via bacteria carried from primary blossom blight by ants, aphids, flies, wasps, fruit-tree bark beetles, and honeybees, sometimes tarnished plant bugs, and pear psyllids. The tissue first appears water-soaked, then reddish, then brown to black as the bacteria swarm between the dying parenchyma cells. Division may take place every half hour; so they multiply rapidly and are usually well in advance of discolored external tissue. A collar rot may develop when cankers are formed near the base of a tree. Water sprouts are common sources of infection.
As spring changes to summer, the bacteria gradually become less active and remain dormant at the edge of a woody canker until the next spring at sap flow. Ordinarily they do not winter on branches smaller than 1/2 inch in diameter.
Control. Spraying during bloom is now a standard means of preventing blossom blight. Use bordeaux mixture or a fixed copper or streptomycin at 60 to 100 ppm. The latter is very effective at relatively high temperatures; at 65°F and below, copper is more satisfactory. Start spraying when about 10% of the blossoms are open and repeat at 5- to 7-day intervals until late bloom is over. A dormant spray for aphid control helps in preventing fire blight. One or more sprays may be needed for leafhoppers, starting at petal fall.
Inspect trees through the season and cut or break out infected twigs 12 inches below the portion visibly blighted. If lesions appear on large limbs they may be painted with one of the following mixtures:
I. 1 quart denatured alcohol, 1/4 pint distilled water, 3/4 ounce muriatic acid, 1 1/2 pounds zinc chloride.
II. 100 grams cobalt nitrate, 50 cc glycerine, 100 cc oil of wintergreen, 50 cc acetic acid, 80 cc denatured alcohol.
III. 5 parts cadmium sulfate stock solution (1 pound stirred into 2 pints warm water), 2 parts glycerine, 2 parts muriatic acid, 5 parts denatured alcohol.
Formulas I and II were developed for use on the West Coast, III for New York. The paint is brushed on the unbroken bark over the lesions and for several inches above and below the canker; it may injure if there are wounds or cuts.
In cutting out cankered limbs during the dormant season, take the branch off at least 4 inches back from edge of the canker, and disinfect the cut. The home gardener may want to use 10% Chlorox for tools and bordeaux paint for cut surfaces. Dry bordeaux powder is stirred into raw linseed oil until a workable paste is formed.
Almost all desirable pear varieties are susceptible to fire blight, particularly Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, Howell, Clapps Favorite. Varieties Old Home, Orient, and the common Kieffer are more or less resistant. Jonathon apples are very susceptible. Less apt to be severely blighted are Baldwin, Ben Davis, Delicious, Duchess, McIntosh, Northern Spy, Stayman, and Winter Banana. At the University of California some work has been done on susceptibility of ornamentals to fire blight. Pyracantha angustifolia is quite susceptible, but P. coccinea and P. crenulata are rather resistant. Cotoneaster salicifolia is susceptible; C. dammeri, C. pannosa, and C. horizontalis are more resistant; and C. adpressa and C. microphylla show marked resistance. Cultural methods influence the degree of fire blight, which is worse on fast- growing succulent tissue. Avoid heavy applications of nitrogen fertilizers; apply such nitrogen as is required in autumn or in spring in foliar sprays after danger of blossom blight is over.
Erwinia carnegieana. Bacterial Necrosis of giant cactus in the entire habitat of Carnegia gigantea. Long present in southern Arizona, this disease was not described until 1942, after it had encroached on cactus parks and private estates. Many giant cacti in the Saguaro National Monument have been killed, with heaviest mortality in trees 150 to 200 years old.
Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (formerly Erwinia carotovora). Soft Rot of calla, originally described from common calla, found on golden calla, and also on beet, cactus, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, carrot, eggplant, geranium (Pelargonium), hyacinth, iris, onion, parsnip, pepper, potato, salsify, sansevieria, tobacco, tomato, and turnip. On calla lily the soft rot starts in upper portion of the corm and progresses upward into leaf and flower stalks or down into roots, with the corm becoming soft, brown, and watery. Sometimes infection starts at edge of petiole, which turns slimy. Leaves with brown spots and margins die or rot off at the base before losing color. Flowers turn brown; stalks fall over; roots are soft and slimy inside the epidermis. Corms may rot so fast the plant falls over without other symptoms, or the diseased portion may dry down to sunken dark spots, in which the bacteria stay dormant to the next season. On tomatoes, infection takes place through growth cracks, insect wounds, or sunscald areas. The tissue is at first water-soaked, then opaque, and in 3 to 10 days the whole fruit is soft, watery, colorless, with an offensive odor. Control. Scrub calla corms, cut out rotted spots, and let cork over for a day or two. Plant in fresh or sterilized soil in sterilized containers and keep pots on clean gravel or wood racks, never on beds where diseased callas have grown previously. Grow at cool temperatures and avoid overwatering. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (formerly Erwinia carotovora). Potato Blackleg, Basal Stem Rot, Tuber Rot, general on potato. This
is a systemic disease perpetuated by naturally infected tubers. Lower leaves turn yellow; upper leaves curl upward; stems and leaves tend to grow up rather than spread out; stem is black-spotted, more or less softened at base and up to 3 or 4 inches from ground, and may be covered with bacterial slime; shoots may wilt and fall over. Tubers are infected through the stem end. The disease is most rapid in warm, moist weather, and may continue in storage. The bacteria are spread on the cutting knife, as with ring rot, and by seed-corn maggots, and may persist for a time in soil. Control. Use certified seed potatoes and plant whole tubers; if cut seed must be used, allow to cork over to prevent infection from soil. Practice long rotation; disinfest cutting knife. Late varieties seem to be more resistant. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (formerly Erwinia carotovora). Delphinium Blackleg, Foot Rot, Bacterial Crown Rot of perennial Delphinium; Stem and Bud Rot of Rocket Larkspur. In delphinium there is a soft black discoloration at the base of the stem, with bacteria oozing out from cracks. In larkspur there is a black rot of buds as well as yellowing of leaves, blackening of stem, stunting of plants. The bacteria are apparently carried in seed; hot-water treatment is helpful. Drenching delphinium crowns with bordeaux mixture has been recommended in the past. Insect larval control is helpful with potato. Avoid excessive watering or irrigation. Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (formerly Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora). Wilt of sunflower, Kalanchoё; zucchini squash, and draceana. Soft Rot, general on many vegetables, in field, storage, and transit, and many ornamentals, especially iris. The bacteria were first isolated from rotten carrots, whence the name, but they are equally at home in asparagus, cabbage, turnips and other crucifers, celery, cucumber, eggplant, endive, garlic, horseradish, melon, parsnip, pepper, spinach, sunflower (stalk rot), sweet- potato, and tomato. Besides wide distribution on iris, soft rot has been reported, among ornamentals, on chrysanthemum, dahlia, Easter lily, geranium, orchid, sansevieria, poinsettia, and yellow calla.
The bacteria enter through wounds, causing a rapid, wet rot with a most offensive odor. The middle lamella is dissolved, and roots become soft and pulpy. Soft rot in iris often follows borer infestation. Tips of leaves are withered, the basal portions wet and practically shredded. The entire interior of a rhizome may disintegrate into a vile yellow mess while the epidermis remains firm. The rot is more serious in shaded locations, when iris is too crowded or planted too deeply.
Erwinia chrysanthemi. Bacterial Blight of Chrysanthemum, a florists' disease, first noted in 1950. First evidence of blight is a gray water-soaked area mid-point on the stem, followed by rot and falling over. The diseased tissue is brown or reddish brown; the rot progresses downward to the base of the stem or, under unfavorable conditions, may be checked with axillary buds below the diseased area producing normal shoots. Cuttings rot at the base. Sometimes affected plants do not show external symptoms, and cuttings taken from them spread the disease. Bacteria can be spread via cutting knife, or fingernails in pinching, and can live several months in soil. A form of this species causes a leaf blight of philodendron and may also infect banana, carnation, corn, and sorghum and pith/stem rot of tomato. Control. Snap off cuttings; sterilize soil and tools.
Corn rot. Corn leaves show light or dark brown rotting at base; husks and leaf blades have dark brown spots; lower portion of stalk is rotten, soft, brown, with strong odor of decay; plants may break over and die, with little left but a mass of shredded remnants of fibrovascular bundles. Bacteria enter through hydathodes (water pores), stomata, and wounds.
Erwinia cypripedii. Reported from California, causing brown rot of Cypri- pedium orchids. Small, circular to oval, water-soaked, greasy light brown spots become sunken, dark brown to chestnut. Affected crowns shrivel; leaves drop.
Erwinia herbicola (see Pantoea herbicola). Leaf Spot of dracaena. On Dracaena sanderana, gypsophila and related plants. Erwinia nimipressuralis. Wetwood of elm, slime flux, due to bacteria pathogenic in elm trunk wood, especially Asiatic elms, but possibly occur
ring in many other trees, including maple, oak, mulberry, poplar, and willow. A water-soaked dark discoloration of the heartwood is correlated with chronic bleeding at crotches and wounds and abnormally high sap pressure in trunk, with wilting a secondary symptom. The pressure in diseased trees increases from April to August or September, reaching 5 to 30 pounds per square inch (as much as 60 pounds in one record). The bacteria inhabit ray cells mostly and do not cause a general clogging of water-conducting tissues. This pressure, caused by fermentation of tissues by bacteria, causes fluxing, a forcing of sap out of trunks through cracks, branch crotches, and wounds. The flux flows down the trunk, wetting large areas of bark and drying to a grayish white incrustation. Bacteria and yeasts working in the flux cause an offensive odor that attracts insects.
Control. Bore drain holes through the wood below the fluxing wound, slightly slanted to facilitate drainage. Install 1/2-inch copper pipe to carry the dripping sap away from the trunk and buttress roots. Screw the pipe in only far enough to be firm; if it penetrates the water-soaked wood, it interferes with drainage.
Erwinia rhapontica. Rhubarb Crown Rot, similar to soft rot. Erwinia stewartii (see Pantoea stewartii). Bacterial Wilt of corn, Stewart's Disease on sweet corn, sometimes field corn, in the middle regions of the United States, from New York to California.
cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and muskmelon but not watermelon. The disease is generally east of the Rocky Mountains and is also present in parts of the West; is most serious north of Tennessee. Total loss of vines is rare, but a 10 to 20% loss is common.
This is a vascular wound disease transmitted by striped and 12-spotted cucumber beetles. Dull green flabby patches on leaves are followed by sudden wilting and shriveling of foliage, and drying of stems. Bacteria ooze from cut stems in viscid masses. Partially resistant plants may be dwarfed, with excessive blooming and branching, wilting during the day but partially recovering at night. The bacteria winter solely in the digestive tract of the insects and are deposited on leaves in spring with excrement, entering through wounds or stomata.
Control is directed chiefly at the insects. Start vines under Hotkaps and spray or dust with rotenone or other insecticide when the mechanical protection is removed. Experimental spraying with antibiotics - streptomycin, terramycin, and neomycin has reduced wilt and increased yield.
Corn grown in rich soil is more susceptible to wilt, and so are early varieties, especially Golden Bantam. Winter temperatures influence the amount of wilt the following summer. If the winter index, which is the sum of mean temperatures for December, January, and February, is above 100, bacterial wilt will be present in destructive amounts on susceptible varieties. If the index is below 90, the disease will be very sparse in northeastern states; if the index is between 90 and 100, there will be a moderate amount of wilt. Disease surveys over a period of years testify to the reliability of such forecasts (based on the amount of cold the flea beetle vectors can survive); but with the increasing use of hybrid sweet corn resistant to wilt, the importance of winter temperatures is reduced.
Control. Use insecticides to control flea beetles; substitute commercial fertilizer for manure; destroy infected refuse; try treating seed with terracmycin or streptomycin. Use resistant varieties such as Golden Cross Bantam, Carmel- cross, Ioana, Marcross, and Iochief.
Motile with polar flagella; straight or curved rods; Gram-negative. Many species produce a greenish, water-soluble pigment. Many species are found in soil and water; many are plant pathogens causing leaf spots or blights.
Acidovorax avenae (formerly Pseudomonas albopreciptans). Bacterial Spot of cereals, grasses, and corn. Light or dark brown spots or streaks on grass blades. Bacteria enter through stomata or water pores. Acidovorax avenae (formerly Pseudomonas avenae). Bacterial Leaf Spot of sweet corn. Bacterial Leaf Blight of johnsongrass. Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (formerly Pseudomonas pseudoalcali- genes). Angular Leaf Spot of muskmelon and watermelon. Fruit blotch; on melon, squash, pumpkin, and watermelon.
Acidovorax cattleyae (formerly Pseudomonas cattleyae). Brown Spot of orchids, Phalaenopsis and Cattleya, common in greenhouses. Infection is through stomata of young plants, wounds of older plants. Dark green, circular water-soaked spots change to brown and finally black. On Cattleya the disease is limited to older leaves.
Burkholderia andropogonis (formerly Pseudomonas andropogonis). Bacterial Stripe of sorghum and corn. Bacterial Leaf Spot on bougainvillea. Black Spot on clovers and statice. Also causes blight of chickpea, and bacterial leaf spot on white clover. Red streaks and blotches appear on leaves and sheaths, with abundant exudate drying down to red crusts or scales, readily washed off in rains. Bacteria enter through stomata. Bacterial Leaf Spot of velvet bean, clovers. Translucent angular brown leaf spots have lighter centers and chlorotic surrounding tissue; there is no exudate. Bacteria enter through stomata and fill intercellular spaces of parenchyma.
Burkholderia caryophylli (formerly Pseudomonas caryophylli). Bacterial Wilt of carnation, usually under glass. Plants wilt, turn dry, colorless with roots disintegrating. Grayish-green foliage is the first symptom, but leaves rapidly turn yellow and die. Yellow streaks of frayed tissue in vascular areas extend a foot or two up the stem. It takes a month for disease to show up after inoculation, but it can be transmitted on cuttings taken from plants before appearance of symptoms. The sticky character of diseased tissue distinguishes this wilt from Fusarium wilt. Varieties Cardinal Sim, Laddie, Mamie, Portrait, and others may have severe cankers at base of stems, orange-yellow when young, very sticky. Bacteria are spread by hands, tools, splashing water. Also causes crown and leaf rot of statice. Control. Remove and burn diseased plants and all within 1 1/2 -foot radius. After handling wash with hot water and soap, sterilize tools (10% Clorox for 5 minutes). Obtain rooted cuttings from propagators of cultured, disease-free material; keep in shipping bags until ready for benching and then place in
Burkholderia gladioli (formerly Pseudomonas gladioli). Leaf Spot and Blight on bird's nest fern.
Onion Bulb Rot, a storage disease, inner scales of bulb water-soaked and soft, sometimes entire bulb rotting. Orchid Brown Rot and Leaf Spot.
Gladiolus Scab, Stem Rot, Neck Rot, widespread on gladiolus, also on iris, bell peppers and tigridia. Lesions on corms are pale yellow, water- soaked circular spots deepening to brown or nearly black, eventually sunken with raised, horny, or brittle margins that are scablike and exude a gummy substance. Bacteria overwinter on corms. First symptoms after planting are tiny reddish raised specks on leaves, mostly near the base, enlarging to dark sunken spots, which grow together into large areas with a firm or soft rot. Sometimes plants fall over, but the disease is not ordinarily very damaging in the garden. The chief loss is to the grower in disfigured, unsalable corms. Brown streaks in husks sometimes disintegrate, leaving holes. Gladiolus scab is increased by bulb mites, may be related to grub and wire- worm injury.
Pseudomonas aceris (see Pseudomonas syringae pv. aceris). Maple Leaf Spot found in California on big leaf maple. Pseudomonas adzukicola. Stem Rot of adzuki bean. Pseudomonas albopreciptans (see Acidovorax avenae). Bacterial Spot of
cereals, grasses, and corn.
Pseudomonas andropogonis (see Burkholderia andropogonis). Bacterial Stripe of sorghum and corn.
Bacterial Leaf Spot of velvet bean, clovers. Translucent angular brown leaf spots have lighter centers and chlorotic surrounding tissue; there is no exudate. Bacteria enter through stomata and fill intercellular spaces of parenchyma.
Pseudomonas angulata (see Pseudomonas syringae pv. angulata). Black- fire of tobacco.
Pseudomonas asplenii. Bacterial Leaf Blight of bird's-next fern, first reported from greenhouses in California. Small translucent spots enlarge to cover whole frond; bacteria may invade crown and kill whole plant. Control depends on strict sanitation - sterilizing flats, pots, media, and foreceps used in transplanting. Avoid excessive watering and too high humidity. Pseudomonas avenae (see Acidovorax avenae). Bacterial Leaf Spot of sweet corn. Bacterial Leaf Blight of johnsongrass. Pseudomonas berberidis. Bacterial Leaf Spot of barberry. Small, irregular, dark green water-soaked areas on leaves turn purple-brown with age; occasional spotting occurs on leaf stalks and young shoots. If twigs are infected, buds do not develop in the next season; if they are girdled, the entire twig is blighted. Cut out infected twigs and spray with bordeaux mixture or an antibiotic.
Pseudomonas caryophylli (see Burkholderia caryophylli). Bacterial Wilt of carnation, usually under glass.
Pseudomonas cattleyae (see Acidovorax cattleyae). Brown Spot of orchids, Phalaenopsis and Cattleya, common in greenhouses. Pseudomonas cepacia (see Burkholderia cepacia). Sour Skin Rot of onion. Slimy yellow rot of outer fleshy scales, with a vinegar odor. Pseudomonas cichorii. Bacterial Leaf Spot on basil. Bacterial Blight on Lobelia.
Pseudomonas cichorii. Bacterial Rot of chicory, Belgium endive, French endive, iris, Soft Rot of potato, and Bacterial Leaf Spot of hibiscus, geranium, magnolia and rhododendron. May also cause a Leaf Spot and Stem Necrosis on chrysanthemum (see Fig. 3.5) and Bacterial Leaf Blight on dwarf Schefflera. A yellowish olive center rot, affecting young inner leaves. Pseudomonas corrugata. Stem Rot of tomato, also Pith Necrosis. Pseudomonas fluorescens (marginalis). Marginal Blight of lettuce, Kansas Lettuce Disease, also on witloof chicory, Soft Rot of potato tubers. Leaf margins are dark brown to almost black, first soft, then like parchment. Yellowish red spots, turning dark, are scattered over leaves. Infected tissue disintegrates into an odorous mass. Bacteria live in the soil, which should not be splashed on plants by careless watering.
Pseudomonas gladioli (see Burkholderia gladioli). Leaf Spot and Blight on bird's nest fern.
Pseudomonas melophthora. Apple Rot, probably widespread. This is a decay of ripe apples following after apple maggots and eventually rotting whole fruit.
Figure 3.5 Bacterial Black Spot on Chrysanthemum
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes (see Acetovorax avenae subsp. citrulli). Angular Leaf Spot of muskmelon and watermelon. Fruit Blotch on melon, squash, pumpkin, and watermelon. Pseudomonas ribicola. On golden currant in Wyoming. Pseudomonas sesami. Bacterial Leaf Spot of sesame. Brown spots on leaves and stems. Can be controlled by treating seed with streptomycin. Pseudomonas solanacearum (see Rolstonia solanacearum). Southern Bacterial Wilt, also called Brown Rot, Bacterial Ring Disease, Slime Disease, Granville Wilt (of tobacco), present in many states but particularly prevalent in the South, from Maryland around the coast to Texas. Pseudomonas syringae. Canker on kiwifruit; also Blight on impatiens and mock orange. Also Leaf Spot on English and American elm, mountain- laurel, arugula and coriander. Stem Dieback of Centaurea and fennel. Pseudomonas syringae pv. aceris (formerly Pseudomonas aceris). Maple Leaf Spot found in California on big leaf maple. Small, water-soaked spots, surrounded by yellow zones, turn brown or black; cankers develop on petioles and bracts in serious cases; leaves may drop; disease present in cool, damp weather of early spring.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. angulata (formerly Pseudomonas angulata). Blackfire of tobacco.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii. Bacterial Blight of celery. Small, irregularly circular rusty leaf spots, with a yellow halo, are occasionally numerous enough to cause death of foliage, but commonly are only disfiguring. Spray plants in seedbed with bordeaux mixture, or dust with copper lime dust; clean up old refuse.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii. Bacterial Leaf Spot of celery. Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata. Bacterial Spot on beets, Swiss chard, and nasturtium. Spots on nasturtium leaves are water-soaked, brownish, 1/8 to 1/4 inch across. On beets they are dark brown or black, irregular, and in addition there are narrow streaks on petioles, midribs, and larger veins. Petiole tissue may be softened as with soft rot. Infection is only through wounds.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens. Halo Blight on grasses, such as Poa spp. and Calamagrostis spp.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. delphinii. Delphinium Black Spot on delphinium and aconite (monkshood). Irregular tarry black spots on leaves, flower buds, petioles, and stems may coalesce in late stages to form large black areas. The bacteria enter through stomata or water pores. Occasionally this bacterial leaf spot results in some distortion, but most abnormal growth and blackening of buds is due to the cyclamen mite, a much more important problem than black spot.
Control. Remove diseased leaves as noticed; cut and burn all old stalks at end of season; avoid overhead watering. In a wet season spraying with bordeaux mixture may have some value.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Bacterial Blight of soybean. Perhaps the most common and conspicuous disease of soybean, appearing in fields when plants are half-grown and remaining active until maturity, with defoliation during periods of high humidity or heavy dews. Small, angular, translucent leaf spots, yellow to light brown, turn dark reddish brown to nearly black with age. There is often a white exudate drying to a glistening film on under leaf surfaces. Black lesions appear on stems and petioles, and on pods water-soaked spots enlarge to cover a wide area, darken, and produce an exudate drying to brownish scales; seeds are often infected. Seedlings from infected seed have brown spots on cotyledons and often die. Flambeau and Hawkeye varieties are somewhat less susceptible. Use seed taken from disease-free pods.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. helianthi. Bacterial Leaf Spot of sunflower. Leaves show brown, necrotic spots, first water-soaked, then dark and oily.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. mors-prunorum. Bacterial Canker of stone fruits, Citrus Blast, Lilac Blight on many unreleated plants, including apple, plum, peach, cherry, pear, almond, avocado, citrus fruits, lilacs, flowering stock, rose, beans, cowpeas, oleander, and leaf spot on peas. On stone fruits all plant parts are subject to attack, but most destructive are elongated water-soaked lesions or gummy cankers on trunks and branches, usually sour-smelling. Dormant buds of cherry and apricot are likely to be blighted, pear blossoms blasted. Small purple spots appear on leaves of plum and apricot, black lesions on fruit of cherry and apricot. All varieties of apricot are very susceptible to the disease. Plums on Myrobalan rootstock are more resistant, and varieties California, Duarte, and President are tolerant. On citrus, and particularly lemons, dark sunken spots, called black pit, are formed on fruit rind, but there is no decay. The blast form of the disease is most often on oranges and grapefruit - water-soaked areas in leaves, which may drop or hang on, twigs blackened and shriveled. The disease is most serious in seasons with cold, driving rainstorms.
On lilac, brown water-soaked spots on leaves and internodes on young shoots blacken and rapidly enlarge. Young leaves are killed; older leaves have large
portions of the blade affected. Infection starts in early spring in rainy weather. The bacteria are primarily in the parenchyma, spreading through intercellular spaces, blackening and killing cells, forming cavities. The vascular system may also be affected, followed by wilting of upper leaves. Control. Prune out infected twigs and branches. In California spray fruits in fall with bordeaux mixture, at the time first leaves are dropping. Grow bushy, compact citrus trees less liable to wind injury; use windbreaks for orchards. Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans. Blister Spot of apple. Small, dark brown blisters on fruit and rough bark cankers on limbs start at lenticels. Bark may have rough scaly patches from a few inches to a yard long, bordered with a pimpled edge, and with outer bark sloughing off in spring. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Bean Halo Blight, halo spot on common, lima, and scarlet runner beans. The symptoms are those of other bean blights except that there are wide green or yellowish green halos around water-soaked leaf spots, such spots later turning brown and dry. Leaves wilt and turn brown; young pods wither and produce no seed; sometimes plants are dwarfed with top leaves crinkled and mottled. In hot weather, spots are often angular, reddish brown, and without halo. Stem streaks are reddish, with gray ooze; pod spots are red to brown with silver crusts; seeds are small, wrinkled, with cream-colored spots. All snap beans are susceptible; many dry beans - Pinto, Great Northern, Red Mexican, Michelite - are rather resistant.
Control. Use seed from blight-free areas. Blight is rare in California, occasional in Idaho. Plan a 3-year rotation. Do not pick beans when foliage is wet.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi. Bacterial Blight of pea, general on field and garden peas, especially in East and South, and causing a leaf spot of sweet peas. Dark green water-soaked dots on leaves enlarge and dry to russet brown; stems have dark green to brown streaks. Flowers are killed or young pods shriveled, with seed covered with bacterial slime. Bacteria enter through stomata or wounds, and if they reach the vascular system, either leaflets or whole plants wilt. Vines infected when young usually die. Alaska and Telephone varieties are particularly susceptible.
Control. Avoid wounding vines during cultivation. Sow peas in early spring in well-drained soil. Use disease-free seed and plan a 4-year rotation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri. Bacterial Blight of shallot. Pseudomonas syringae pv. primulae. Bacterial Leaf Spot of primrose in ornamental and commercial plantings in California. Infection is confined to
olive. Irregular, spongy, more or less hard, knotty galls on roots, trunk, branches, leaf, or fruit pedicels start as small swellings and increase to several inches with irregular fissures. Terminal shoots are dwarfed or killed; whole trees may die. Bacteria enter through wounds, often leaf scars or frost cracks. Variety Manzanilla is most susceptible of the olives commonly grown in California. Another form of this species causes similar galls on ash.
Control. Cut out galls carefully, disinfesting tools; paint larger cuts with bordeaux paste and spray trees with bordeaux mixture in early November, repeating in December and March if infection has been abundant. Do not plant infected nursery trees or bring equipment from an infected orchard into a healthy one.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Brown Spot, Foliar on wild rice (Zizania); leaf spot and stem collapse on urd bean; leaf spot and stem canker on Ginkgo.
Oleander Bacterial Gall. Galls or tumors are formed on branches, herbaceous shoots, leaves, and flowers but not on underground parts. Small swellings develop on leaf veins, surrounded by yellow tissue, with bacterial ooze coming from veins in large quantity. Young shoots have longitudinal swellings with small secondary tubercles; young leaves and seedpods may be distorted and curled. On older branches tumors are soft or spongy and roughened with projecting tubercles; they slowly turn dark. Prune out infected portions, sterilizing shears between cuts; propagate only from healthy plants.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (see Pseudomonas tabaci). Blackfire of tobacco.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Tobacco Wildfire on tobacco, tomato, eggplant, soybean, cowpea, pokeberry, and ground-cherry, in all tobacco districts sporadically. Leaf spots have tan to brown dead centers with chlorotic halos. The disease appears first on lower leaves and spreads rapidly in wet weather. The bacteria persist a few months in crop refuse and on seed and enter through stomatal cavities. In buried soybean leaves the bacteria have lived less than 4 months; so fall plowing may be beneficial. Seed stored for 18 months produces plants free from wildfire.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis. Bacterial Leaf Spot. Circular necrotic lesions on leaves and petioles. The lesions have dark purple margins. This disease occurs on marigold, sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke, and common ragweed. Apical chlorosis is also caused by this pathogen on sunflower and sunflower seed may be a source of inoculum.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis. Bacterial Leaf Spot on compass plant and sunflower.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial Leaf Spot of crucifers, Pepper Spot of cabbage, cauliflower, chinese cabbage, and turnip, mostly in northeastern and Middle Atlantic states. Numerous brown or purple spots range from pinpoint to 1/8 inch in diameter. If spots are very numerous, leaves yellow and drop off. Cauliflower is more commonly affected than cabbage. Bacteria, disseminated on seed or in diseased plant parts, enter through stomata, and visible symptoms appear in 3 to 6 days. Disease is most severe in seedbeds.
Control. Change location of hotbed starting seedlings; use 2-year rotation in field; have seed hot-water treated.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial Speck of tomato. Numerous, dark brown raised spots on fruit are very small, less than 1/16 inch; they do not extend into flesh and are more disfiguring than harmful. Pseudomonas syringae pv. zizaniae. Leaf Spot and Stem Spot of wild rice.
Pseudomonas tabaci (see Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci). Blackfire of tobacco.
Pseudomonas viburni. Bacterial Leaf Spot of viburnum, widespread. Circular water-soaked spots appear on leaves, and irregular sunken brown cankers on young stems, and the bacteria overwinter in leaves, stems or buds. Remove and burn infected leaves. Spray with bordeaux mixture or an antibiotic such as Agrimycin two or three times at weekly intervals. Pseudomonas viridiflava. Bacterial Leaf Spot on basil. Bacterial Canker on poinsettia.
Pseudomonas viridilivida. Louisiana Lettuce Disease on lettuce, bell pepper, and tomatoes. Numerous water-soaked leaf spots fuse to infect large areas, first with a soft rot, then a dry shriveling. Sometimes outer leaves are rotted and the heart sound. This bacterium also causes greasy canker of poinsettia.
Pseudomonas washingtoniae. This bacterium causes spots on leaves of Washington palm.
Pseudomonas sp. Blueberry Canker reported from Oregon. Reddish brown to black cankers appear on canes of the previous season; all buds in the cankered areas are killed; stems are sometimes girdled. Varieties Wey- mouth, June, and Rancocas are resistant, but Jersey, Atlantic, Scammel, Coville, and Evelyn are highly susceptible. Rhizomonas suberifaciens. Corky Rot on lettuce.
Rolstonia solanacearum (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum). Southern Bacterial Wilt, also called Brown Rot, Bacterial Ring Disease, Slime Disease, Granville Wilt (of tobacco), present in many states but particularly prevalent in the South, from Maryland around the coast to Texas. Southern wilt is common on potatoes in Florida but also appears on many other vegetables - bean, lima bean, castor bean, soybean, velvet bean, beet, carrot, cowpea, peanut, sweetpotato, tomato, eggplant, pepper, and rhubarb. Ornamentals sometimes infected include ageratum, anthurium, dwarf banana, garden balsam, geranium, canna, cosmos, croton, chrysanthemum, dahlia, hollyhock, lead-tree, marigold, nasturtium, Spanish needle, sunflower, and zinnia. The symptoms are those of a vascular disease, with dwarfing or sudden wilting, a brown stain in vascular bundles, and dark patches or streaks in stems. Often the first symptom is a slight wilting of leaves at end of branches in the heat of the day, followed by recovery at night, but each day the wilting is more pronounced and recovery less until the plant dies. Young plants are more susceptible than older ones. In potatoes and tomatoes there may be a brown mushy decay of stems, with bacterial ooze present. Potato tubers often have a browning of vascular ring, followed by general decay.
Bacteria live in fallow soil 6 years or more and may persist indefinitely in the presence of susceptible plants. They are spread by irrigation water, in crop debris, or soil fragments on tools and tractors, or by farm animals. Optimum temperatures are high, ranging from 77° to 97°F, with inhibition of disease below 55°F.
Control. Use northern-grown seed potatoes and Sebago and Katahdin varieties, more resistant than Triumph and Cobbler. Use a long rotation for toma
toes. Soil can be acidified with sulfur to kill bacteria, followed by liming in the fall before planting.
Small rods, motile with a single polar flagellum; form abundant slimy yellow growth. Most species are plant pathogens causing necroses.
Ralstonia solanacearum, Race 3, Biovar 2. Bacterial wilting of geranium; also yellowing and stunting.
Xanthomonas albilineans. Leaf Scald of sugarcane (FL, TX). Xanthomonas axonopodis. Leaf Streak (water soaking) of African lily and Leaf Blight of onion.
Xanthomonas begoniae (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae). Begonia Bacteriosis, leaf spot of fibrous and tuberous begonias. Xanthomonas campestris. Black Rot of cruciers, Bacterial Blight, Wilt, Stump Rot of alder, arabidopsis, asparagus tree fern, avocado, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, lavender, mustard, radish, rutabaga, sunflower, stock, turnip, and leaf blight of onion. Black rot was first observed in Kentucky and Wisconsin about 1890 and is generally distributed in the country, with losses often 40 to 50% of the total crop. It is one of the most serious crucifer diseases, present each season but epidemic in warm, wet seasons.
The bacteria invade leaves through water pores or wounds and progress to the vascular system. Veins are blackened, with leaf tissue browning in a V- shape. With early infection plants either die or are dwarfed, with a one-sided growth. Late infection results in defoliation, long bare stalks with a tuft of leaves on top. When stems are cut across, they show a black ring, result of the vascular invasion, and sometimes yellow bacterial ooze. Black rot is a hard odorless rot, but it may be followed by soft, odorous decays. Primary infection comes from bacteria carried on seed, or in refuse in soil, but drainage water, rain, farm implements, and animals aid in secondary infection. Control. Use seed grown in disease-free areas in the West or treat with hot water, 122°F, 25 minutes for cabbage, 18 minutes for broccoli, cauliflower, and collards. Plan a 3-year rotation with plants other than crucifers, and clean up all crop refuse.
Xanthomonas campestris. Horse-Radish Leaf Spot. Leaves are spotted but there is no vascular infection. Also causes leaf spot of Pilea sp. Pellionia
Xanthomonas campestris. Bacterial Leaf Spot on cabbage and radish. Xanthomonas campestris pv. asclepiadis. Bacterial Blight on butterfly weed.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. barbareae. Black Rot of winter-cress (Bar- barea vulgaris), similar to black rot of cabbage; small greenish spots turn black.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. begoniae (formerly Xanthomonas begoniae). Begonia Bacteriosis, leaf spot of fibrous and tuberous begonias. Blisterlike, roundish dead spots are scattered over surface of leaves. Spots are brown with yellow translucent margins. Leaves fall prematurely, and in severe cases the main stem is invaded, with gradual softening of all tissues and death of plants. Bacteria remain viable at least 3 months in yellow ooze on surface of dried leaves. Leaves are infected through upper surfaces during watering, with rapid spread of disease when plants are crowded together under conditions of high humidity.
Control. Keep top of leaves dry, avoiding syringing or overhead watering; keep pots widely spaced; spray with bordeaux mixture and dip cuttings in it.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae (formerly Xanthomonas carotae). Bacterial Blight of carrot. The chief damage is to flower heads grown for seed, which may be entirely killed. Symptoms include irregular dead spots on leaves, dark brown lines on petioles and stems, blighting of floral parts, which may be one-sided. Use clean seed, or treat with hot water; rotate crops.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. Citrus Canker on all citrus fruits, but not apparently eradicated from the United States. It came from the Orient and appeared in Texas in 1910, becoming of major importance in Florida and the Gulf States by 1914, ranking with chestnut blight and white pine blister rust as a national calamity. But here is one of the few cases on record where man has won the fight, where a disease has been nearly eradicated by spending enough money and having enough cooperation early in the game. Several million dollars, together with concerted intelligent effort by growers, quarantine measures, destruction of every infected tree, sanitary precautions so rigid they included walking the mules through disinfestant, sterilization of clothes worn by workers - ill saved us from untold later losses.
Symptoms of citrus canker are rough, brown corky eruptions on both sides of leaves and fruit. On foliage the lesions are surrounded by oily or yellow halos. Old lesions become brown and corky.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. corylina (formerly Xanthomonas corylina). Filbert Blight, Bacteriosis, the most serious disease of filberts in the Pacific Northwest, known since 1913 from the Cascade Mountains west in Oregon and Washington. The disease is similar to walnut blight (see X. juglandis) with infection on buds, leaves, and stems of current growth; on branches; and on trunks 1 to 4 years old. The bacteria are weakly pathogenic to the nuts. Copper-lime dusts are effective, with four to six weekly applications, starting at the early prebloom stage.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae (formerly Xanthomonas cucur- bitae). Bacterial Spot on winter squash and pumpkin. Leaf spots are first small and round, then angular between veins, with bright yellow halos; sometimes translucent and thin but not dropping out; often coalescing to involve whole leaf. Bacterial exudate is present.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. cyamopsidis. Rot of Lithops spp. Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. Blight of Anthurium; also Leaf Spot of cocoyam.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae (formerly Xanthomonas dieffenbachiae). Dieffenbachia Leaf Spot. Spots are formed on all parts of leaf blade except midrib, but not on petioles and stems. They range from minute, translucent specks to lesions 3/8 inch in diameter, circular to elongated, yellow to orange-yellow with a dull green center. Spots may grow together to cover large areas, which turn yellow, wilt, and dry. Dead leaves are dull tan to light brown, thin and tough but not brittle. The exudate on lower surface of spots dries to a waxy, silver-white layer. Control. Separate infected from healthy plants; keep temperature low; avoid syringing; try protective spraying with streptomycin. Xanthomonas campestris pv. fragariae. Angular Leaf Spot on strawberry; also Blossom Blight on strawberry.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines (formerly Xanthomonas glycines (phaseoli var. sojense). Bacterial Pustule of soybean, similar to regular bean blight but chiefly a foliage disease, present in most soybean areas, more severe in the South. Small, yellow-green spots with reddish brown centers appear on upper surface of leaves with a small raised pustule at the center of the spot on the under leaf surface. Spots run together to large irregular brown areas, portions of which drop out, giving a ragged appearance.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. gummisudans (formerly Xanthomonas gum- misudans). Bacterial Blight of Gladiolus. Narrow, horizontal, water- soaked, dark green spots turn into brown squares or rectangles between veins, covering entire leaf, particularly a young leaf, or middle section of the blade. Bacteria ooze out in slender, twisted, white columns or in a gummy film, in which soil and insects get stuck. Disease is spread by planting infected corms or by bacteria splashed in rain from infected to healthy leaves. The small dark brown corm lesions are almost unnoticeable. Soak corms unhusked for 2 hours before planting.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. hederae (formerly Xanthomonas hederae). Bacterial Leaf Spot of English ivy. Small water-soaked area on leaves develop dark brown to black centers as they increase in size, sometimes cracking, with reddish purple margins. Spots are sometimes formed on petioles and stems, with plants dwarfed and foliage yellow-green. Spray with bordeaux mixture or an antibiotic. Keep plants well spaced; avoid overhead watering and high humidity.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. hyacinthi (formerly Xanthomonas hyacinthi). Hyacinth Yellows, yellow rot of Dutch hyacinth, occasionally entering the country in imported bulbs. The disease was first noted in Holland in 1881 and named for the yellow slime or bacterial ooze seen when a bulb is cut. The bulbs rot either before or after planting, producing no plants above ground or badly infected specimens, which do not flower and have yellow to brown stripes on leaves or flower stalks. Bacteria are transmitted by wind, rain, tools, and clothes, with rapid infection in wet or humid weather, particularly among luxuriantly growing plants. The disease is usually minor in our Pacific Northwest but worse in warm, wet weather on rapidly growing plants. Innocence is more susceptible than King of the Blues. Control. Cover infected plants with a jar or can until the end of the season; then dig after the others. Never work or walk in fields when plants are wet; avoid bruising; discard rotten bulbs; rotate plantings; avoid fertilizer high in nitrogen.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. incanae (formerly Xanthomonas incanae). Bacterial Blight of garden stocks causing, since 1933, serious losses on flower-seed ranches in California; also present in home gardens. This is a vascular disease of main stem and lateral branches, often extending into leaf petioles and seed peduncles. Seedlings suddenly wilt when 2 to 4 inches
high, with stem tissues yellowish, soft and mushy, and sometimes a yellow exudate along stem. On older plants, dark water-soaked areas appear around leaf scars near ground, stem is girdled, and lower leaves turn yellow and drop; or entire plants wilt or are broken by wind at ground level. Bacteria persist in soil and on or in seed;they are also spread in irrigation water. Control. Use a 2 to 3-year rotation. Treat seed with hot water, 127.5° to 131°F for 10 minutes, followed by rapid cooling.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis (formerly Xanthomonas juglan- dis). Walnut Blight on English or Persian walnut, black walnut, butternut, Siebold walnut. Black, dead spots appear on young nuts, green shoots, and leaves. Many nuts fall prematurely, but others reach full size with husk, shell, and kernel more or less blackened and destroyed. Bacteria winter in old nuts or in buds, and may be carried by the walnut erinose mite. Control. Spray with a fixed copper, as copper oxalate, or with streptomycin. Apply when 10% of the blossoms are open, repeat when 20% are open, and again after bloom.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum. Leaf Spot on Hibiscus. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (formerly Xanthomonas oryzae). Carnation Pimple reported from Colorado as caused by a new form of the rice blight organism. Very small, 1 mm, pimples are formed near base and tips of leaves, which may shrivel.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. papavericola (formerly Xanthomonas papa- vericola). Bacterial Blight of poppy on corn poppy and on Oriental, opium, and California poppies. Minute, water-soaked areas darken to intense black spots bounded by a colorless ring. Spots are scattered, circular, small, often zonate, with tissue between yellow and then brown. There is a noticeable, slimy exudate. Infection is through stomata and often into veins. Stem lesions are long, very black, sometimes girdling and causing young plants to fall over. Flower sepals are blackened, petals stop developing; pods show conspicuous black spots.
Control. Remove and destroy infected plants; do not replant poppies in the same location. Try Agrimycin as a preventive spray.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (formerly Xanthomonas pelar- gonii). Bacterial Leaf Spot of geranium (Pelargonium). Irregular to circular brown leaf spots start as water-soaked dots on undersurface, becoming sunken as they enlarge and with tissue collapsing. If spots are numerous, the entire leaf turns yellow, brown, and shriveled, then drops. The leaves sometimes wilt and droop but hang on the plant for a week or so. Exterior of
Pod lesions are first dark green and water-soaked, then dry, sunken and brick red, sometimes with a yellowish encrustation of bacterial ooze. White seeds turn yellow, are wrinkled with a varnished look.
Control. Use disease-free western-grown seed. Keep away from beans when plants are wet.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (formerly Xanthomonas pruni). Bacterial Spot of stone fruits, also called canker, shot hole, black spot; general on plum, Japanese plum, prune, peach, and nectarine east of the Rocky Mountains; one of the more destructive stone fruit diseases, causing heavy losses in some states.
Symptoms on leaves are numerous, round or angular, small reddish spots with centers turning brown and dead, dropping out to leave shot holes. Spots may run together to give a burned, blighted, or ragged appearance, followed by defoliation, with losses running high in devitalized trees. On twigs dark blisters dry out to sunken cankers. Fruit spots turn into brown to black, saucer- shaped depressions with small masses of gummy, yellow exudate, often with cracking through the spot.
Control. Plant new orchards from nurseries free from the disease. Prune to allow air in the interior of trees. Feed properly; trees with sufficient nitrogen do not defoliate so readily. Zinc sulfate-lime sprays have been somewhat effective.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani (formerly Xanthomonas vesicatoria var. raphani). Leaf Spot of radish, turnip, and other crucifers, similar to bacterial spot on tomato.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (formerly Xanthomonas vesicatoria). Bacterial Spot of tomato and pepper, common in wet seasons. Small, black, scabby fruit spots, sometimes with a translucent border, provide entrance points for secondary decay organisms. Small, dark greasy spots appear on leaflets and elongated black spots on stems and petioles. Bacteria are carried on seed.
Control. Rotate crops; destroy diseased vines. Spraying or dusting with copper may reduce infection. These may be combined with streptomycin. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vignicola (formerly Xanthomonas vignico- la). Cowpea Canker on cowpeas and red kidney beans, a destructive disease, first described in 1944. Beans are blighted; cowpea stems have swollen, cankerlike lesions,with the cortex cracked open and a white bacterial exudate. The plants tend to break over. Leaves, stems, pods, and seeds are liable to infection. Chinese Red cowpeas seem particularly susceptible, but the disease appears on other varieties.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (formerly Xanthomonas vitians). Bacterial Wilt and Leaf Spot of lettuce, South Carolina Lettuce Disease, wilting and rotting of lettuce leaves and stems. In early stages plants are lighter green than normal. Leaves may have definite brown spots coalescing to large areas or may wilt following stem infection. Use windbreaks to prevent injuries affording entrance to bacteria; also causes leaf spot of pepper and tomato.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae. Leaf and Flower Spot of zinnia. Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae (formerly Xanthomonas nigromacu- lans). Leaf Spot on zinnia.
Xanthomonas carotae (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae). Bacterial Blight of carrot.
Xanthomonas corylina (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. corylina). Filbert Blight, Bacteriosis, the most serious disease of filberts in the Pacific Northwest, known since 1913 from the Cascade Mountains west in Oregon and Washington.
Xanthomonas dieffenbachiae (see Xanthomonas campestriis pv. dieffenbachiae). Dieffenbachia Leaf Spot. Spots are formed on all parts of leaf blade except midrib, but not on petioles and stems.
Xanthomonas glycines (phaseoli var. sojense) (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines). Bacterial Pustule of soybean, similar to regular bean blight but chiefly a foliage disease, present in most soybean areas, more severe in the South
Xanthomonas gummisudans (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. gummisu- dans). Bacterial Blight of Gladiolus.
Xanthomonas hederae (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. hederae). Bacterial Leaf Spot of English ivy.
Xanthomonas hyacinthi (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. hyacinthi). Hyacinth Yellows, yellow rot of Dutch hyacinth, occasionally entering the country in imported bulbs.
Xanthomonas incanae (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. incanae). Bacterial Blight of garden stocks causing, since 1933, serious losses on flower- seed ranches in California; also present in home gardens. Xanthomonas juglandis (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis). Walnut Blight on English or Persian walnut, black walnut, butternut, Siebold walnut.
Xanthomonas oryzae (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae). Carnation Pimple reported from Colorado as caused by a new form of the rice blight organism. Xanthomonas papavericola (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. papavericola). Bacterial Blight of poppy on corn poppy and on Oriental, opium, and California poppies.
Xanthomonas pelargonii (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii). Bacterial Leaf Spot of geranium (Pelargonium).
Xanthomonas pelargonii (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii). Geranium Leaf Spot on Pelargonium spp.
Xanthomonas phaseoli (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli). Bacterial Bean Blight, general and serious on beans but rare in some western states.
Xanthomonas pruni (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni. Bacterial Spot of stone fruit, also called canker, shot hole, black spot; general on plum, Japanese plum prune, peach, and nectarine east of the Rocky Mountains.
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Bacterial Spot of tomato and pepper, common in wet seasons. Xanthomonas vesicatoria var. raphani (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani). Leaf Spot of radish, turnip, and other crucifers, similar to bacterial spot on tomato.
Xanthomonas vignicola (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. vignicola). Cowpea Canker on cowpeas and red kidney beans. Xanthomonas vitians (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians). Bacterial Wilt and Leaf Spot of lettuce, South Carolina Lettuce Disease, wilting and rotting of lettuce leaves and stems.
Xanthomonas nigromaculans (see Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae). Leaf Spot on zinnia.
Xylella fastidiosa. Bacterial Leaf Scorch on maple, pecan, mulberry, northern red oak and sweet gum.
Pierce's Grape Disease. First described as California vine disease by Pierce in 1892, now known as cause of grape degeneration in Gulf states; reported from Rhode Island. First symptoms are scalding and browning of leaf tissues, often with veins remaining green; canes die back from tips in late summer; growth is dwarfed, fruit shriveled; roots die. The bacterium invades the xylem and turns it brown. Alfalfa plants are stunted with short stems and small leaves. Many species of sharpshooter leafhoppers transmit the bacterium to grape from alfalfa, clovers, grasses, also from ivy, acacia, fuchsia, rosemary, zinnia, and other ornamentals that are symptomless carriers. There is no adequate control; roguing of diseased vines and spraying for leafhoppers has proved ineffective. Propagate by cuttings from disease-free vineyards.
Ash Yellows and Witches' Broom. On ash in Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, and South Dakota and peanut in Oklahoma. Aster Yellows. Throughout the United States, also called Lettuce Rio Grande Disease, Lettuce White Heart, Potato Purple Top. Bean Phyllody. Perhaps caused by a strain of aster-yellows MLO. California Aster Yellows. In the West, also known as Celery Yellows, Western.
Celery petioles are upright, somewhat elongated, with inner petioles short, chlorotic, twisted, brittle, often cracked, yellow. The celery strain of the virus causes yellowing and stunting of cucumber, squash, pumpkin; infects gladiolus and zinnia.
Control of aster yellows is directed against the leafhoppers. Asters are grown commercially under frames of cheesecloth, 22 threads to the inch, or wire screening, 18 threads to the inch. In home gardens all diseased plants should be rogued immediately and overwintering weeds, which harbor leafhop- per eggs, destroyed. Spraying or dusting ornamentals and vegetables with pyrethrum will reduce the number of vectors but will not entirely eliminate the disease.
Recent work raises the probability that the etiological agent of aster yellows is a mycoplasma rather than a virus. Therefore, treatment with antibiotics, such as chlortetracycline, has suppressed the development of yellows symptoms. Mycoplasma-like bodies have been seen in microscopic study of diseased plants and in transmitting leafhopper vectors, but not in healthy plants or nontransmitting vectors. Clover Proliferation. On strawberry and onion.
Corn Stunt. A dwarfing disease present primarily in the South; transmitted by leafhoppers. Mycoplasma-like bodies present; See Spiroplasma citri. Elm Phloem Necrosis. On American elm from West Virginia and Georgia to northern Mississippi, eastern Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. Origin
unknown but apparently present since 1882; the disease reached epidemic proportions in Ohio in 1944, killing 20,000 trees that year near Dayton and 10,000 at Columbus. The most reliable diagnostic character is a buttercup yellow discoloration of the phloem, often flecked with brown or black and an odor of wintergreen. Destruction of phloem causes the bark to loosen and fall away. Roots die first, then the phloem in lower portions of tree, followed by wilting and defoliation. American elms may be attacked at any age; they wilt and die suddenly within 3 or 4 weeks or gradually decline for 12 to 18 months. This is now thought to be caused by a mycoplasma-like agent. Transmission is by the white-banded elm leafhopper (Scaphoideus luteolus) and possibly other species. Nymphs hatch about May 1 from eggs wintered on elm bark and feed on leaf veins. Adults move from diseased to healthy trees.
There is hope of propagating elms resistant to phloem necrosis. Communities should interplant existing elms with Asiatic or European varieties or with some other type of tree to provide shade if and when present elms die. Peach Western X-Disease. Perhaps same as X-disease but usually treated separately; also known as cherry buckskin and western-X little cherry. The pathogen is transmitted by leafhoppers (Colladonus germinatus, Fieberella florii, Osbornellus borealis, and others) to peach, nectarine and cherry in western states. Symptoms vary according to rootstock, but cherry fruit is smaller than normal. Sour cherries are puttylike, pinkish; sweet cherries are small, conical, hang on trees late, fail to develop normal color. Symptoms on peach are similar to those of X-disease.
Peach X-Disease. On peach and chokecherry, sometimes cherry in the northern United States and of major importance in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. Peach trees appear normal in spring for 6 or 7 weeks after growth starts, then foliage shows a diffused yellow and red discoloration with a longitudinal upward curling of leaf edges; spots may drop out, leaving a tattered effect. Defoliation starts by mid-summer. Fruits shrivel and drop or ripen prematurely. Seed do not develop. Weakened trees are killed by low temperatures or remain unproductive.
Chokecherry has conspicuous premature reddening of foliage, dead embryos in fruit. The second and third seasons after infection foliage colors are duller, there are rosettes of small leaves on terminals, and death may follow. Natural infection is apparently from chokecherry to peach (not peach to peach or peach to chokecherry) by a leafhopper (Colladonus clitellarius). Elimination of chokecherries within 500 feet of peach trees provides the best control.
Peach Yellows; Little Peach. First noted near Philadelphia in 1791 and so serious that in 1796 the American Philosophical Society offered a $60 prize for the best method of preventing premature decay of peach trees. Present in eastern states on peach, almond, nectarine, apricot and plum. Not found west of the Mississippi or in the South. In peach, clearing of veins, production of thin erect shoots with small chlorotic leaves, premature ripening of fruit (with reddish streaks in flesh and insipid taste) is followed by death of the tree in a year or so. The little peach strain of the MLO causes distortion of young leaves at tips of branches, small fruit, delayed ripening. Plum is systemically infected, with few obvious symptoms. Transmission is by the plum leafhopper or budding.
Control. Budsticks and dormant nursery trees can be safely treated with heat sufficient to kill the MLO (122°F for 5 to 10 minutes), but cured trees are susceptible to reinfection. Most effective control is removal of wild plum trees around peach orchard and spraying to control leafhoppers. Potato Apical Leaf Roll and Arizona Purple Top Wilt. Caused by aster yellows.
Strawberry Green Petal. Perhaps due to a strain of aster yellows MLO, as is chlorotic phyllody reported from Louisiana. Flowers have enlarged sepals, small green petals.
Spiroplasma citri. Corn Stunt. Has been reported on corn, onions, horseradish, shepherd's purse, yellow rocket, and wild mustard. Stunt of blueberry. Virescence on horseradish.
Witches' Broom on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and black raspberry. Witches' Broom on Japanese persimmon, and lilac. Witches' Broom and Yellowing on annual statice. Yellows of elm.