Vasotec is used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure, and other heart problems.
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Category: Blood Pressure
Vasotec is used for treating high blood pressure, heart failure, and other heart problems.
Active Ingredient: Enalapril
Vasotec (Spaciol) as known as: Acepril, Acetensil, Alapren, Alicante, Alphapril, Amprace, Analept, Anapril, Angiotec, Antiprex, Atens, Auspril, Bagopril, Bajaten, Baripril, Baypril, Benalapril, Bidinatec, Biocronil, Bitensil, Bql, Calnate, Carlon, Cetampril, Cinbenon, Ciplatec, Clipto, Controlvas, Convertase, Converten, Convertin, Corodil, Corprilor, Corvo, Cosil, Crinoren, Dabonal, Daren, Defluin, Denapril, Dentromin, Dilvas, Dinid, Ditensil, Ditensor, Docenala, Ecaprilat, Ecaprinil, Ednyt, Ekaril, Elpradil, Ena, Ena-puren, Enabeta, Enacard, Enacodan, Enacor, Enadigal, Enadura, Enafril, Enal, Enalabell, Enaladex, Enaladil, Enalafel, Enalagamma, Enalaprili maleas, Enalaprilmaleat, Enalaprilo, Enalaprilum, Enalaprol, Enalart, Enalbal, Enaldun, Enalek, Enalich, Enalin, Enalind, Enalten, Enam, Enap, Enap r, Enaprel, Enapren, Enaprex, Enapril, Enapril-h, Enaprotec, Enarenal, Enaril, Enatec, Enatral, Enazil, Encardil, Enecal, Enetil, Enpril, Envas, Ephicord, Epril, Eril, Eritril, Eupressin, Fabotensil, Feliberal, Fibrosan, Gadopril, Glenamate, Glioten, Gnostocardin, Grifopril, Hasitec, Herten, Hiperpril, Hiperson, Hipertan, Hipertin, Hipoartel, Hipopril, Hypace, Iecatec, Ileveran, Imotoran, Innovace, Innozide, Insup, Intonis, Invoril, Istopril, Jutaxan, Kalpiren, Kaparlon-s, Kinfil, Kintec, Konveril, Korandil, Lapril, Laprilen, Lariludon, Lenaberic, Lenimec, Leovinezal, Lerite, Linatil, Lotrial, Lowtril, M-enalapril, Maxen, Megapress, Meipril, Mepril, Minipril, Myoace, Nacor, Nalabest, Nalapril, Naprilene, Narapril, Neotensin, Norpril, Nuril, Octorax, Ofnifenil, Olinapril, Olivin, Pharmapress, Pharpril, Pms-enalapril, Pralenal, Pres, Presopril, Pressitan, Presuren, Prilace, Prilan, Prilenap, Prilenor, Priltenk, Pulsol, Rablas, Raserpril, Reca, Reminal, Renacardon, Renapril, Renaton, Renil, Renipril, Renistad, Renitec, Reniten, Renivace, Reniveze, Renopent, Revinbace, Selis, Silverit, Spaciol, Stadelant, Stadenace, Sulocten, Supotron, Tenace, Tenaten, Tencas, Tensapril, Tensazol, Tesoren, Ulticadex, Unipril, Vapresan, Vasolapril, Vasopren, Vasopril, Vexopril, Vimapril, Virfen, Vitobel, Xanef, Zacool
As more rare disease diagnostics and treatments are developed, the challenges for demonstrating safety, efficacy, effectiveness and value, are becoming increasingly evident. This group will elucidate issues in the rare disease environment so that researchers, payers, patients and life sciences companies can effectively address key challenges and more effectively establish the value of new and existing diagnostics and therapeutics.
Rare disease is a rapidly expanding area of research and clinical development. Advancements in genetic understanding and other scientific breakthroughs have led to improved identification of rare conditions and possible pathways for improving rare disease diagnosis and treatment, as well as stratifying relatively common diseases into many rarer ones.
As clinicians are becoming better able to diagnose specific rare diseases, new treatments are becoming available, due in part to greater attention being placed on them attributable to legislative and regulatory incentives for clinical development. However, treatments for rare diseases are typically available at much higher "per patient" cost, which (along with other factors) engender challenges to payers, providers and patients.
Rare Disease: Challenges in Assessment and Appraisal of Diagnostics & Treatments Working Group
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of Rare Disease Treatments Working Group
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We have very few real and certian specifics for the cure of particular diseases. The great boast of the medical profession is of its power to stop "chills and fever " and control other kinds of malarial attacks with quinine, and with some other preparations from the same source, namely, the Peruvian Bark. Syphilis is, undoubtedly, curable in the large majority of cases, timely attended to, by the skilful use of two remedies, mercury (various preparations) and iodide of potassium. Itch is always conquerable by a sufficient application of sulphur, in ointment or otherwise.
Scurvy is curable, without much aid from medicines (tonics if any) by fresh vegetable food; as potatoes, onions, oranges, lemons, etc. Inflammatory rheumatism is beneficially influenced by salicylic acid and alkalies (potassa, soda, lithia); as gout has been long known to be by colchicum.
Besides antidotes for actual poisons, and medicines which kill or drive out worms from the bowels, we cannot claim any other clear examples of special remedies for particular diseases. It used to be said that iodine is a certain cure for goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck). It is no doubt generally serviceable in that affection; but it will not always cure it. Quinine does not always cure ague. It "breaks" the chills, but in one, two, or three weeks they may come again; and the cure then has to be finished by a month or two of a course of iron.
There has not yet been discovered any specific remedy for scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, small-pox, typhoid or typhus fever, yellow fever, or cholera. All these diseases must be, therefore, conducted through the attack as safely as possible; meeting the symptoms as they occur, with the most reasonable measures we know of.
Synonyms: —Sunstroke; thermic fever; insolation; heat prostration; coup de soleil.
Definition: —A condition of acute disorder of the nervous system, resulting from exposure to excessive heat.
Etiology: —The condition may be induced by prolonged exposure to the direct rays of the sun on a hot day, sunstroke, or it may be due to confinement in a hot, poorly ventilated room, heat stroke or thermic fever. Individuals working in the streets of a city, or teamsters, outdoor carpenters, stone masons and hod carriers, soldiers, those engaged in out of door activities, or other individuals who are continuously exposed to the hot sun, are subject to sunstroke. Those who work in blast furnaces, engineers, stokers, cooks and bakers are among those who are affected by heat stroke.
Those who are addicted to habits of dissipation, and especially beer drinkers, are liable to this condition. There is no doubt that it occurs more readily where there is imperfect metabolism, or imperfect elimination, as autointoxication renders the individual more liable to attacks. This may have previously existed, or it may develop from the rapid formation of toxins from the heat, or the two conditions may be combined. Those laborers who are careless of their habits, and who are filthy as well as intemperate are directly influenced under circumstances where the temperature ranges from 85° to 95° or 100° with a considerable humidity of the atmosphere. Those who are fatigued from overwork or from mental exhaustion, or who suffer from excitement or nervous irritation and irritability, and especially those who have had a previous attack of heat stroke, are all prone to the influence of heat.
The direct influence of the excessive heat upon the heat centers, where elimination and heat radiation is temporarily suspended, is the immediate cause of the disorder. One of two conditions may exist: either the heat centers may be paralyzed, with loss of inhibiting power, in which case thermic fever is induced, or the vasomotor nerves may be paralyzed, in which case exhaustion follows, with normal or subnormal temperature and profuse sweating.
Symptomatology: —Usually in sunstroke the individual complains of discomfort from the excessive heat for a considerable period before any real symptoms appear. There is dizziness. a strong disinclination to further physical exercise, weakness and oppression. These symptoms being overlooked and the patient continuing in the sun as before, is suddenly attacked with a violent headache ; he falls to the ground and soon becomes unconscious. The face becomes very red or livid, and later cyanotic; the blood vessels of the head and neck are all distended, and often there is a violent convulsion ; there is difficulty in breathing and the breathing soon becomes stertorous, or it may be rapid and shallow. The temperature rises rapidly to perhaps 110° or 112° F.; the pulse may reach 160, though usually it is from 125 to 140. The pupils first become contracted; as paralysis advances they become dilated.
In other cases the patient falls unconscious, but may be partially aroused. He complains of a headache, or holds the head with his hands; he is conscious of a difficulty of breathing and shows signs of much distress. Later delirium develops which may assume a wild or excitable type; the skin is hot and dry, and the urine is suppressed. The temperature in these cases may not exceed 105° or 106° F. Later the stupor increases to coma, the pulse becomes very rapid, and the Cheyne-Stokes respiration is observed. There may be incontinence of both the urine and the feces .
In yet other cases the patient complains for several days of being oppressed by the protracted heat; he does not sleep day nor night; is restless, suffers from extreme headache and disordered digestion with colicky pains; there is vertigo and chromatopsia or blurred vision. There is little if any perspiration, the skin continuing dry; there is urinary irritation with but a small quantity of water passed. Under these circumstances, when the stroke comes it is apt to be more severe.
In heat prostration the symptoms are those of profound asthenia or of acute development; there is dizziness, nausea, faintness, more or less severe headache with drowsiness, and some chilliness. The temperature falls, the skin becomes cold and clammy, the face is very pale, and prostration is plainly apparent. The temperature may fall from one to three degrees below normal at first, although later it may rise to two degrees above normal.
Diagnosis: —The fact that the patient is laboring in a heated atmosphere and that the attack is sudden, with other conspicuous symptoms which have been named, suggest the condition. It must be distinguished from apoplexy, from alcoholic intoxication, from uremic intoxication, and from some forms of meningeal trouble.
Prognosis: —Unless the sudden unconsciousness is extremely severe at once, the prognosis is usually favorable, although it requires a considerable period of care and attention to restore perfect health. Patients who have been once overcome by heat never recover their power to resist heat, and are subsequently subject to unpleasant symptoms, often when the heat is but little increased. The direct rays of the sun with these patients sometimes produces unpleasant symptoms.
Treatment: —The treatment of an acute attack of this disorder must be vigorous and energetic; the patient must be taken to a cool place, stripped of his clothing, and every effort made to reduce the temperature of the body. Usually the head is packed with ice, an ice bag is applied to the spine, and cool water is poured over the surface of the body. However, I am confident that if the body be exposed to the air, and the surface of the body with the face and neck be sponged with hot water. and then thoroughly fanned, that a more rapid reduction of heat occurs; elimination is immediately favored. I am also confident that a prompt restoration of the elimination is nearly as essential as the reduction of heat, and this is not favored by the use of cold alone. There is an extreme tendency toward determination of blood in the nerve centers, and this the application of cold favors also. Heat will materially assist in equalizing the temperature, attracting it to the surface of the body. Moist heat on the body surface promotes dissipation of heat also; a gentle flagillation of the skin of the extremities with the flat of the hand and an upward rubbing to promote the venous circulation is of much importance. Where unconsciousness exists, it is well to wrap the feet and legs in blankets wrung from hot mustard water. The temperature should be watched with the thermometer in the rectum, and as it approach a manageable point the extreme activity of the efforts at restoration may be suspended.
Hypodermic injections of strychnin and atropin are sometimes of good advantage. If the heart is failing, digitalis may be injected in proper quantity. An active physic is sometimes administered in these cases to advantage, as a thorough evacuation of the bowels is of considerable service. Following this the patient should have an enema of the normal salt solution.
It is seldom that medicine can be given by the mouth during the period of unconsciousness. Belladonna is indicated, and the carbonate or the chlorid of ammonium may be beneficial, but the usual sedatives will not act with sufficient promptness until after consciousness is restored. At this time, the patient being put to bed and properly cared for, and the temperature not above 102.5° or 103° F. gelsemium and aconite in moderate doses may be given every hour; or if nervous excitement is intense, small and repeated doses of the bromids may be given. Where there are evidences of cerebral congestion, continuing after reaction has occurred, it is well to give medium doses of ergot . or ergot and a bromid. or hydrobromic acid. to control delirium, but more especially to prevent the development of a possible secondary meningitis. It will be necessary to give the patient the very best of care and treatment for several days. He should be kept in bed, and every possible cause of excitement or worry should be excluded. Other symptoms may appear, which should be treated in accordance with their specific indications.
Patients who work out of doors, under the hot sun, should be educated, if possible, in measures which conduce to warding off attacks. It is useless to caution those addicted to the use of alcohol of the danger of indulgence while working in the sun or in a hot place. Individuals readily impressed by heat, should avoid excitement or violent exercise in high temperatures; should live temperate lives, and should especially pay the closest attention to elimination, seeing to it that there is no constipation and that the skin is kept active by frequent bathing. They should eat light but sufficient food, and should see to it that their places of occupation are well ventilated. When exposed to heat, if there are symptoms of fulness in the head, or vertigo, or nausea, or faintness, during the continuance of the work, the work should be immediately suspended, the patient should lie down in a cool place, should bathe the head in cool water, and should keep very quiet.
Those working in the sun will obtain much benefit by frequently wetting the hair in cool water, or by keeping a handkerchief or a fold or two of wet blotting paper in the hat.
Congenital syphilis is a condition that occurs when a baby is born to a mother infected with syphilis, a common venereal disease. The infection is passed through the placenta to the unborn child. Congenital syphilis can be severe, disabling and often life threatening for the infant. Almost half of all children infected with syphilis while in the womb die at birth. Syphilis is easily treated and curable, however, when diagnosed early. Newborns may exhibit irritability, failure to gain weight or failure to thrive, rash or blisters on the face, palms and soles of feet, absence of a nose bridge, enlarged liver, or severe pneumonia. Older children may have bone pain, bowed legs, joint swelling, vision loss, decreased hearing or abnormal teeth.
Proper doses of medicine (penicillin) will cure syphilis.
Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by a virus. It can affect your liver's ability to function properly. Most children under age six will not have any outward symptoms. Symptoms usually appear two to four weeks after infection and often mimic the flu, such as extreme fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea aches and pains, low-grade fever. Several days after these symptoms appear, symptoms of liver problems will occur such as dark urine, jaundice and itchy skin. Hepatitis A is transmitted through stools of people with Hepatitis A.
An IV for fluid may be needed to replace fluids lost by vomiting, fever and diarrhea. A child might need medications for fever and for itching
Hepatitis A is not a long-term infection. Once you have Hepatitis A you cannot get it again.
Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus. Many people, especially children, will have no symptoms. However, even if they don't appear to be sick or have the symptoms, people can have active, chronic Hep B, and they can pass the disease to unimmunized people, generally through blood contact. When symptoms do present, they may include mild fever, fatigue, muscle aches, joint aches, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, dark urine, yellow eyes and skin. Some children who test Hep B+ may have cleared the disease when they had it and no longer can pass on this disease to others. Some patients go on to develop a chronic, long term, form of hepatitis B.
Treatment with medication is available for patients with chronic hepatitis B who meet specific medical criteria. Treatment should be determined and closely monitored by a doctor familiar with the treatment of Hepatitis B in children.
Children with the long term, chronic form of Hep B can usually live very productive, normal lives as adults.
Hepatitis C is a virus which affects the liver, and 80% of people infected with Hepatitis C will develop the chronic, long term, form of hepatitis C. Only one-fifth of those people with the chronic form will get severe liver damage called cirrhosis; this normally occurs 20 to 30 years after initial infection. Most people, especially children, will have no symptoms. When someone has symptoms they can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, mild fever, vomiting, muscle aches, joint aches, headache, dark urine, yellow eyes or skin, and abdominal pain. There is no vaccine to prevent Hepatitis C.
Treatment is available with medications for patients who meet certain medical criteria. Treatment should be determined and monitored closely by a doctor. All patients with hepatitis C, who do NOT have hepatitis B, should be immunized for hepatitis B. It is important to prevent persons with hepatitis C from getting hepatitis B, because having both leads to a worse prognosis.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that causes AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a disease which attacks a person’s immune system and leaves them vulnerable to other illnesses. When a person is infected with HIV, the virus enters the body and lives and grows primarily in the white blood cells. These are immune cells that normally protect us from disease. A person who has HIV carries the virus in certain body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. The virus can be transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids enter the bloodstream of another person. This kind of direct entry can occur (1) through the linings of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and penis; (2) through intravenous injection with a syringe; or (3) through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore. Usually, HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who has HIV, sharing needles or syringes with someone who is HIV infected (laboratory studies show that infectious HIV can survive in used syringes for a month or more- It is very important not to share or reuse syringes for this reason), or infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding (mother-to-infant transmission). HIV is NOT transmitted through food or air (for instance, by coughing or sneezing).
There has never been a case where a person was infected by a household member, relative, coworker, or friend through casual or everyday contact such as sharing eating utensils or bathroom facilities, or through casually touching each other. HIV is not transmitted through shaking hands, hugging, or a kiss on the cheek. You cannot become infected from a toilet seat, a drinking fountain, a door knob, dishes, drinking glasses, food, or pets. No one has ever caught HIV from hugging. Sweat, tears, vomit, feces, and urine do contain HIV, but have not been reported to transmit the disease. Mosquitoes, fleas, and other insects do not transmit HIV. The following may be warning signs of infection with HIV: rapid weight loss, dry cough, recurring fever or profuse night sweats, profound and unexplained fatigue; swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck; diarrhea that lasts for more than a week; white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat; severe pneumonia; or red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids.
There is still no cure for HIV or AIDS, but there are medicines that can help slow down the virus. Children with HIV should be closely followed by a doctor.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Viral meningitis is usually less severe and will resolve without specific treatment. Bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities. The symptoms of meningitis may occur several days after a child has a cold or runny nose. Symptoms of meningitis may include severe headache, stiff neck, dislike of bright lights, fever/vomiting/diarrhea, drowsiness with the child being less responsive, and rash. Not everyone gets all of the symptoms and they can occur in any order. Other symptoms in babies may include, bulging of the soft spot on their head, blotchy skin (getting paler or turning blue), refusing to feed, irritable when picked up, and a stiff body with jerky movements. Some forms of bacterial meningitis are contagious and can spread to others who have close or prolonged contact. People with a less competent immune system, like infants, are more at risk.
Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics.Treatment should be started early in the course of the disease.
The long-term outlook for children with meningitis depends on the age, the type of meningitis, the complications, and the treatment the child receives.
Polio is caused by a virus. A child becomes infected by ingestion of contaminated water or food. After the virus is in the body, it begins to attack and destroy nerves that control muscles. This damage to these nerves can cause paralysis in different muscle groups. Polio virus affects mainly children, but adults with a weak immune system may also develop the disease. A mild disease usually presents with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and sore throat. A moderate form of the disease may include neck rigidity, severe headache, severe back pain, and meningitis. Patients with the severe form of Polio may show symptoms including localized or widespread nerve involvement, loss of muscle functions in major groups of muscles, and loss of muscle bulk. Death can be caused by the virus affecting the muscles that control breathing.
There is no treatment for polio. After the disease, rehabilitation may be needed with physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, recreational therapy, and surgical intervention to help release permanent tightening of muscles.
Tuberculosis. or TB, is a disease caused by bacteria. The bacteria can attack any part of a person’s body, but usually attacks the lungs. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs or sneezes. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. Children can become infected with tuberculosis if they are around adults with active TB. Diagnosis of TB in children is difficult as they are less likely to have obvious symptoms. Some of the symptoms of an active TB infection include a bad cough that lasts longer than two weeks, pain in the chest, and coughing up blood or heavy mucus from the lungs. Other symptoms of tuberculosis disease are weakness or fatigue, weight loss, no appetite, chills, fever, and sweating at night.
TB in infants and children is much more likely to spread throughout the body through the bloodstream and a serious infection called meningitis may occur. Because of this, prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB is critical to children. The good news is that TB can almost always be cured with medicine, but the medicine must be taken EXACTLY as prescribed by the doctor. TB bacteria die very slowly and so a child has to take medicine for many months, even if they start to feel better quickly. If a child stops taking the medicine too quickly, it can be very dangerous. The TB bacteria will grow again even stronger, and the child will remain sick for a longer time. The best method to prevent TB in children is to find and treat cases of active TB among the adults caring for them.
'''The Charity Foundation for Special Diseases''', as a public and NGO + entity, started its activities on May 1995 with the support of H.E. Hashemi Rafsanjani + and Dr. Fatemeh Rafsanjani as well as other men of righteous.
The following objectives were chosen by the foundation to be addressed:
# Creating national determination for addressing the issues facing patients of special diseases.
# Promoting awareness on preventive culture and educational programs.
# Cooperation with public scientific and executive organs as well as state and international bodies.
# Providing support and counseling to upgrade the use of available budgets and potentials for launching and expanding therapeutic centers
# Supporting exchanges of information and experience as well as expanding research, educational and treatment services for patients
Activities of the Foundation were established on the following three grounds for patients of special diseases (Dialysis + - Thalassemia + -Hemophilia + ) and patients with severe illnesses ( Cancer + -M.S + .- Kidney Transpalnt + -Diebetic + -):
The idea behind establishing such an entity came about when President of the foundation met few kidney and thalassemia patients in 1991.Their inappropriate living and medical condition forced her to travel to provinces to collect first hand information and get herself more familiarized with patients.
Due to the following prevailing conditions for patients, she had to report the result of fact finding missions to her father and asked for his immediate intervention:
# High epidemic of such disease in the country
# Expensive treatment and lack of remedies
# Patients inability to carry on a constructive work
# Psychological pressure on patients families
# Lack of supportive associations
# Lack of attention in addressing the issue by Ministry of Health
Dr. F. Hashemi, after holding several meetings with medical experts and officials dealing with treatment topics and many others involved in this field, on 1994 she proposed the establishment of an NGO supporting patients of special diseases. At the inauguration ceremony for 200 apartments and dialysis center in Vavan city south of Tehran provided by H.E. Hashemi Rafsanjani, the President of the Republic, the proposal was agreed by the President. Due to the importance of the matter, few ministers such as minister of health and foreign affairs became member of the board of trustees and finally on May 1995 on the occasion of the World Thalassemia Day, CFFSD was officially registered.
The first step to be taken was to survey the status of the patients, to find out the causes for developing the illness and possible solutions to resolve the issue toward improvement of the quality of treatment and living standards of patients. Studying the preventive measures in the context of therapeutic, Educational, Control and decreasing the impact of such disease on related patients are still being conducted as of today.
During these years, the Foundation has expanded its coverage from patients with Dialysis, Thalassemia and Hemophilia to other patients with severe illnesses. Cancer, M.S. Kidney transplants, Diebetic and E.B. due to its epidemic and high cost of treatments. The Foundation has struggled to take effective measures in addressing difficulties facing such patients during its 18 years of activities. Along this path, CFFSD has donated more than 1700 dialysis machines, 3600 hospital beds with accessories, and 6500 medical items to over 1100 medical centers across the country. It has also provided over 200 billion rials to more than 320000 patients to cover their pharmaceutical and treatment costs. To encourage the kidney donors, the Foundation has provided over 10 million rials as gifts to over 21000 donors.
# Sudeh treatment center (1994)
# Specialized medical center (1999)
# Bam clinic (2005)
# Sharq specialized medical center (2006)
# Diabetic 1 specialized center (2008)
# Rafsanjan center (2013)
# Najaf medical and rehab. Center
# Karbala therapeutic center
# Sharq hospital
# center for research, training and prevention of cancer
# Kavosh rehab. Center
# Gohar’Baran center
# Member of ECOSOC + . UN + body
# Member of Thalassemi International Federation (TIF)
# Potential member of Kidney Federation (IKFK)
# Potential member of Blood Transfusion Society (ISBT)
# Gift payment of EESAAR for promotion of culture of transplant and in appreciation of kidney donors ( council of minister decree 1995)
# Free of charge treatment of thalassemi-Hemophili-Dialysis patients ( council of M. decree (1996)
# Prevention of thalassemic child birth ( c. of M. decree 1996)
# Establishment of committees in each province by local authorities to review and resolve problems facing patients of special disease ( c. of M. decree (1996)
# Establishing personal insurance coverage for such patients through relative state insurance organization (1996)
# Adoption of law nullifying the prohibition of use of brain-death body organs for transplants ( Parliament decree 1999)
# Free of charge cost of operation of liver transplants for such patients (2003)
# Establishment of Sport Federation for patients of special disease (2004)
# Establishing personal insurance coverage for cancer, M.S. and diabetic patients (Parliament decree 2006)
# Increasing the number of therapeutic centers which provide medical services to such patients across the country. With support from ministry of health, medical universities and righteous volunteers, CFFSD increased such centers from 127 to 980
Charity Foundation for Special Diseases + The Charity Foundation for Special Diseases, as a public and NGO entity, started its activities on May 1995 with the support of H.E.
( Originally Published 1918 )
PLEASE note that we do not maintain that the suggestions found herein for the treatment of disease will take the place of a competent doctor. They can be used when one is not able to secure expert advice, or they can assist one in selecting an intelligent physician who thoroughly understands the principles of natural treatment. All injections, or other medical remedial measures suggested, should be prepared by medical or other qualified practitioner. It is not safe to tamper with remedies of this sort without detailed knowledge of their use.
In discussing the diseases peculiar to women we do not do so with the idea that a competent physician is not necessary for their diagnosis and treatment, for in many cases only a careful examination will disclose the true nature of the trouble and insure its recognition early enough to effect a cure. We wish, however, to give a few ideas which will help to a true understanding of the conditions mentioned and assist in selecting the right treatment. Most of the operations performed on women are for pelvic disturbances, which have begun as simple inflammation and, because of negligence or wrong treatment, have gone on to organic disease. Indeed, many gynecologists admit that they have no specific cure for local diseases of women and their usual practice is to wait until the case gets well of itself, or goes on until operation is indicated. Modern gynecology has practically devolved into pelvic and abdominal surgery. We know of many women who have escaped operation and have become well by following out constructive and conservative natural treatment.
This troublesome complaint, commonly known as "the whites," or flur albus, is not a specific disease in itself, but is a symptom of inflammation. Since most women think of it as a special disease, and as it is one of the first symptoms that takes them to a physician, we will discuss it from that viewpoint.
Leucorrhea is a catarrhal discharge from the mucus membrane of the genital tract and may be either acute or chronic, resulting either from a simple or a specific inflammation.
Its presence indicates an inflammation of the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, or tubes. It may, however, be part of a general catarrhal condition of the entire system in which case only constitutional treatment is indicated.
Causes.—Exposure to cold and wet ; long-continued standing, or too much running of sewing machines ; displacements of the uterus ; lacerations and ulcerations of the cervix ; excessive sexual intercourse ; frequent or prolonged sexual excitement ; wearing pessaries ; too frequent use of vaginal douches ; worms from the rectum gaining entrance to the vagina; acute infectious diseases; street dust; irritation from acrid uterine and vaginal discharges ; retention of decomposed menstrual fluid ; overeating and the use of alcohol, drugs, tea and coffee ; highly seasoned foods ; the presence of polypi, tumors and cysts. In many instances gonorrheal infection is the cause.
Symptoms.—The whitish discharge is the principal symptom, but in many cases, especially when the uterus and tubes are involved, there is more or less pain and sense of fullness in the pelvic region as well as backache and symptoms referable to the organs involved. The discharge may be profuse, necessitating the constant wearing of a napkin. It may be serous, or thick and purulent in consistency. If due to infection there will be fever. In most cases, however, the condition is chronic from the onset, and the discharge, with a slight uncomfortable feeling, and itching and burning of the external genitals, are the only symptoms.
Treatment.—Most women resort to the vaginal douche upon the first appearance of a leucorrhea. This is often a mistake, as it perpetuates the trouble. Indeed the present-day promiscuous use of douches with strong antiseptics is a fruitful cause of leucorrhea. The mucous membrane lining the genital tract is self-cleansing; the secretions are normally acid and protect from infection. The douches, especially if alkaline, or containing chemical antiseptics, destroy this element and the membrane loses its defense. Besides, the normal current or flow is downward and out, and the douche may carry infective material upward to the uterus and tubes and even to the peritoneal cavity. This is a very potent and constant cause of female illness.
Locally the only treatment advisable is external cleanliness by frequent use of soap and hot water and the application of a bland lubricant or powder to prevent itching and burning. In many cases even these are not necessary. When a napkin is worn it must be changed frequently. A hot sitz bath should be taken at least twice daily if the case is severe. This should last for ten to thirty minutes. If this is inconvenient, the parts may be bathed with hot water for ten minutes. In some cases hot and cold sitz baths are more efficacious, alternating three or four times, remaining in the cold water one or two minutes and in the hot water three or four minutes. Use great caution however to avoid the ill effect that sometimes results from remaining in the cold sitz bath too long. The hot foot bath also is beneficial. If the irritative cause is discoverable, this of course must be removed. A few days in bed will help to lessen pelvic congestion, but is seldom necessary. Fasting is one of the best means for reducing inflammation in any part of the body and restoring membranes to the normal condition. A fast of from five to ten days will be of great benefit. A series of short fasts can be taken if a long fast is undesirable. These should be followed by the exclusive milk diet, or a fruit or vegetarian diet. The idea is to improve the quality of the blood, and then by exercise and baths restore a normal circulation and thus reduce the pelvic congestion. Abdominal massage and bending exercises are of inestimable benefit.
Of course it is even more important to avoid producing pelvic congestion than to reduce it, and as a preventive policy it is, therefore, especially necessary to avoid sexual excitement. This is unquestionably one of the most common causes of leucorrhea, and all habits and conditions conducive to such excitement should receive attention. Particularly, a condition of unsatisfied passion should be avoided. The reader is referred to the chapter on the "Dangers of Love Making" for specific advice on this phase of the subject.
This ailment comes under the heading of venereal diseases. An extraordinary advance has been made in its treatment recently by the medical profession. Seek the aid of a competent physician as early as possible when you have any reason to believe you have acquired the disease. Do not assume the serious risk of hampering with yourself in self-treatment. The following in-formation is presented for the benefit of physicians who are desirous of learning something of the drugless treatment and to assist those who are unable to secure the advice of a competent physician.
Specific inflammation in the female is a serious condition. Its effects are more far-reaching than those of any other disease. Beginning as an inflammation of the vulva, vagina and urethra it may extend through continuity of the membrane to the cervix, uterus, tubes, ovaries, peritoneum, bladder, ureters and kidneys, resulting in abscess, sterility, nephritis, or even death.
Cause.—The gonococcus is the associated bacterium. The disease is usually acquired during sexual relations, although it may be transmitted by means of infected towels, clothing, toilet seats and bath tubs. In all cases in which there is a thick purulent discharge from the vagina, a microscopic examination should be made, not only to diagnose the condition, but for the protection of the patient and others.
Symptoms.—A few days after exposure to infection the patient will notice an uncomfortable feeling in the vagina and at the vulva—an irritation with heat, redness, swelling and perhaps pain. The parts are at first dry, but gradually there appears a slight watery discharge which rapidly becomes thick, yellowish, or greenish. The parts become more reddened and swollen and painful to pressure. The urethra practically al-ways becomes infected and burning urination follows. The glands in the groin become swollen and tender. The urethral and vaginal glands are infected and may become greatly swollen, retaining the infection for a long time after the acute condition subsides. The vaginal walls become roughened, especially if corrosive antiseptics are used, thus allowing the infection to penetrate to the deeper layers of the mucous membrane. Should the inflammation extend to the uterus and tubes there will be general pelvic pain and elevation of temperature and pulse. The acute condition subsides and is followed by a chronic leucorrhea which may be present for a long while, but gradually subsides. The urine may be cloudy and contain shreds for many months.
Treatment.—Many advanced medical men recommend as an injection, or application to the inflamed surface, of iodagol, chlorazene, sulphide of zinc, or allied solutions, for the treatment of this complaint in its first stages. Usually when this treatment is applied to the inflamed surface soon after its first appearance the symptoms disappear and the disease does not have a chance to develop. In the vagina the douche will have to be used; in the urethra the injection will have to be used. In many cases where treatment of this character is quickly applied every two or three hours at the beginning of the first symptoms the disease can be eliminated before it has had a chance to secure a definite foothold.
The statement is made by many hygienic physicians that this method of treatment drives the disease back into the system. As this disease is due entirely to local infection, many maintain that the quick removal of the first symptoms indicates the elimination of the disease. This theory cannot be substantiated and cannot be disproven. The facts, however, must be recognized that this is indeed a serious disease and that to allow it to proceed on its ordinary course of development means serious inflammation of the membranous surface that leads into the womb, the fallopian tubes, urethra, bladder, etc. There-fore it is well if possible to avoid the risk of serious infection of this sort, and if a proper anti-septic can be used which immediately stops the advancement of the disease, it is doubtless the safest procedure in many cases, especially when the full details of the natural treatment cannot be immediately adopted, though we must admit, that this suggestion does not harmonize with the theories of natural treatment.
In following the principles of strictly natural treatment no half-way measures are of value. You must adhere strictly to the rules if results are to be expected. The patient should, if possible, go to bed and keep quiet. If this is not feasible, at least as little exertion as is consistent with the daily life should be allowed. She should keep off her feet, and avoid the running of sewing machines, dancing and riding on street cars and automobiles. A strict fast of from five to ten days at this time will do more to reduce the inflammation than any other measure. Large quantities of water should be drunk, at least four quarts each day. If fasting is uncomfortable, fruit juices may be taken. In case of urethral infection the patient should make a practice of urinating every hour.
The question of the douche again comes up. Some of the best gynecologists are declaring against it. The normal secretions of the vagina will combat the disease and with the douche there is always the danger of carrying infection to the uterus and tubes. The vagina has great facility for cleansing itself and throwing off secretions, and the direction of the flow is downward. The very strong astringent solutions commonly used are responsible for the eroding of the outer layers of the mucous membrane, thus allowing the infection to go deeper and producing a chronic gonorrhea. We therefore advise against the too frequent or indiscriminate use of douches, especially when strong chemical antiseptics are used. There is no doubt that there are many instances in which a douche is helpful for the sake of cleanliness, but it should be understood clearly that this is the purpose for which it is employed. A boric acid solution is undoubtedly the ideal agent for the purpose, although a weak saline solution (a teaspoonful of salt in a quart of water) is also very satisfactory. Where there is a very profuse discharge there is no doubt that such a douche is advisable. It should be said, however, that the common fountain syringe douche is not usually very satifactory, inasmuch as there are many folds of the mucous membrane which are not reached. The patient should follow closely the instructions of her physician in the preparation and use of douches. Self-prescribed treatment is dangerous.
A pad or napkin must be worn for collecting the discharge. This must be changed frequently, the external genitals being washed with soap and hot water at every changing. We might also mention in this connection that the hands must be thoroughly washed with strong soap and hot water immediately after changing the pads. Care must be observed that the infected fingers do not touch the eyes, as a gonorrheal ophthalmia is quickly fatal to sight. The pads must be burned after removal. The bath-tub and towels must be disinfected after use. If there are children in the house they must be protected from possible infection.
During the most acute stage the hot sitz bath should be taken several times daily, lasting from fifteen to thirty minutes. The bowels must be kept free, but the enema must under no circumstances be used for this purpose, as the danger of rectal infection is great. Saline laxatives (a table-spoonful of common table salt in a glass of water, for instance), any of the laxative mineral waters on the market, or regulation with foods, should be relied on.
The fast should be followed by the milk diet, using five or six quarts each day. A combination milk and fruit diet may be used, with four meals daily consisting of a pint or more of milk and whatever fruit is desired at each meal. When resuming the usual diet, care must be observed not to overeat, to avoid highly seasoned foods, alcoholic drinks, tea and coffee. Flesh foods are better left alone.
Sexual intercourse must of course be forbidden until repeated microscopical examinations show the absence of the gonococus in the secretions of the urethral and vaginal glands.
PELVIC INFLAMMATION.—These include: Salpingitis, or inflammation of the fallopian tubes ; oophoritis, or inflammation of the ovaries; peritonitis, or inflammation of the pelvic peritoneum ; pelvic cellulitis, or inflammation of the tissues surrounding the uterus and its appendages. These are all dangerous conditions and are usually due to gonorrheal infection, or infection from the use of instruments, abortions, or child-birth. They may also arise by extension of infection from the appendix and bladder.
The mildest stage of pelvic inflammation is a slight inflammation of the tubes, and no damage is done except a small amount of thickening of the walls of the tubes, both ends of the parts remaining open. In the second stage the tubes, ovaries, uterus and intestines are bound together by adhesions, but there is no retention of pus. The third stage is the tubal abscess, known popularly as a "pus tube", in which the pus is retained within the distended tube. This is a dangerous. condition as the tube may rupture causing a. fatal peritonitis. In the fourth stage the pus has escaped from the tube hit is still walled in by the surrounding peritoneum, forming a large abscess. The fifth stage is an acute general peritonitis, the pus being diffused and not walled in. The sixth stage is a cellulitis or inflammation of the tissues surrounding the pelvic organs. All of the pelvic organs are usually involved in the above conditions.
Symptoms.-There is pain in the lower abdomen which becomes worse as the woman moves about. In acute cases it is so severe that the bed is sought. There is tenderness upon pressure in one or both sides of the lower abdomen, or it may be general over the whole area. There is usually a rise of temperature and quickened pulse. The muscles of the abdominal region are tense. There is usually a leucorrhea. Pain in the back is a common symptom.
In many cases the woman will, with rest, quickly recover from an attack, but the symptoms re-turn at intervals, and as adhesions form there will be more or less discomfort in the lower abdomen. The general health also suffers to some extent. If proper treatment is instituted early, the disease may be controlled and the necessity for operation obviated. This is one of the most common causes of sterility.
Treatment.—If every woman could have the benefit of natural treatment when first attacked with pelvic disease, there would be fewer pelvic organs sacrificed upon the operating table.
Upon the first appearance of symptoms the patient should go to bed and, as in all other illness with fever, a fast of a few days is indicated. The bowels must be moved daily by means of a warm enema. This will also have a good effect upon the inflammation. The hot sitz is indicated unless it is impossible for the patient to be out of bed, in which case hot compresses may be applied over the lower abdomen. The thermo-light is also of value. A good plan is to apply the hot compresses, or the light, for a half-hour and then apply a cold pack to be left on until dry, when it should be renewed. If there is much restlessness, a warm bath, or a light massage, omitting the abdomenal and pelvic regions, will be found of benefit.
If the condition does not quickly subside and the temperature continues high, the possibility of an abscess should be kept in mind. Repeated fasts may be necessary, especially when the condition has become chronic. In the early stages while there is free drainage through the tubes, recovery should take place quickly. In many cases, even when abscesses have formed, absorption has occurred with full recovery. This is especially true in those cases which have adhered to the fast, or have taken a series of short fasts. After the fast care in diet must be exercised; in fact it will be found most beneficial to adhere strictly to the milk or buttermilk diet for a long while.
After getting up from bed the woman should be careful not to overwork. She should go to bed early, get up late and rest frequently during the day. After all signs of inflammation have disappeared, mild exercise is allowable. If adhesions have occurred, bending exercises and abdominal massage will be found valuable for stretching or breaking them up. Operations for adhesions are usually unnecessary unless there is intestinal obstruction. The adhesions will in most cases stretch and cause no more trouble.
This ailment comes under the heading of venereal diseases. An extraordinary advance has been made in its treatment recently by the medical profession. Seek the aid of a competent physician as early as possible when you have any reason to believe you have acquired the disease. Do not assume the serious risk of hampering with yourself in self-treatment. The following information is. presented for the benefit of physicians who are desirous of learning something of the drugless treatment and to assist those who are unable to secure the advice of a competent physician.
This terrible disease is perhaps next to tuberculosis the greatest scourge with which the human race has to contend.
The infecting agent is called the Treponema pallidum. It gains entrance through a minute abrasion, or break, in the surface of mucous membrane or skin. It is probably true that it can not gain entrance through an unbroken surface. As the organism is microscopic in size it will be evident that the site of entrance may also be microscopic, so that in the absence of visible abrasions one may think there is immunity, when such is not the case.
As to hereditary syphilis, recent studies and investigations have disproved many former ideas. That syphilis is transmitted to the off-spring through hereditary characteristics residing in the germ-cells of the individual, is no longer believed, it being known that the child acquires the disease by direct infection from the uterus or placenta. The idea also has been discarded that the apparently healthy mother is immune to infection by her syphilitic child, begot-ten of a syphilitic father. Also that a healthy child is immune to infection from a syphilitic mother.
The 'Wasserman test, while not absolutely ac-curate in all cases, is the best means of diagnosis we have, in the absence of clinical symptoms.
Symptoms.—The first sign of the disease appears about three weeks after exposure, as a small red pimple which increases in size to that of a ten- and often a five-cent piece. This ulcerates in the center. A hardened area appears around the ulcer; hence the name "hard chancre." When located in the vagina the ulcer may be very small and escape detection.
In about six weeks there may be moderate fever with headache, pains in the limbs and digestive disturbances. The throat becomes sore. The glands in the neck and above the elbow swell and in some cases there may be enlargement of the spleen. Eruptions appear on the skin. These may be reddened areas, raised pimples or pustules, or copper-colored spots. The so-called mucous patches appear at the angles of the mouth, on the tongue, pharynx, tonsils, vagina, anus, and even between the toes and fingers. The hair, eyebrows and eyelashes may fall out, and the finger-nails become brittle or grow irregularly. This stage of the disease lasts for two or three months and is followed by apparently good health. The second stage may be very mild and often is absent.
The third stage appears months or years afterward. At this time the gumma or syphilitic tumors appear. They may appear in any part of the body but especially in the skin, bones and nervous system. They may ulcerate, causing great destruction. In some cases the small bones of the face are entirely destroyed. Large ulcers may appear in the skin. The gumma is tender and painful to pressure. Fever in this stage is common. If pregnant, the woman may abort.
What is sometimes called the fourth stage of the disease appears as constitutional disturbances years afterward. The most common are diseases of the nervous system, as locomotor ataxia, paralysis and insanity.
Treatment.—The person who has contracted syphilis must make up his or her mind that for at least three to five years, life must be conducted according to a very definite and strict plan, if health is to be restored. All use of alcoholic thinks, tobacco, tea, coffee, highly seasoned foods, drugs and other poisonous substances must cease.
When the primary sore is first discovered it must not be cauterized, nor must any astringent remedy be applied. This prevents proper drainage and seals up the organisms in the ulcer. The best way is to apply something that will keep the ulcer open and running. Never mind if it does not heal quickly. The best local application is the cold, wet pack. This is made by dipping a piece of absorbent cotton in cold water, squeezing it out slightly and binding it onto the sore. These must be changed very frequently, and burned after removal. Clay packs may also be applied in the same manner. If the sore is in such position that it is impossible to bind on the packs, it may be irrigated at least every two hours for ten minutes with cold water, using a sterile enema point and douche can. The stream must be directed onto the sore and allowed to drain away freely. This is all the local treatment necessary.
The patient should take a fast as soon as possible. This should last for from seven to fourteen days, unless the individual is under weight, when a series of two- or three-day fasts may be taken instead. Follow with the milk or buttermilk diet. Outside of milk no other kind of animal food should be used during the whole course of treatment. If milk is not used exclusively, the diet should consist of fruit, nuts, cereals and vegetables, both raw and cooked. The bowels must be kept free by enemas or laxative foods. Water should be taken freely. Skin action must be promoted in every way. Three hot tub baths per week and frequent cold sponges will help. Fresh air, exercise and sunlight are of course important.
If there are secondary symptoms, the regime must be even more rigid. All of the measures mentioned above should be employed, and, in addition, the full cold-sheet pack should be used every other day and in severe cases daily. The patient should remain in the pack until free sweating is induced. If the patient has taken mercury the induction of sweating will be difficult, but the packs should be continued. If it is summer, sun baths will be extremely beneficial.
In the third stage, or in cases where mercury or salvarsan has been used, the disease must be treated as a chronic one. Many of these cases make very little improvement. They are really cases of chronic mercurial or arsenical poisoning, and the patient recovers to the extent that the organs of the body are intact. Periodic fasts followed by the milk diet must be taken over and over again.